AP AMERICAN GOVERNMENT UNIT 5: GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS FRQ s

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1 AP AMERICAN GOVERNMENT UNIT 5: GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS FRQ s CONGRESS 1. Article I of the Constitution discusses the powers of Congress. a. Define the EACH of the following powers: Expressed Implied Non-legislative b. Give one example that Congress possesses for EACH of the following powers: Expressed Implied Non-legislative 2. The Supreme Court had to decide which Congressional powers were constitutional. a. Explain the issue in McCulloch v. Maryland. b. Explain how the ruling in McCulloch v. Maryland has affected the power of Congress. c. Identify the clause from the Constitution used by the Justices to justify their ruling in McCulloch v. Maryland. d. Identify TWO examples of power which Congress now possesses due to the outcome of McCulloch v. Maryland. 3. The founders put a major emphasis on the separation of powers when writing the Constitution. a. Define bicameral. b. Identify one house of Congress and identify one example of a power that it solely possesses. c. Identify another house of Congress and identify one example of a power that is solely possesses. 4. The congressional chambers have some differences from one another. a. Identify the number of members in EACH of the following: House of Representatives Senate b. Describe how state representation is based for EACH of the following: House of Representatives Senate c. Explain the role of the impeachment process for EACH of the following: House of Representatives Senate

2 AP Government: Unit 5 FRQ s Page 2 5. The House of Representatives is considered the lower house of Congress. a. Identify the following as they apply to House members: Term length Age requirement Citizen length requirement b. Identify the type of bill that must begin in the House of Representatives. c. Explain the role of reapportionment. 6. The Senate is considered the upper house of Congress. a. Identify the following as they apply to Senators: Term length Age requirement Citizen length requirement b. Explain why the Senate is referred to as a continuous body. c. Explain how the 17th amendment affected Senators. 7. Congressional demographics have changed over time. a. Identify the most likely characteristic of a Congress member for EACH of the following: Race Gender Age group Religion Profession (prior to election) b. Identify the chamber of Congress that is most diverse. c. Explain how Congress compares to the American public for EACH of the following: Income Education Polarization 8. Congress members have term limits. But there is no limit to how many times they can be elected. a. Define incumbent. b. Define each of the following: Marginal district Safe district c. Identify THREE incumbency advantages. 9. Congressional leaders exist in Congress. a. Identify the presiding leader of the House of Representatives. b. Identify the TWO presiding leaders of the Senate. c. Define majority leader. d. Define majority whip.

3 AP Government: Unit 5 FRQ s Page Congressional members reasoning for voting on bills varies. a. Define the following congressional voting theories: Representational Organizational Attitudinal b. Explain the most likely reason in which a congress member would vote based on their constituents desires. c. Identify one group that influences Congress members to vote certain ways on bills. 11. Committees is where real the work of Congress get done is often heard. a. Define the following types of committees: Standing Select (special) Joint Conference b. Identify the name (general name) of the standing committee which controls federal spending. 12. Some committees are seen as more important than others. a. Define EACH of the following rules of which the House Rules Committee could apply to bills: Closed Rule Open Rule b. Identify THREE committee options that could be decided by a legislative committee. 13. There are a lot of complicated things going on in committees that the average American knows nothing about. a. Identify the title of the person in charge of a committee. b. Explain the role of a subcommittee. c. Define rider. d. Identify the nickname for a bill with a lot of riders. e. Explain the purpose of a discharge petition. 14. Congress has different options for how they can hold votes on bills. a. Define quorum. b. Define EACH of the following voting methods: Voice vote Division vote Teller vote Roll-call vote

