Period 3: (The French and Indian War to the Revolution of 1800 )

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1 Period 3: (The French and Indian War to the Revolution of 1800 ) In a Nutshell (Big Picture) British imperial attempts to reassert control over its colonies and the colonial reaction to these attempts produced a new American republic, along with struggles over the new nation s social, political, and economic identity. Key Concepts (Broad Essential Information) A. British attempts to assert tighter control over its North American colonies and the colonial resolve to pursue self-government led to a colonial independence movement and the Revolutionary War. B. The competition among the British, French, and American Indians for economic and political advantage in North America culminated in the Seven years War (the French and Indian War), in which Britain defeated France and allied American Indians. C. The desire of many colonists to assert ideals of self-government in the face of renewed British imperial efforts led to a colonial independence movement and war with Britain. D. The American Revolution s democratic and republican ideals inspired new experiments with different forms of government. E. The ideals that inspired the revolutionary cause reflected new beliefs about politics, religion, and society that had been developing over the course of the18th century. F. After declaring independence, American political leaders created new constitutions and declarations of rights that articulated the role of the state and federal governments while protecting individual liberties and limiting both centralized power and excessive popular influence. G. New forms of national culture and political institutions developed in the United States alongside continued regional variations and differences over economic, political, social, and foreign policy issues. H. Migration within North America and competition over resources, boundaries, and trade intensified conflicts among peoples and nations. I. In the decades after American independence, interactions among different groups resulted in competition for resources, shifting alliances, and cultural blending. J. The continued presence of European powers in North America challenged the United States to find ways to safeguard its borders, maintain neutral trading rights, and promote its economic interests. Significant Topics (Must Know) 1. French and Indian War, (Seven Years War, ) Colonial rivalry intensified between Britain and France in the mid-18th century, as the growing population of the British colonies expanded into the interior of North America, threatening French Indian trade networks and American Indian autonomy. Britain achieved a major expansion of its territorial holdings by defeating the French, but at tremendous expense, setting the stage for imperial efforts to raise revenue and consolidate control over the colonies. 1

2 2. Effects of the French and Indian War on American Indians After the British victory, imperial officials attempts to prevent colonists from moving westward generated colonial opposition, while native groups sought to both continue trading with Europeans and resist the encroachments of colonists on tribal lands. 3. American Independence from Great Britain The imperial struggles of the mid-18th century, as well as new British efforts to collect taxes without direct colonial representation or consent and to assert imperial authority in the colonies, began to unite the colonists against perceived and real constraints on their economic activities and political rights. 4. Leaders of the Movement for American Independence The effort for American independence was energized by colonial leaders such as Benjamin Franklin, as well as by popular movements that included the political activism of laborers, artisans, and women. In the face of economic shortages and the British military occupation of some regions, men and women mobilized in large numbers to provide financial and material support to the Patriot movement. a. BenFranklin 5. Philosophy of the American Independence Movement Colonial leaders based their calls for resistance to Britain on arguments about the rights of British subjects, the rights of the individual, local traditions of self-rule, and the ideas of the Enlightenment. Enlightenment ideas and philosophy inspired many American political thinkers to emphasize individual talent over hereditary privilege, while religion strengthened Americans view of themselves as a people blessed with liberty. The colonists belief in the superiority of republican forms of government based on the natural rights of the people found expression in Thomas Paine s Common Sense and the Declaration of Independence. The ideas in these documents resonated throughout American history, shaping Americans understanding of the ideals on which the nation was based. 6. Reasons for American Success in the War for Independence Despite considerable loyalist opposition, as well as Great Britain s apparently overwhelming military and financial advantages, the Patriot cause succeeded because of the actions of colonial militias and the Continental Army, George Washington s military leadership, the colonists ideological commitment and resilience, and assistance sent by European allies. 7. Effects of the American Revolution on Ideas of Liberty and Equality During and after the American Revolution, an increased awareness of inequalities in society motivated some individuals and groups to call for the abolition of slavery and greater political democracy in the new state and national governments. In response to women s participation in the American Revolution, Enlightenment ideas, and women s appeals for expanded roles, an ideal of republican motherhood gained popularity. It called on women to teach republican values within the family and granted women a new importance in American political culture. The American Revolution and the ideals set forth in the Declaration of Independence reverberated in France, Haiti, and Latin America, inspiring future independence movements. 8. The Articles of Confederation Many new state constitutions placed power in the hands of the legislative branch and maintained property qualifications for voting and citizenship. The Articles of Confederation unified the newly independent states, creating a central government with limited power. After the Revolution, difficulties over international trade, finances, interstate commerce, foreign relations, and internal unrest led to calls for a stronger central government. 2

