EUROPEAN UNION CONSOLIDATED TREATIES CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

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1 EUROPEAN UNION CONSOLIDATED TREATIES CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS 2016 EN

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3 EN Official Journal of the European Union C 202/1 CONSOLIDATED VERSIONS OF THE TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION AND THE TREATY ON THE FUNCTIONING OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

4 Note to the reader This publication contains the consolidated versions of the Treaty on European Union ( TEU ) and of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union ( TFEU ), together with the annexes and protocols thereto, as they result from the amendments introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon, which was signed on 13 December 2007 in Lisbon and which entered into force on 1 December It also contains the declarations annexed to the Final Act of the Intergovernmental Conference which adopted the Treaty of Lisbon. In addition, this publication contains an amendment effected by the Protocol amending the Protocol on Transitional Provisions annexed to the Treaty on European Union, to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community and an amendment effected by Regulation (EU, Euratom) No 741/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 August 2012 amending the Protocol on the Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union and Annex I thereto, as well the amendments effected by European Council Decisions 2010/718/EU and 2012/419/EU of 29 October 2010 and of 11 July 2012 amending respectively the status with regard to the European Union of the island of Saint-Barthélemy and of Mayotte. Furthermore, this publication contains the addition of paragraph 3 to Article 136 TFEU, effected by European Council Decision 2011/199/EU of 25 March 2011 amending Article 136 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union with regard to a stability mechanism for Member States whose currency is the euro, following the completion of the ratification procedures of the Member States. This publication also contains the amendments brought about by the Act of Accession of the Republic of Croatia, as well as adding the Protocol on the concerns of the Irish people on the Treaty of Lisbon, which has been ratified by all the Member States. This publication also contains amendments effected by Regulation (EU, Euratom) 2015/2422 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2015 amending the Protocol on the Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union. This publication also contains the corrigenda that were approved up to March This publication also contains the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union which was proclaimed at Strasbourg on 12 December 2007 by the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission (OJ C 303, , p. 1). This text repeats and adapts the Charter proclaimed on 7 December 2000, and replaces it with effect from 1 December 2009, the date of entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon. By virtue of the first subparagraph of Article 6(1) of the Treaty on European Union, the Charter proclaimed in 2007 has the same legal value as the Treaties. This publication has been produced for documentary purposes and does not involve the responsibility of the institutions of the European Union. More information on the European Union is available on the internet ( Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2016 Previous edition: 2010 Print ISBN doi: /64457 QC EN-C Print Corrigenda QC EN-K PDF ISBN doi: / QC EN-N EPUB ISBN doi: /91320 QC EN-E European Union, 2016 Reuse is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. Cover picture: European Union

5 EN Official Journal of the European Union C 202/3 3 Table of Contents Table of Contents Page CONSOLIDATED VERSION OF THE TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION PREAMBLE TITLE I COMMON PROVISIONS TITLE II PROVISIONS ON DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES TITLE III PROVISIONS ON THE INSTITUTIONS TITLE IV PROVISIONS ON ENHANCED COOPERATION TITLE V GENERAL PROVISIONS ON THE UNION'S EXTERNAL ACTION AND SPECIFIC PROVISIONS ON THE COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY Chapter 1 General provisions on the Union's external action Chapter 2 Specific provisions on the common foreign and security policy Section 1 Common provisions Section 2 Provisions on the common security and defence policy TITLE VI FINAL PROVISIONS CONSOLIDATED VERSION OF THE TREATY ON THE FUNCTIONING OF THE EUROPEAN UNION PREAMBLE PART ONE PRINCIPLES TITLE I CATEGORIES AND AREAS OF UNION COMPETENCE TITLE II PROVISIONS HAVING GENERAL APPLICATION PART TWO NON-DISCRIMINATION AND CITIZENSHIP OF THE UNION PART THREE UNION POLICIES AND INTERNAL ACTIONS TITLE I THE INTERNAL MARKET TITLE II FREE MOVEMENT OF GOODS Chapter 1 The customs union

