Creating a Republic. Loose Confederation Constitutional Convention Ideas Behind the Constitution Ratification & Bill of Rights

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1 Creating a Republic Loose Confederation Constitutional Convention Ideas Behind the Constitution Ratification & Bill of Rights

2 7-1: Loose Confederation States Constitutions Articles of Confederation Weaknesses Admitting new states Call for change

3 States Write Constitutions Confederation means Constitution is Bill of rights is Typical structure of state governments Branches Voting rights

4 Articles of Confederation Loyalty was toward Why fear strong central gov t? 1777 approved the

5 Articles of Confederation Weaknesses Cannot regulate trade between states Cannot tax No law enforcement No court system No power to raise army Amendments required all 13 9 states required to pass any law attendance was poor and no way to make delegates attend

6 States dispute land ownership out west

7 Weaknesses of confederation Conflicts between states Ex: Who owns VT? Money problems debt for the revolution How are we to pay? Print paper money, but not backed by gold Other nations take advantage Brits refuse to withdraw from Spanish closed ports of

8 Weaknesses of confederation So long as any individual state has power to defeat the measures of the other twelve, our pretended union is but a name, and our confederation, a cobweb. - Noah WEbster

9 Admitting New States Only two real successes of Articles of Confederation Land Ordinance 1785 Northwest Ordinance 1787 Guaranteed basic rights to settlers No slavery Divided region into territories method for new state to enter union (once reach 60K settlers, could ask )

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11 Call for Change Depression is when Farmers revolt Supply and demand debt and repayment Collateral repossession Only sure thing in life is death and taxes Shay s Rebellion Convention is called Shhh! Secrets

12 QUESTIONS 1. Describe two weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. 2. Describe how many Americans responded to Shay s rebellion. 3. State two provisions of the Northwest Ordinance.

13 7-2: The Constitutional Convention Delegates Plans and Compromises

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15 QUESTIONS 1. Explain the Great Compromise. 2. Explain the Three-fifths Compromise. 3. Describe the Virginia and new Jersey Plans.

16 Delegates May 1787 All but RI 55 delegates Secret debates because James Madison Father of the Constitution

17 Two Plans Virginia Plan 3 branches were Legislative would have 2 Houses with representatives based on New Jersey Plan Small states object because One House legislature with one vote per state

18 Great Compromise House of Representatives Representation by Population would be determined by a Elected by Senate Representation by Elected by

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20 Three-Fifths Compromise Three-Fifths Compromise South: Count slaves in census. (Even though they cannot vote) North: Not fair! That gives you unfair number of Compromise:

21 Three-Fifths Compromise Regarding the Slave Trade Congress would not outlaw stave trade (Note: this is only the trade, not outlawing slavery itself) for years. After that, congress could regulate it. Fugitives would be returned.

22 QUESTIONS 1. Explain the Great Compromise. 2. Explain the Three-fifths Compromise. 3. Describe the Virginia and new Jersey Plans.

23 Bill of Rights

24 Getting Approval of the New Constitution Federalists Antifederalists Strong national government Afraid of creating a strong government that would abuse its power like the Parliament did

25 1st Amendment Freedom of religion, press, assembly, and petition Click to edit Master text style Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level

26 2nd Amendment Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Right to keep weapons

27 3rd Amendment No quartering of troops in homes Click to edit Master text style Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level

28 4th Amendment Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level No unreasonable searches of homes and property

29 Amendments 5 through 8 Rights of citizens accused of crimes Guarantee fair trials Click to edit Master text styl Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level

30 Amendments 9-10 Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Limit the powers of the federal government to those granted in the Constitution

31 8 Basic Proficiency U.S. Constitution

32 Articles of Confederation These rules did not work well for the following reasons: Congress could not collect taxes. Congress could not control interstate or foreign trade. There was no national court system to settle disputes. The thirteen separate states lacked national unity

33 Constitutional Convention write a new constitution. government was not strong enough and the individual states had too much power Constitutional Convention in 1789 Great Compromise solved the problem about representation in Congress. The Great Compromise created a legislature of two houses. Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level

34 Constitutional Convention Census Three-Fifths Compromise. The preamble is the first paragraph of the constitution. It says the people are in charge!

35

36 Checks and Balances The system of checks and balances gives each branch power over the other branches. This is to make sure no one branch gets too much power. The president can veto a law he does not like. The Congress can override a presidential veto.

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38 Checks and Balances The Supreme Court can throw out a law it finds unconstitutional. This power is called judicial review. The president picks the Supreme Court justices, but the Senate confirms them.

39 Checks and Balances An elected official can be kicked out of office by a process called impeachment. In the first step in this process for the president, charges are brought against the president by the House of Representatives

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41 Federalism People called federalists believe the central government should be more powerful than the state governments. Antifederalists believe the opposite. Federalists felt that the most power should be given to well-educated, wealthy men.

42 Ratification of the Constitution amendment. The first 10 changes or amendments to the Constitution are called the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights guarantees Americans freedoms Anti-federalists believe a Bill of Rights is necessary to guarantee our freedom from a government that might get too strong.

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