3 9. Creation of the U.S. Constitution Delegates from the states participated in a Constitutional Convention and through negotiation, collaboration, and compromise proposed a constitution that created a limited but dynamic central government embodying federalism and providing for a separation of powers between its three branches. The Constitutional Convention compromised over the representation of slave states in Congress and the role of the federal government in regulating both slavery and the slave trade, allowing the prohibition of the international slave trade after In the debate over ratifying the Constitution, Anti-Federalists opposing ratification battled with Federalists, whose principles were articulated in the Federalist Papers (primarily written by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison). Federalists ensured the ratification of the Constitution by promising the addition of a Bill of Rights that enumerated individual rights and explicitly restricted the powers of the federal government. 10. Creation of the U.S. Government under the New Constitution During the presidential administrations of George Washington and John Adams, political leaders created institutions and precedents that put the principles of the Constitution into practice. George Washington s Farewell Address encouraged national unity, as he cautioned against political factions and warned about the danger of permanent foreign alliances. 11. U.S. Foreign Policy, The United States government forged diplomatic initiatives aimed at dealing with the continued British and Spanish presence in North America, as U.S. settlers migrated beyond the Appalachians and sought free navigation of the Mississippi River. War between France and Britain resulting from the French Revolution presented challenges to the United States over issues of free trade and foreign policy and fostered political disagreement. 12. Formation of Political Parties Political leaders in the 1790s took a variety of positions on issues such as the relationship between the national government and the states, economic policy, foreign policy, and the balance between liberty and order. This led to the formation of political parties most significantly the Federalists, led by Alexander Hamilton, and the Democratic-Republican Party, led bythomas Jefferson and James Madison. 13. Slavery and the New Nation The expansion of slavery in the deep South and adjacent western lands and rising antislavery sentiment began to create distinctive regional attitudes toward the institution. 14. American Indians and the New Nation Various American Indian groups repeatedly evaluated and adjusted their alliances with Europeans, other tribes, and the U.S., seeking to limit migration of white settlers and maintain control of tribal lands and natural resources. British alliances with American Indians contributed to tensions between the U.S. and Britain. ambiguous relationship between the federal government and American Indian tribes contributed to problems regarding treaties and American Indian legal claims relating to the seizure of their lands. 15. The Westward Movement before 1800 As increasing numbers of migrants from North America and other parts of the world continued to move westward, frontier cultures that had emerged in the colonial period continued to grow, fueling social, political, and ethnic tensions. As settlers moved westward during the 1780s, Congress enacted the Northwest ordinance for admitting new states; the ordinance promoted public education, the protection of private property, and a ban on slavery in the NorthwestTerritory. 16. Spanish Colonization before 1800 The Spanish, supported by the bonded labor of the local American Indians, expanded their mission settlements into California; these provided opportunities for social mobility among soldiers and led to new cultural blending. 17. The American Identity Ideas about national identity increasingly found expression in works of art, literature, and architecture. 3