6 EN C 202/4 Official Journal of the European Union Consolidated Treaties Page Chapter 2 Customs cooperation Chapter 3 Prohibition of quantitative restrictions between Member States.. 61 TITLE III AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES TITLE IV FREE MOVEMENT OF PERSONS, SERVICES AND CAPITAL Chapter 1 Workers Chapter 2 Right of establishment Chapter 3 Services Chapter 4 Capital and payments TITLE V AREA OF FREEDOM, SECURITY AND JUSTICE Chapter 1 General provisions Chapter 2 Policies on border checks, asylum and immigration Chapter 3 Judicial cooperation in civil matters Chapter 4 Judicial cooperation in criminal matters Chapter 5 Police cooperation TITLE VI TRANSPORT TITLE VII COMMON RULES ON COMPETITION, TAXATION AND APPROXI MATION OF LAWS Chapter 1 Rules on competition Section 1 Rules applying to undertakings Section 2 Aids granted by States Chapter 2 Tax provisions Chapter 3 Approximation of laws TITLE VIII ECONOMIC AND MONETARY POLICY Chapter 1 Economic policy Chapter 2 Monetary policy Chapter 3 Institutional provisions

7 EN Official Journal of the European Union C 202/5 5 Table of Contents Page Chapter 4 Provisions specific to Member States whose currency is the euro 106 Chapter 5 Transitional provisions TITLE IX EMPLOYMENT TITLE X SOCIAL POLICY TITLE XI THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND TITLE XII EDUCATION, VOCATIONAL TRAINING, YOUTH AND SPORT TITLE XIII CULTURE TITLE XIV PUBLIC HEALTH TITLE XV CONSUMER PROTECTION TITLE XVI TRANS-EUROPEAN NETWORKS TITLE XVII INDUSTRY TITLE XVIII ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND TERRITORIAL COHESION TITLE XIX RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT AND SPACE 128 TITLE XX ENVIRONMENT TITLE XXI ENERGY TITLE XXII TOURISM TITLE XXIII CIVIL PROTECTION TITLE XXIV ADMINISTRATIVE COOPERATION PART FOUR ASSOCIATION OF THE OVERSEAS COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES 137 PART FIVE THE UNION'S EXTERNAL ACTION TITLE I GENERAL PROVISIONS ON THE UNION'S EXTERNAL ACTION TITLE II COMMON COMMERCIAL POLICY TITLE III COOPERATION WITH THIRD COUNTRIES AND HUMANITARIAN AID Chapter 1 Development cooperation Chapter 2 Economic, financial and technical cooperation with third countries Chapter 3 Humanitarian aid

8 EN C 202/6 Official Journal of the European Union Consolidated Treaties Page TITLE IV RESTRICTIVE MEASURES TITLE V INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS TITLE VI THE UNION'S RELATIONS WITH INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS AND THIRD COUNTRIES AND UNION DELE- GATIONS TITLE VII SOLIDARITY CLAUSE PART SIX INSTITUTIONAL AND FINANCIAL PROVISIONS TITLE I INSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS Chapter 1 The institutions Section 1 The European Parliament Section 2 The European Council Section 3 The Council Section 4 The Commission Section 5 The Court of Justice of the European Union Section 6 The European Central Bank Section 7 The Court of Auditors Chapter 2 Legal acts of the Union, adoption procedures and other provisions Section 1 The legal acts of the Union Section 2 Procedures for the adoption of acts and other provisions Chapter 3 The Union's advisory bodies Section 1 The Economic and Social Committee Section 2 The Committee of the Regions Chapter 4 The European Investment Bank TITLE II FINANCIAL PROVISIONS Chapter 1 The Union's own resources Chapter 2 The multiannual financial framework Chapter 3 The Union's annual budget Chapter 4 Implementation of the budget and discharge