4 AP Government: Unit 5 FRQ s Page Congress member do not do all of the work themselves. a. Identify THREE roles that staffers fulfill in order to help congress members. b. Explain the purpose of EACH of the following staff agencies: Congressional Research Service (CRS) Government Accountability Office (GAO) Congressional Budget Office (CBO) c. Identify the primary reason for Congress has shifting from collegial to individual over time. 16. There are numerous kinds of bills and resolutions. a. Define bill. b. Define EACH of the following types of bills: Public bills Private bills c. Define EACH of the following resolutions: Joint resolution Concurrent resolution Simple resolution 17. Simple resolutions have been enacted in each house which has resulted in them behaving differently from one another. a. Define resolution (simple resolution) b. Identify two basic features of floor action. c. Define filibuster. d. Identify the process that ends a filibuster. e. Explain the process you identified in (D). 18. The framers of the constitution created a complicated system for creating laws because they were adamant about separating power. a. Identify who can propose a bill in the EACH of the following: House of Representatives Senate b. Identify TWO possible committee actions. c. Identify the TWO primary components of floor action. d. Define conference committee. 19. Congress writes the bills but they do not have the sole power to create law. a. Identify TWO ways for the President to pass a congressional bill into law. b. Identify TWO ways for the President to stop a congressional bill.

5 AP Government: Unit 5 FRQ s Page Congress has numerous checks on the Executive Branch and the Judicial Branch. a. Explain how Congress could check the power for EACH of the following executive actions: President vetoes a bill President appoints a judge or department head Department of State sets up a treaty Department enforces law other than Congress intended b. Identify TWO checks Congress has on the judicial branch which could be used if the Court constantly ruled that congressional laws as unconstitutional. c. Identify one check Congress has on officials in the executive branch and judicial branch that could be applied if they commit treason, bribery, or other high crimes. THE PRESIDENCY 21. Becoming the President of the United States comes with benefits but you must meet certain conditions in order to take office. a. Identify THREE presidential qualifications that can be found in the Constitution. b. Identify the current salary of a President. c. Identify one other presidential benefit. d. Identify what the President must acquire in order to receive a political party s official nomination. e. Identify how many electoral votes are required in order to win the presidency. 22. Constitutional amendments have changed the Presidency. a. Explain how EACH of the following amendments changed the constitution: 12th amendment (1804) 20th amendment (1933) 22nd amendment (1951) 23rd amendment (1961) 25th amendment (1967) 23. The President has a large salary. One could argue it it that he or she performs numerous jobs. a. Describe EACH of the following presidential roles which are found in the Constitution: Chief legislator Chief diplomat Commander-in-chief Chief of state Chief executive Chief administrator

6 AP Government: Unit 5 FRQ s Page The President has some powers that are found in Article II of the Constitution but some power has just grown organically rather than legally. a. Describe EACH of the following clemency powers which are found in the Constitution: Reprieve Pardon Commute Amnesty b. Describe EACH of the following presidential roles which are not found in the Constitution: Chief citizen Chief of Party 25. The Office of the President is segmented. a. Describe EACH of the following: White House Office The Executive Office of the President The Cabinet b. Give one example for EACH the following: A position in the White House Office An office in the Executive Office of the President a member of the Cabinet 26. The Executive Office of the President is really a collection of offices that perform various but important tasks. Presidents can choose how these offices are managed. a. Describe the purpose for EACH of the following offices: Office of Management and Budget National Security Council b. Define EACH of the following presidential management styles: Pyramid Circular Ad Hoc 27. On a long enough timeline, the survival rate for everyone drops to zero. a. Identify who would take over if the President died. b. Explain the replacement process which would take place if the Vice President died (as in only the Vice President died). c. Identify the top FOUR positions on the presidential line of succession.