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5 Supporting Evidence for Significant Topics (Period Three, Part One) *The French/Indian War and the Age of Revolution ( ) French and Indian War, (aka The Seven Years War, ) What was the French and Indian War? - a colonial North American War fought within the context of a larger world war called the Seven Years War - The British, British Colonists, and their Native American allies vs. The French, French Colonists, and their Native American allies - this was the only colonial war to start before a larger World War (see supporting document) Ohio River Valley - parts of present day Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee - the war was fought largely over control of the Ohio River Valley (British colonists, primarily Virginians, had expanded west in search of more land and encroached on French territory which sparked conflict on the frontier) George Washington and Fort Necessity - George Washington was a young Major in the Virginia militia whose defeat at Fort Necessity essentially was the spark that started a World War (Seven Years War) - he gained valuable experience in the war which would later serve him well as Commander in Chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolution. Ben Franklin - truly the American Renaissance and Enlightenment man who was involved in almost all of the major issues, events, etc. in colonial America and the young United States in the 1700s. - he would be crucial to negotiating an alliance between the British and the powerful Iroquois Confederacy during the French and Indian War. Albany Congress, representatives from 7 out of 13 colonies met to discuss a defense against the French and their Native American allies - one of the most important outcomes was an alliance between the British/Colonists and the Iroquois Confederacy Albany Plan of Union ( Join or Die ) - a plan for colonial self rule proposed by Ben Franklin at the Albany Congress with the purpose of forming a colonial union (truly an attempt to form a colonial confederation of the 13 colonies) - jealousy and animosity between the colonies ultimately doomed the Albany Plan of Union Effects of the French and Indian War British defeat of the French, Under the Treaty of Paris, which ended the French and Indian War, Britain gained possession of all of French Canada and Spanish Florida - The French lose possession of all of their North American territory leaving their Native American allies to deal solely with the British as they continue to expand west in search of new land Pontiac s Rebellion - unsuccessful Indian rebellion led by an Ottawa chief named Pontiac against British Indian policy in the Northwest Territory (present day Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois) - In part, the rebellion led to the passage of the Proclamation of

6 Proclamation of law passed by the British Government that banned colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. The law was designed to prevent future conflict with Indians in the Northwest Territory - colonists on the frontier were infuriated by this law as they felt it their right to expand west especially after fighting on behalf of the British in the French and Indian War. The Paxton Boys, Frontiersman of Scots-Irish origin in Paxton, Pennsylvania, who massacred Conestoga Indians and then marched on Philadelphia demanding the colonial government provide better defense against Indians on the frontier. The government responded with an official bounty for Indian scalps. Factors, Issues, etc. leading to Revolution Influence of the Ideas of the Enlightenment 1. Human beings should turn to reason (rather than faith) to improve society. 2. The universe is ruled by natural laws that can be discovered through human reason. Adherence to the laws of economics and government will allow human beings to make a better society. 3. All human beings possess a right to happiness. Society should reject the medieval belief that people must accept suffering in this world only to find salvation after they die. 4. Society should protect human liberty, removing limitations on freedom of speech, religion, and property. Inherent problems of distance between 13 colonies and Britain - day to day interaction between the colonies and Britain nonexistent due to the context of the time period - vast ocean, long journey by ship, lack of any real communication - these inherent problems of distance almost encourage independent development Salutary Neglect (significance) - several long periods when the British took a hands off approach to the colonies which to a certain extent led to the independent development of the 13 colonies - two longest periods of Salutary Neglect were during the English Civil War ( ) when the British were preoccupied with events at home and during the two generations prior to true colonial resistance against the British ( ) French and Indian War (Seven Years War) - although the war was perceived to be a victory over the French, tensions arose during the war between Colonial Americans and the British that would impact relations in the post war years (a turning point in the relations between the two) - British debt doubled during the war and taxing the colonists seemed to be a way to offset some of the debt and pay for an increase in British troop presence in the colonies The year 1763 (a true turning point) - marks the end of salutary neglect and a much more hands on approach by the British toward the 13 colonies - marks the start of the acts, taxes, etc. (see supporting document) imposed by the British on the 13 colonies that ultimately led to Revolution in the 1770s Acts, Taxes, etc. ( ) These are mostly covered in the supporting document so examine it thoroughly. We will emphasize the most significant ones in class so please see your notes, in class assignments, etc. 6