9 EN Official Journal of the European Union C 202/7 7 Table of Contents Page Chapter 5 Common provisions Chapter 6 Combatting fraud TITLE III ENHANCED COOPERATION PART SEVEN GENERAL AND FINAL PROVISIONS PROTOCOLS Protocol (No 1) on the role of National Parliaments in the European Union Protocol (No 2) on the application of the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality Protocol (No 3) on the statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union 210 Protocol (No 4) on the statute of the European System of Central Banks and of the European Central Bank Protocol (No 5) on the statute of the European Investment Bank Protocol (No 6) on the location of the seats of the institutions and of certain bodies, offices, agencies and departments of the European Union 265 Protocol (No 7) on the privileges and immunities of the European Union Protocol (No 8) Protocol (No 9) Protocol (No 10) relating to article 6(2) of the Treaty on European Union on the accession of the Union to the European Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms on the decision of the Council relating to the implementation of Article 16(4) of the Treaty on European Union and article 238(2) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union between 1 November 2014 and 31 March 2017 on the one hand, and as from 1 april 2017 on the other on permanent structured cooperation established by Article 42 of the Treaty on European Union Protocol (No 11) on Article 42 of the Treaty on European Union Protocol (No 12) on the excessive deficit procedure Protocol (No 13) on the convergence criteria Protocol (No 14) on the Euro Group

10 C 202/8 EN Official Journal of the European Union Consolidated Treaties Page Protocol (No 15) on certain provisions relating to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Protocol (No 16) on certain provisions relating to Denmark Protocol (No 17) on Denmark Protocol (No 18) on France Protocol (No 19) Protocol (No 20) Protocol (No 21) on the Schengen acquis integrated into the framework of the European Union on the application of certain aspects of Article 26 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union to the United Kingdom and to Ireland on the position of the United Kingdom and Ireland in respect of the area of freedom, security and justice Protocol (No 22) on the position of Denmark Protocol (No 23) Protocol (No 24) on external relations of the Member States with regard to the crossing of external borders on asylum for nationals of Member States of the European Union Protocol (No 25) on the exercise of shared competence Protocol (No 26) on services of general interest Protocol (No 27) on the internal market and competition Protocol (No 28) on economic, social and territorial cohesion Protocol (No 29) on the system of public broadcasting in the Member States Protocol (No 30) Protocol (No 31) on the application of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union to Poland and to the United Kingdom concerning imports into the European Union of petroleum products refined in the Netherlands Antilles Protocol (No 32) on the acquisition of property in Denmark Protocol (No 33) concerning Article 157 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

11 EN Official Journal of the European Union C 202/ Table of Contents 9 Page Protocol (No 34) on special arrangements for Greenland Protocol (No 35) on Article of the Constitution of Ireland Protocol (No 36) on transitional provisions Protocol (No 37) on the financial consequences of the expiry of the ECSC Treaty and on the Research fund for Coal and Steel Protocol (No 38) on the concerns of the Irish people on the Treaty of Lisbon ANNEXES TO THE TREATY ON THE FUNCTIONING OF THE EUROPEAN UNION ANNEX I ANNEX II List referred to in Article 38 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Overseas countries and territories to which the provisions of Part Four of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Apply DECLARATIONS annexed to the final Act of the Intergovernmental Conference which adopted the Treaty of Lisbon, signed on 13 December A. DECLARATIONS CONCERNING PROVISIONS OF THE TREATIES Declaration concerning the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union Declaration on Article 6(2) of the Treaty on European Union Declaration on Article 8 of the Treaty on European Union Declaration on the composition of the European Parliament Declaration on the political agreement by the European Council concerning the draft Decision on the composition of the European Parliament Declaration on Article 15(5) and (6), Article 17(6) and (7) and Article 18 of the Treaty on European Union Declaration on Article 16(4) of the Treaty on European Union and Article 238(2) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration on practical measures to be taken upon the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon as regards the Presidency of the European Council and of the Foreign Affairs Council Declaration on Article 16(9) of the Treaty on European Union concerning the European Council decision on the exercise of the Presidency of the Council Declaration on Article 17 of the Treaty on European Union Declaration on Article 17(6) and (7) of the Treaty on European Union Declaration on Article 18 of the Treaty on European Union