7 Sugar Act, British law that taxed sugar and other colonial imports to pay for some of Britain s expenses in protecting the colonies during the French and Indian War. Stamp Act, British law that established a direct tax in the colonies on written documents, including newspapers, legal documents, and playing cards. The tax was designed to raise revenue for the British empire. Protests against the Stamp Act led to its repeal in Declaratory Act, The British Parliament asserted they had the sole and exclusive right to tax the colonists, rejecting the colonial argument that taxation should rest in the hands of colonial assemblies. Townshend Acts, Import taxes for the colonists on products made in Britain. Recognizing the colonists had been pushed too far, Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts in 1770, except for the tax on tea. Significant Events There are many significant events detailed in the supporting document so examine it thoroughly. The ones chronicled below are simply turning points before and during the actual war. Boston Massacre, British troops killed five colonists by firing on a mob of people who had been taunting them and throwing stones. Boston Tea Party, As a protest against a British monopoly on tea, colonists disguised as Mohawk Indians boarded three British ships and dumped a shipment of tea into Boston harbor. First Continental Congress, Delegates from every colony except Georgia met in Philadelphia and asserted their rights as Englishmen. Battle of Lexington and Concord, Battle between British soldiers and American Minutemen outside Boston that began the American Revolution. Second Continental Congress, Delegates from the thirteen colonies met in Philadelphia to create a Continental army and prepare the colonies for war against Britain. Battle of Saratoga (New York), at attempt by the British to cut New England and the South off from one another by seizing control of New York - the victory by the Continental Army convinced the French to join the war on the side of the colonists Treaty of Alliance, Ben Franklin s tireless diplomatic work in Paris and the victory at Saratoga secured an alliance with the French that would bring weapons, resources, naval assistance, etc. that would be critical to the defeat of the British Battle of Yorktown (Virginia), combined French and Continental troops force the surrender of General Cornwallis and the British - the last major battle of the American Revolution - Colonial American victory forced the British to start negotiating a treaty to bring the war to an end 7

8 Treaty of Paris, the treaty officially ended the Revolution and recognized the United States as a free, sovereign, and independent nation - Terms of the Treaty - The Great Lakes served as the northern border of the United States - The Mississippi River served as the western border of the United States - Spain retained control of Florida (obvious problems later) - Britain retained control of Canada (obvious problems later) - the United States agreed to treat the loyalists fairly in the post war years - the British agreed to remove all troops from United States territory Significant Individuals Pontiac - Chief who led a group of Native Americans in rebellion against British occupation of the Great Lakes Region (partly led to the Proclamation of 1763) King George III - King of Great Britain from John Locke - British philosopher of the late 17th century whose ideas influenced the writing of the Declaration of Independence and the creation of the United States. He argued that sovereignty resides in the people, who have natural rights to life, liberty, and property. Thomas Paine, Common Sense, Common Sense was a pamphlet that attacked the British monarchy and provided a rationale for American independence from Britain. It was written in plain terms that all Colonial Americans could understand. Adam Smith - Scottish philosopher ( ) whose ideas helped fuel the creation of the market system in the U.S. and strengthen colonial resentment toward British Mercantilism. He believed free market competition would benefit society as a whole by keeping prices low and building an incentive for a wide variety of goods and services. *Mercantilism (regulation) vs. Capitalism (free market) Sam Adams - delegate from Massachusetts to the 1st and 2nd Continental Congress - one of the original founders of the Committees of Correspondence in Massachusetts - wanted to punish Loyalists in the colonies and early United States Thomas Jefferson - delegate from Virginia to the 2nd Continental Congress - primary author of the Declaration of Independence (actually a committee of five) - served as Governor of Virginia from George Washington - delegate from Virginia to the 1st Continental Congress - Commander in Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution Ben Franklin - delegate from Pennsylvania to the 2nd Continental Congress - one of five committee members that drafted the Declaration of Independence - Minister to France from (helped secure the French alliance) 8