12 C 202/10 EN Official Journal of the European Union Consolidated Treaties 13. Declaration concerning the common foreign and security policy Declaration concerning the common foreign and security policy Declaration on Article 27 of the Treaty on European Union Declaration on Article 55(2) of the Treaty on European Union Declaration concerning primacy Declaration in relation to the delimitation of competences Declaration on Article 8 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration on Article 16 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration on the protection of personal data in the fields of judicial cooperation in criminal matters and police cooperation Declaration on Articles 48 and 79 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration on the second paragraph of Article 48 of the Treaty on the Func tioning of the European Union Declaration concerning the legal personality of the European Union Declaration on Articles 75 and 215 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration on non-participation by a Member State in a measure based on Title V of Part Three of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration on Article 85(1), second subparagraph, of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration on Article 98 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration on Article 107(2)(c) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration on Article 126 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration on Article 156 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration on Article 168(4)(c) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration on Article 174 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration on Article 179 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration on Article 194 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Page

13 EN Official Journal of the European Union C 202/11 Table of Contents Declaration on Article 218 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union concerning the negotiation and conclusion of international agreements by Member States relating to the area of freedom, security and justice Declaration on Article 222 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration on Article 252 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union regarding the number of Advocates-General in the Court of Justice Declaration on Article 290 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration on Article 329 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration on Article 352 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration on Article 352 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration on Article 355(6) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union B. DECLARATIONS CONCERNING PROTOCOLS ANNEXED TO THE TREATIES Declaration on Article 5 of the Protocol on the Schengen acquis integrated into the framework of the European Union Declaration on Article 5(2) of the Protocol on the Schengen acquis integrated into the framework of the European Union Declaration on Article 5(3) of the Protocol on the Schengen acquis integrated into the framework of the European Union Declaration on Article 5(3), (4) and (5) of the Protocol on the Schengen acquis integrated into the framework of the European Union Declaration concerning the Protocol on the position of Denmark Declaration concerning Italy Declaration concerning Article 10 of the Protocol on transitional provisions 356 C. DECLARATIONS BY MEMBER STATES Declaration by the Kingdom of Belgium on national Parliaments Declaration by the Kingdom of Belgium, the Republic of Bulgaria, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Italian Republic, the Republic of Cyprus, the Republic of Lithuania, the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, the Republic of Hungary, the Republic of Malta, the Republic of Austria, the Portuguese Republic, Romania, the Republic of Slovenia and the Slovak Republic on the symbols of the European Union Declaration by the Czech Republic on the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union Page

14 C 202/12 EN Official Journal of the European Union Consolidated Treaties 54. Declaration by the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, the Republic of Hungary, the Republic of Austria and the Kingdom of Sweden Declaration by the Kingdom of Spain and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Declaration by Ireland on Article 3 of the Protocol on the position of the United Kingdom and Ireland in respect of the area of freedom, security and justice Declaration by the Italian Republic on the composition of the European Parliament Declaration by the Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Hungary and the Republic of Malta on the spelling of the name of the single currency in the Treaties Declaration by the Kingdom of the Netherlands on Article 312 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration by the Kingdom of the Netherlands on Article 355 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declaration by the Republic of Poland on the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union Declaration by the Republic of Poland concerning the Protocol on the application of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union in relation to Poland and the United Kingdom Declaration by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on the definition of the term "nationals" Declaration by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on the franchise for elections to the European Parliament Declaration by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on Article 75 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Tables of equivalences Treaty on European Union Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Page

15 EN Official Journal of the European Union C 202/13 CONSOLIDATED VERSION OF THE TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION

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17 EN Official Journal of the European Union C 202/15 Consolidated version of the treaty on european union 15 PREAMBLE HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE BELGIANS, HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN OF DENMARK, THE PRESIDENT OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY, THE PRESIDENT OF IRELAND, THE PRESIDENT OF THE HELLENIC REPUBLIC, HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF SPAIN, THE PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC, THE PRESIDENT OF THE ITALIAN REPUBLIC, HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE GRAND DUKE OF LUXEMBOURG, HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN OF THE NETHERLANDS, THE PRESIDENT OF THE PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC, HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, ( 1 ) RESOLVED to mark a new stage in the process of European integration undertaken with the establishment of the European Communities, DRAWING INSPIRATION from the cultural, religious and humanist inheritance of Europe, from which have developed the universal values of the inviolable and inalienable rights of the human person, freedom, democracy, equality and the rule of law, RECALLING the historic importance of the ending of the division of the European continent and the need to create firm bases for the construction of the future Europe, CONFIRMING their attachment to the principles of liberty, democracy and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and of the rule of law, CONFIRMING their attachment to fundamental social rights as defined in the European Social Charter signed at Turin on 18 October 1961 and in the 1989 Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers, DESIRING to deepen the solidarity between their peoples while respecting their history, their culture and their traditions, DESIRING to enhance further the democratic and efficient functioning of the institutions so as to enable them better to carry out, within a single institutional framework, the tasks entrusted to them, RESOLVED to achieve the strengthening and the convergence of their economies and to establish an economic and monetary union including, in accordance with the provisions of this Treaty and of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, a single and stable currency, DETERMINED to promote economic and social progress for their peoples, taking into account the principle of sustainable development and within the context of the accomplishment of the internal market and of reinforced cohesion and environmental protection, and to implement policies ensuring that advances in economic integration are accompanied by parallel progress in other fields, ( 1 ) The Republic of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, the Republic of Estonia, the Republic of Croatia, the Republic of Cyprus, the Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Lithuania, the Republic of Hungary, the Republic of Malta, the Republic of Austria, the Republic of Poland, Romania, the Republic of Slovenia, the Slovak Republic, the Republic of Finland and the Kingdom of Sweden have since become members of the European Union.

18 C 202/16 EN Official Journal of the European Union Consolidated Treaties RESOLVED to establish a citizenship common to nationals of their countries, RESOLVED to implement a common foreign and security policy including the progressive framing of a common defence policy, which might lead to a common defence in accordance with the provisions of Article 42, thereby reinforcing the European identity and its independence in order to promote peace, security and progress in Europe and in the world, RESOLVED to facilitate the free movement of persons, while ensuring the safety and security of their peoples, by establishing an area of freedom, security and justice, in accordance with the provisions of this Treaty and of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, RESOLVED to continue the process of creating an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe, in which decisions are taken as closely as possible to the citizen in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity, IN VIEW of further steps to be taken in order to advance European integration, HAVE DECIDED to establish a European Union and to this end have designated as their Plenipotentiaries: (List of plenipotentiaries not reproduced) WHO, having exchanged their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed as follows: TITLE I COMMON PROVISIONS Article 1 (ex Article 1 TEU) ( 1 ) By this Treaty, the HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES establish among themselves a EUROPEAN UNION, hereinafter called the Union, on which the Member States confer competences to attain objectives they have in common. This Treaty marks a new stage in the process of creating an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe, in which decisions are taken as openly as possible and as closely as possible to the citizen. The Union shall be founded on the present Treaty and on the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (hereinafter referred to as the Treaties ). Those two Treaties shall have the same legal value. The Union shall replace and succeed the European Community. ( 1 ) These references are merely indicative. For more ample information, please refer to the tables of equivalences between the old and the new numbering of the Treaties.

19 EN Official Journal of the European Union C 202/17 Consolidated version of the treaty on european union 17 Article 2 The Union is founded on the values of respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities. These values are common to the Member States in a society in which pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, justice, solidarity and equality between women and men prevail. Article 3 (ex Article 2 TEU) 1. The Union's aim is to promote peace, its values and the well-being of its peoples. 2. The Union shall offer its citizens an area of freedom, security and justice without internal frontiers, in which the free movement of persons is ensured in conjunction with appropriate measures with respect to external border controls, asylum, immigration and the prevention and combating of crime. 3. The Union shall establish an internal market. It shall work for the sustainable development of Europe based on balanced economic growth and price stability, a highly competitive social market economy, aiming at full employment and social progress, and a high level of protection and improvement of the quality of the environment. It shall promote scientific and technological advance. It shall combat social exclusion and discrimination, and shall promote social justice and protection, equality between women and men, solidarity between generations and protection of the rights of the child. It shall promote economic, social and territorial cohesion, and solidarity among Member States. It shall respect its rich cultural and linguistic diversity, and shall ensure that Europe's cultural heritage is safeguarded and enhanced. 4. The Union shall establish an economic and monetary union whose currency is the euro. 5. In its relations with the wider world, the Union shall uphold and promote its values and interests and contribute to the protection of its citizens. It shall contribute to peace, security, the sustainable development of the Earth, solidarity and mutual respect among peoples, free and fair trade, eradication of poverty and the protection of human rights, in particular the rights of the child, as well as to the strict observance and the development of international law, including respect for the principles of the United Nations Charter. 6. The Union shall pursue its objectives by appropriate means commensurate with the competences which are conferred upon it in the Treaties.