9 Other Notable Items Marquis de Lafayette - French military leader who served as Major General under George Washington during the American Revolution (became like a son to Washington) - helped train and lead troops but never given his own division Charles Cornwallis - served as General (varying levels) for the British during the Revolution - British General who surrendered at Yorktown Crispus Attucks - former slave and the 1st one shot and killed at the Boston Massacre - icon of the Antislavery movement (1st martyr of the revolution) Virtual Representation - a response by British Parliament to colonial protest regarding no taxation without representation - Parliament essentially stated that all members of the British Empire are virtually represented by all members of Parliament - colonists argued that because they had no vote in determining the members of Parliament that they were not fairly represented Writs of Assistance - courts (controlled by Britain) in Colonial America were giving orders to local officials to carry out specific tasks against colonists - used initially to enforce the Navigation Acts - allowed search and seizure of Colonist s property Hessians - hired German mercenaries (soldiers) by the British to fight on their behalf in the American Revolution - British hired and sent approximately 30,000 Hessians to fight against the Continental Army Patriots and Loyalists - Patriots (Colonists who fought for independence from Great Britain) - Loyalists (Colonists who remained loyal to Great Britain during the Revolution) Whigs and Tories - Whigs (those in Britain who supported the Patriots during the Revolution) - Tories (those in Britain who supported King George and Parliament during the Revolution) Sons of Liberty - Secret organization formed in Boston in 1765 to oppose the Stamp Act - best known for the Boston Tea Party in threatened and intimidated British officials and tax collectors ( tar and feather, ransacked and burned houses) Daughters of Liberty - helped ensure boycott of British goods (Continental Association) by creatively finding substitutes and/or producing goods themselves 9

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11 Supporting Evidence for Significant Topics (Period Three, Part Two) *The Articles of Confederation and the Constitution ( ) Challenges facing the United States and Questions to consider: 1. The Revolution is over, now what? - The young country needs unity, military protection, a sound economic system, a functioning government, and it must live up to the ideals of the Declaration 2. What divisions existed within The United States in the late 1700s? - religious, ethnic, state vs. state, regional, east vs. west, urban vs. rural, rich vs. poor 3. What was the general European view of the young United States? - the United States was an experiment in Democracy that would ultimately fail - The European perception was that American Democracy gave too much power to the common man 4. What is a Constitution? - a framework of laws for governing Articles of Confederation Constitution What was it? - 1st Constitution of the United States that created a national government with limited powers Why and when was it created? - created in to guide the country during the Revolution (not ratified until 1781) When was it in effect? - technically 1777 to 1789 What was its greatest weakness? - lacked central authority (specifics discussed in class), gave too much power to the states, and the unicameral Congress which was created under the Articles lacked the authority to raise taxes What was its greatest strength? - it kept the United States together from a controlled failure - the Land Ordinances of 1785 and 1787 (discussed in class) Constitutional Convention (1787) - Initially met to revise the Articles of Confederation but quickly became a convention to write a new constitution for the United States (met from May through September in 1787). Three Dates (1787, 1788, 1789) (Constitution written) (Constitution ratified) (Constitution goes into effect) U.S. Constitution and the Creation of a New Government - The Constitution created a republican form of government within a federal system, limited by a separation of powers. Three Branches of Government - Executive, Legislative, Judicial (see supporting document for each branch s primary function) 11

12 Virginia Plan (large state plan) vs. New Jersey Plan (small state plan) - Virginia Plan proposed a bicameral legislature (two house) where representation would be based upon each state s population - New Jersey Plan proposed a unicameral legislature (one house) which would give 1 vote per state Great Compromise aka The Connecticut Compromise - Compromise at the Constitutional Convention by which Congress would have two houses the Senate (where each state would get the equal representation of two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation would be based on population). 3/5 Compromise - once it was established that representation in the House of Representatives would be based on population, the issue arose: Who would be counted in determining a state s population? - southern states fought to count their slave populations especially in states where slaves made up almost half of the total population - the compromise allowed slave states to count 3/5 of their slave populations in determining representation in the House bundle of compromises - nickname given to the final draft of the U.S. Constitution due to the series of compromises that were worked out by the Convention s delegates. Direct Election - eligible voters directly elect their representatives - initially, only the House of Representatives was elected directly by the people Electoral (votes) College - The Electoral College is a process, not a place. The founding fathers established it in the Constitution as a compromise between the election of the President by a vote in Congress and the election of the President by a direct popular vote of qualified citizens. - electors from each state meet after the citizens vote for president and cast ballots for the president and vice president. Each state is granted the same number of electors as it has senators and representatives combined. Political Terms (used to describe the new constitution) 1. Republicanism- a political order in which power lies with the consent of the people who elect representatives to exercise that power for them. 2. Federalism- a political order in which power is divided between the national and state governments thus limiting central authority. 3. Popular Sovereignty- concept that all authority for government flows from the people 4. Limited Government- powers of government are limited by the constitution of the U.S. through three distinct branches of Government 5. Separation of Powers- the idea that each branch of government has its own responsibilities and limitations 6. Checks and Balances- each of the three branches of government exercises some control over the others thus sharing power among them. Federalists - those that supported ratification of the proposed Constitution as it was written in Federalists tended to be from the Northeast and large urban areas 12

13 Other Notable Items Anti-Federalists - those that argued against ratification of the proposed Constitution as it was written in 1787 primarily because it lacked a Bill of Rights that would protect individual liberties from the potential tyranny of a strong central government - Anti-federalists were a diverse group of people but tended to come from the rural areas of the South and West The Federalist Papers - 85 essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay that were published in newspapers to sway public support for the ratification of the U.S. Constitution. Arguably, the greatest analysis of the U.S. Constitution and explanation of the functioning of the U.S. government. James Madison - Virginia planter, political theorist, delegate to the Constitutional Convention, and co-author of the Federalist Papers. His work in creating the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights has earned him the title father of the Constitution. George Washington - Commander in chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution, presided over the Constitutional Convention, and served as the first President of the United States under the U.S. Constitution. Ben Franklin - American writer, scientist, inventor, and diplomat who negotiated the Treaty of Alliance with France during the American Revolution. Franklin also negotiated the treaty ending the American Revolution and attended the Constitutional Convention in John Adams - Revolutionary leader from Massachusetts who played an instrumental role in the vote for American independence. After the American Revolution he served as U.S. minister to Great Britain, first vice-president of the United States and second president of the United States. Thomas Jefferson - Chief author of the Declaration of Independence, governor of Virginia during the American Revolution, U.S. minister to France after the Revolution, second vice-president, and third president of the United States Newburgh Conspiracy (1783) - a plan by Continental Army officers to challenge the authority of the Confederation Congress, arising from their frustration with Congress's long-standing inability to meet its financial obligations to the military. By early 1783, widespread unrest had created an atmosphere ripe for mutiny. - George Washington defused the situation with an eloquent, personal plea to his officers to remain loyal to Congress, in the process perhaps saving the fate of the American Revolution. Daniel Shays and Shays Rebellion (1786) - Rebellion of debtor farmers in Massachusetts led by Daniel Shays. After the rebellion was crushed by the Massachusetts state militia, many prominent American leaders called for a strengthening of the national government to prevent such rebellions in the future. - see the Rebellion Timeline for further details 13