20 EN C 202/18 Official Journal of the European Union Consolidated Treaties Article 4 1. In accordance with Article 5, competences not conferred upon the Union in the Treaties remain with the Member States. 2. The Union shall respect the equality of Member States before the Treaties as well as their national identities, inherent in their fundamental structures, political and constitutional, inclusive of regional and local self-government. It shall respect their essential State functions, including ensuring the territorial integrity of the State, maintaining law and order and safeguarding national security. In particular, national security remains the sole responsibility of each Member State. 3. Pursuant to the principle of sincere cooperation, the Union and the Member States shall, in full mutual respect, assist each other in carrying out tasks which flow from the Treaties. The Member States shall take any appropriate measure, general or particular, to ensure fulfilment of the obligations arising out of the Treaties or resulting from the acts of the institutions of the Union. The Member States shall facilitate the achievement of the Union's tasks and refrain from any measure which could jeopardise the attainment of the Union's objectives. Article 5 (ex Article 5 TEC) 1. The limits of Union competences are governed by the principle of conferral. The use of Union competences is governed by the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality. 2. Under the principle of conferral, the Union shall act only within the limits of the competences conferred upon it by the Member States in the Treaties to attain the objectives set out therein. Competences not conferred upon the Union in the Treaties remain with the Member States. 3. Under the principle of subsidiarity, in areas which do not fall within its exclusive competence, the Union shall act only if and in so far as the objectives of the proposed action cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States, either at central level or at regional and local level, but can rather, by reason of the scale or effects of the proposed action, be better achieved at Union level. The institutions of the Union shall apply the principle of subsidiarity as laid down in the Protocol on the application of the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality. National Parliaments ensure compliance with the principle of subsidiarity in accordance with the procedure set out in that Protocol. 4. Under the principle of proportionality, the content and form of Union action shall not exceed what is necessary to achieve the objectives of the Treaties. The institutions of the Union shall apply the principle of proportionality as laid down in the Protocol on the application of the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality.

21 EN Official Journal of the European Union C 202/19 Consolidated version of the treaty on european union 19 Article 6 (ex Article 6 TEU) 1. The Union recognises the rights, freedoms and principles set out in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union of 7 December 2000, as adapted at Strasbourg, on 12 December 2007, which shall have the same legal value as the Treaties. The provisions of the Charter shall not extend in any way the competences of the Union as defined in the Treaties. The rights, freedoms and principles in the Charter shall be interpreted in accordance with the general provisions in Title VII of the Charter governing its interpretation and application and with due regard to the explanations referred to in the Charter, that set out the sources of those provisions. 2. The Union shall accede to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Such accession shall not affect the Union's competences as defined in the Treaties. 3. Fundamental rights, as guaranteed by the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and as they result from the constitutional traditions common to the Member States, shall constitute general principles of the Union's law. Article 7 (ex Article 7 TEU) 1. On a reasoned proposal by one third of the Member States, by the European Parliament or by the European Commission, the Council, acting by a majority of four fifths of its members after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament, may determine that there is a clear risk of a serious breach by a Member State of the values referred to in Article 2. Before making such a determination, the Council shall hear the Member State in question and may address recommendations to it, acting in accordance with the same procedure. The Council shall regularly verify that the grounds on which such a determination was made continue to apply. 2. The European Council, acting by unanimity on a proposal by one third of the Member States or by the Commission and after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament, may determine the existence of a serious and persistent breach by a Member State of the values referred to in Article 2, after inviting the Member State in question to submit its observations. 3. Where a determination under paragraph 2 has been made, the Council, acting by a qualified majority, may decide to suspend certain of the rights deriving from the application of the Treaties to the Member State in question, including the voting rights of the representative of the government of that Member State in the Council. In doing so, the Council shall take into account the possible consequences of such a suspension on the rights and obligations of natural and legal persons.