14 Annapolis Convention (1786) - Meeting at the suggestion of James Madison in Annapolis, Maryland to discuss some issues of interstate trade. Attendance was low, with only 12 delegates total representing just five states (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia). - at the conclusion of the meeting, Alexander Hamilton (delegate from New York) introduced a resolution, calling for the convening of a special convention to amend the weak Articles of Confederation due to a number of serious defects. This special convention became the Constitutional Convention in Northwest Ordinances - As settlers moved westward in the 1780s, Congress enacted the Land Ordinances of 1785 and These ordinances established guidelines and set precedent for admitting new states, promoting public education, protecting private property, and restricting the use of slavery in the Northwest Territory. - see notes for further details Republican Motherhood - A view of womanhood after the American Revolution that stressed the importance of women in raising children with republican virtues such as patriotism and honor. Women were viewed as the moral conscience of the nation tasked with preparing the next generation of leaders who would carry on the founding principles, values, etc. of the country in the future. Period Three, Part Three (Periodization, Contextualization, Misc.) space intentionally left blank 14

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16 Supporting Evidence for Significant Topics (Period 3, Part Three) *Critical Years of the Early Republic ( ) Significant Individuals Constitution George Washington - served as the first President of the United States ( ) - established many precedents as President (two term tradition, isolationism in foreign policy, functioning of the Executive Branch) John Adams - served as the first Vice President of the United States ( ) - served as the second President of the United States ( ) Thomas Jefferson - served as the first Secretary of State in the Washington Administration - served as the second Vice President of the United States ( ) Alexander Hamilton - First Secretary of the Treasury who funded the national debt through excise taxes, tariffs, and the sale of western land. As Secretary of Treasury he also used the power of the national government to assume state debts and create a Bank of the United States. - see notes for details regarding Hamilton s Financial Plan Strict vs. Loose Construction (two ways in which the Constitution can be interpreted) Strict Interpretation - Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans - if the Constitution doesn t explicitly give a power to the Government then the Government can t exercise that power Loose Interpretation - Hamilton and the Federalists - if the Constitution doesn t explicitly prevent the Government from exercising a power then the Government can exercise that power Implied Powers - This "Necessary and Proper Clause" (sometimes also called the "Elastic Clause") grants Congress a set of so-called implied powers that is, powers not explicitly named in the Constitution but assumed to exist due to being necessary to implement the expressed powers that are named in Article I of the Constitution. Compact Theory - originally a theory advocated by John Locke but used by Jefferson and Madison when they secretly crafted the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions - essentially a belief that the Federal Government is a creation of the states thus the states possess the right to check the power of the federal government and potentially make a federal law null and void - the Compact Theory became the foundation for States Rights and the belief in the right of Nullification 16

17 Nullification - states rights advocates believed that nullification was a right of the states based upon the Compact Theory - the right to make a federal law and/or action null and void Impeachment - the ability of the House of Representatives to start the process of removing a President or a member of the Judiciary from office - impeachment proceedings start in the House of Representatives but ultimately the Senate makes the final decision on whether to remove a person from office - only two Presidents have been impeached but neither were actually removed from office (Andrew Johnson in 1868 and Bill Clinton in 1998) Electoral Majority - the simple majority (51%) of electoral votes needed to elect an individual President in the Electoral College - the amount of electoral votes that each state receives is based upon their total representation in Congress (House and Senate) each state has 2 Senators and at least 1 member in the House - today there are 538 electoral votes available in an election thus 270 is the magic number to win (number of electoral votes has increased over time as the country has grown) - if no candidate receives the simple majority of electoral votes then the House of Representatives decides the Presidential election (this has occurred twice in the history of the United States, Elections of 1800 and 1824) Formation of Political Parties (see supporting document for greater detail) Federalist Party - Political party associated with Alexander Hamilton. Federalists supported Britain in its war against France. (Domestically, Federalists supported a strong federal government, a loose interpretation of the U.S. Constitution, a Bank of the United States, and revenue tariffs.) Democratic-Republican Party - Political party associated with Thomas Jefferson. Democratic-Republicans supported France in its war against Britain. (Domestically, Federalists supported states rights and a strict interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. They were opposed to a Bank of the United States and revenue tariffs.) International Issues for the United States and U.S. Foreign Policy ( ) French Revolution - Period of radical social and political change throughout Europe that began with an uprising against the King of France in ultimately the French Revolution grew into a global conflict lasting from that plagued the young United States while it was trying to grow as a fragile nation Proclamation of Neutrality, Without using the word neutrality, Washington proclaimed the U.S. would give no military support to the French in their war against Britain. At the time, the U.S. had a treaty of alliance with France stemming from the American Revolution. Washington did not formally repudiate that alliance but also did not adhere to it either. Jay s Treaty, Treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain that helped ensure American neutrality in the British-French war. - see supporting document for greater detail 17

18 XYZ Affair, American envoys to France were told that the U.S. would need to loan France money and bribe government officials as a precondition for meeting with French officials. This led to a Quasi-War between the U.S. and France that lasted until Toussaint L Ouverture - Leader of a slave rebellion on the French sugar island of St. Domingue in 1791 which led to the creation of the independent republic of Haiti in this successful rebellion inspired other slave rebellions throughout the Western Hemisphere American Women and the New Nation Republican Motherhood (see the end of Part 2 supporting evidence for greater detail) - A view of womanhood after the American Revolution that stressed the importance of women in raising children with republican virtues such as patriotism and honor. Mercy Otis Warren - Massachusetts playwright, poet, and historian who wrote some of the most popular and effective propaganda for the American cause during the American revolution. In 1805, she published the first history of the American Revolution. Abigail Adams - Wife of revolutionary leader John Adams who famously advised him to remember the ladies when the nation s leaders spoke of liberty and equality. - any true discussion of the evolution of women s rights in U.S. History starts with Abigail Adams Native Americans and the New Nation Chief Little Turtle - Indian chief who formed the Western Confederation in the Northwest territories and led his followers to many victories against U.S. forces in the 1790s. His forces were defeated at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, which led to the signing of the Treaty of Greenville. Battle of Fallen Timbers, Kentucky militia men defeated several Indian tribes, bringing an end to Indian resistance in the Northwest Territory Treaty of Greenville, The U.S. agreed to pay northwestern Indians for the land that later became the Great state of Ohio. Other Notable Items Hamilton s Financial Plan (4 parts) - Under President Washington, the Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, introduced policies to fund the federal debt at par (face value), federal assumption of state debts, and the use of a tariff (tax on imported goods) to generate revenue. Hamilton also established a first Bank of the United States. First Bank of the United States, privately owned bank that operated as both a commercial bank and fiscal agent for the U.S. government. Based in Philadelphia, the bank was granted a 20-year charter in 1791 by the U.S. Congress. - the U.S. government was obligated to deposit money in the bank until

19 Tariff (a tax on imported goods) Revenue Tariff - generally a revenue rate less than 20% Protective Tariff - generally a revenue rate more than 25% Whiskey Rebellion, A protest by grain farmers in western Pennsylvania against the federal excise tax on whiskey. Militia forces, personally led by President Washington, ended the uprising - when Washington speaks, people listen (another precedent set) Pinckey s Treaty, Treaty between the U.S. and Spain that defined the boundaries between the U.S. and Spanish colonies and granted the U.S. navigation rights on the Mississippi River - see supporting document for further detail Washington s Farewell Address - To announce his decision not to seek a third term as President, George Washington presented his Farewell Address in a newspaper article on September 17, among many things, Washington warned against the divisive nature of political parties and warned the nation to stay out of foreign entanglements Alien and Sedition Acts (see supporting document for greater detail) - law passed by the U.S. Congress during the Adams Administration that prevented immigrants from participating in politics (Alien Act) - law passed by the U.S. Congress during the Adams Administration to silence those who criticized the Federalist Party and the U.S. government (Sedition Act) Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (see supporting document for greater detail) - Statements authored secretly by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts. The Resolutions asserted the right of states to nullify federal legislation. - see Compact Theory and Nullification (pages 16-17) 19

Period 3: 1754 to 1800 (French and Indian War Election of Jefferson)

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