22 EN C 202/20 Official Journal of the European Union Consolidated Treaties The obligations of the Member State in question under the Treaties shall in any case continue to be binding on that State. 4. The Council, acting by a qualified majority, may decide subsequently to vary or revoke measures taken under paragraph 3 in response to changes in the situation which led to their being imposed. 5. The voting arrangements applying to the European Parliament, the European Council and the Council for the purposes of this Article are laid down in Article 354 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Article 8 1. The Union shall develop a special relationship with neighbouring countries, aiming to establish an area of prosperity and good neighbourliness, founded on the values of the Union and characterised by close and peaceful relations based on cooperation. 2. For the purposes of paragraph 1, the Union may conclude specific agreements with the countries concerned. These agreements may contain reciprocal rights and obligations as well as the possibility of undertaking activities jointly. Their implementation shall be the subject of periodic consultation. TITLE II PROVISIONS ON DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES Article 9 In all its activities, the Union shall observe the principle of the equality of its citizens, who shall receive equal attention from its institutions, bodies, offices and agencies. Every national of a Member State shall be a citizen of the Union. Citizenship of the Union shall be additional to and not replace national citizenship. Article The functioning of the Union shall be founded on representative democracy. 2. Citizens are directly represented at Union level in the European Parliament. Member States are represented in the European Council by their Heads of State or Government and in the Council by their governments, themselves democratically accountable either to their national Parliaments, or to their citizens. 3. Every citizen shall have the right to participate in the democratic life of the Union. Decisions shall be taken as openly and as closely as possible to the citizen. 4. Political parties at European level contribute to forming European political awareness and to expressing the will of citizens of the Union.

23 EN Official Journal of the European Union C 202/21 Consolidated version of the treaty on european union 21 Article The institutions shall, by appropriate means, give citizens and representative associations the opportunity to make known and publicly exchange their views in all areas of Union action. 2. The institutions shall maintain an open, transparent and regular dialogue with representative associations and civil society. 3. The European Commission shall carry out broad consultations with parties concerned in order to ensure that the Union's actions are coherent and transparent. 4. Not less than one million citizens who are nationals of a significant number of Member States may take the initiative of inviting the European Commission, within the framework of its powers, to submit any appropriate proposal on matters where citizens consider that a legal act of the Union is required for the purpose of implementing the Treaties. The procedures and conditions required for such a citizens' initiative shall be determined in accordance with the first paragraph of Article 24 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Article 12 National Parliaments contribute actively to the good functioning of the Union: (a) through being informed by the institutions of the Union and having draft legislative acts of the Union forwarded to them in accordance with the Protocol on the role of national Parliaments in the European Union; (b) by seeing to it that the principle of subsidiarity is respected in accordance with the procedures provided for in the Protocol on the application of the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality; (c) by taking part, within the framework of the area of freedom, security and justice, in the evaluation mechanisms for the implementation of the Union policies in that area, in accordance with Article 70 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and through being involved in the political monitoring of Europol and the evaluation of Eurojust's activities in accordance with Articles 88 and 85 of that Treaty; (d) by taking part in the revision procedures of the Treaties, in accordance with Article 48 of this Treaty; (e) by being notified of applications for accession to the Union, in accordance with Article 49 of this Treaty; (f) by taking part in the inter-parliamentary cooperation between national Parliaments and with the European Parliament, in accordance with the Protocol on the role of national Parliaments in the European Union.

24 EN C 202/22 Official Journal of the European Union Consolidated Treaties TITLE III PROVISIONS ON THE INSTITUTIONS Article The Union shall have an institutional framework which shall aim to promote its values, advance its objectives, serve its interests, those of its citizens and those of the Member States, and ensure the consistency, effectiveness and continuity of its policies and actions. The Union's institutions shall be: the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Commission (hereinafter referred to as the Commission ), the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Central Bank, the Court of Auditors. 2. Each institution shall act within the limits of the powers conferred on it in the Treaties, and in conformity with the procedures, conditions and objectives set out in them. The institutions shall practice mutual sincere cooperation. 3. The provisions relating to the European Central Bank and the Court of Auditors and detailed provisions on the other institutions are set out in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. 4. The European Parliament, the Council and the Commission shall be assisted by an Economic and Social Committee and a Committee of the Regions acting in an advisory capacity. Article The European Parliament shall, jointly with the Council, exercise legislative and budgetary functions. It shall exercise functions of political control and consultation as laid down in the Treaties. It shall elect the President of the Commission. 2. The European Parliament shall be composed of representatives of the Union's citizens. They shall not exceed seven hundred and fifty in number, plus the President. Representation of citizens shall be degressively proportional, with a minimum threshold of six members per Member State. No Member State shall be allocated more than ninety-six seats.

25 EN Official Journal of the European Union C 202/23 Consolidated version of the treaty on european union 23 The European Council shall adopt by unanimity, on the initiative of the European Parliament and with its consent, a decision establishing the composition of the European Parliament, respecting the principles referred to in the first subparagraph. 3. The members of the European Parliament shall be elected for a term of five years by direct universal suffrage in a free and secret ballot. 4. The European Parliament shall elect its President and its officers from among its members. Article The European Council shall provide the Union with the necessary impetus for its development and shall define the general political directions and priorities thereof. It shall not exercise legislative functions. 2. The European Council shall consist of the Heads of State or Government of the Member States, together with its President and the President of the Commission. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy shall take part in its work. 3. The European Council shall meet twice every six months, convened by its President. When the agenda so requires, the members of the European Council may decide each to be assisted by a minister and, in the case of the President of the Commission, by a member of the Commission. When the situation so requires, the President shall convene a special meeting of the European Council. 4. Except where the Treaties provide otherwise, decisions of the European Council shall be taken by consensus. 5. The European Council shall elect its President, by a qualified majority, for a term of two and a half years, renewable once. In the event of an impediment or serious misconduct, the European Council can end the President's term of office in accordance with the same procedure. 6. The President of the European Council: (a) shall chair it and drive forward its work; (b) shall ensure the preparation and continuity of the work of the European Council in cooperation with the President of the Commission, and on the basis of the work of the General Affairs Council; (c) shall endeavour to facilitate cohesion and consensus within the European Council; (d) shall present a report to the European Parliament after each of the meetings of the European Council. The President of the European Council shall, at his level and in that capacity, ensure the external representation of the Union on issues concerning its common foreign and security policy, without prejudice to the powers of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.

26 EN C 202/24 Official Journal of the European Union Consolidated Treaties The President of the European Council shall not hold a national office. Article The Council shall, jointly with the European Parliament, exercise legislative and budgetary functions. It shall carry out policy-making and coordinating functions as laid down in the Treaties. 2. The Council shall consist of a representative of each Member State at ministerial level, who may commit the government of the Member State in question and cast its vote. 3. The Council shall act by a qualified majority except where the Treaties provide otherwise. 4. As from 1 November 2014, a qualified majority shall be defined as at least 55 % of the members of the Council, comprising at least fifteen of them and representing Member States comprising at least 65 % of the population of the Union. A blocking minority must include at least four Council members, failing which the qualified majority shall be deemed attained. The other arrangements governing the qualified majority are laid down in Article 238(2) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. 5. The transitional provisions relating to the definition of the qualified majority which shall be applicable until 31 October 2014 and those which shall be applicable from 1 November 2014 to 31 March 2017 are laid down in the Protocol on transitional provisions. 6. The Council shall meet in different configurations, the list of which shall be adopted in accordance with Article 236 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. The General Affairs Council shall ensure consistency in the work of the different Council configurations. It shall prepare and ensure the follow-up to meetings of the European Council, in liaison with the President of the European Council and the Commission. The Foreign Affairs Council shall elaborate the Union's external action on the basis of strategic guidelines laid down by the European Council and ensure that the Union's action is consistent. 7. A Committee of Permanent Representatives of the Governments of the Member States shall be responsible for preparing the work of the Council. 8. The Council shall meet in public when it deliberates and votes on a draft legislative act. To this end, each Council meeting shall be divided into two parts, dealing respectively with deliberations on Union legislative acts and non-legislative activities. 9. The Presidency of Council configurations, other than that of Foreign Affairs, shall be held by Member State representatives in the Council on the basis of equal rotation, in accordance with the conditions established in accordance with Article 236 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

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