7 AP Government: Unit 5 FRQ s Page The division of power in the United States can lead to different outcomes. a. Define EACH of the following: Unified government Divided government b. Describe the affect EACH of the following has on the passage of legislation: Unified government Divided government 29. The President is involved in the policy making process but there are also many obstacles. a. Define bully pulpit. b. Explain the President's role in the budget process. c. Define executive order. d. Identify THREE program restraints president's face. THE BUREAUCRACY 30. Although the bureaucracy is often spoken poorly of, it actually performs important functions. a. Define bureaucracy. b. Identify the branch of government the bureaucracy falls unders (regardless of the fact that some people call it the fourth branch of government). c. Identify the person that is in charge of the United States bureaucracy. d. Identify how the bureaucracy has changed over time. 31. The federal bureaucracy employees millions of Americans. a. Define bureaucrat. b. Define EACH of the following: Spoils system Merit system c. Explain how someone would be hired for EACH of these: Competitive Service Excepted Service 32. Some executive agencies are farther removed from the President. a. Describe EACH of the following: Independent Executive Agency Independent Regulatory Commission Government Corporation b. Identify one example for EACH of the following independent agencies: Independent Executive Agency Independent Regulatory Commission Government Corporation

8 AP Government: Unit 5 FRQ s Page The federal bureaucracy is made up of numerous offices, departments, and agencies. a. Identify one example of an office within the Executive Office of the President. b. Identify a department. c. Identify an agency that falls under the department you selected for (B). d. Identify another department. e. Identify an agency that falls under the department you selected for (D). 34. Independent agencies are farther removed from the President. a. Define government corporation. b. Identify an independent regulatory commission. c. Explain the commission you selected in (B) has EACH of the following: Quasi-legislative power Quasi-judicial power d. Define administrative discretion (discretionary authority). 35. Bureaucratic pathologies (cause for disease) are often discussed by Americans. a. Define EACH of the following: Red tape Conflict Duplication Imperialism Waste 36. The separation of powers cannot stop special relationships from forming. a. Define iron triangle. b. Explain a specific iron triangle which includes THREE exchanges of benefits. c. Identify something which has broken the power of iron triangles. 37. The power of the bureaucracy is checked by the branches of the government. a. Identify TWO ways the President has control over the Bureaucracy. b. Identify TWO ways Congress has control over the Bureaucracy. c. Identify TWO ways the Judicial Branch has control over the Bureaucracy. 38. Congressional oversight gives Congress a lot of control over the bureaucracy. a. Identify THREE ways congressional oversight can limit bureaucratic agencies. b. Identify TWO ways congressional oversight can limit bureaucrats. MORE ON NEXT PAGE

9 AP Government: Unit 5 FRQ s Page 9 THE JUDICIARY 39. The are different types of cases and different sorts of laws. a. Define EACH of the following types of cases: Civil cases Criminal cases b. Define EACH of the following types of laws: Statutory law Administrative law Constitutional law 40. Federalism in the United States leads to a complicated court system. a. Define jurisdiction. b. Identify the TWO areas of government of which the dual court system is referring to. c. Identify TWO examples of exclusive federal jurisdiction. 41. The Judiciary Act of 1789 established a three-tiered structure court system. a. Define jurisdiction. b. Identify the type of jurisdiction for EACH layer of federal court: District courts Court of Appeals (Circuit courts) Supreme Court 42. The power of the Supreme Court has changed over time. a. Define judicial review. b. Identify the case in which judicial review was established. c. Define selective incorporation. d. Identify the amendment used to justify selective incorporation. e. Identify the clause used to to justify selective incorporation. 43. The Supreme court has final say on interpreting cases but only if the case makes it through. a. Define EACH of the following terms: Petition for certiorari Rule of four Writ of certiorari b. Identify how the justices decide who wins a case. 44. The Judicial Branch is influenced from both outside and inside of the government. a. Explain how EACH of the following influence the Supreme Court. Amicus curiae briefs Clerks b. Identify TWO ways Congress can check the power of the judicial branch. c. Identify TWO ways the Executive Branch can check the power of the judicial branch.

10 AP Government: Unit 5 FRQ s Page The Supreme Court writes numerous opinions depending on the outcome of the case. a. Define EACH of the following opinions: Per curiam Opinion Opinion of the Court Concurring opinion Dissenting opinion 46. Supreme Court justices are human being with political values and their beliefs on how far the Supreme Court can exert it s power. a. Define EACH of the following: Judicial activism Judicial restraint b. Identify how judicial liberals view the necessary and proper clause. c. Identify how judicial conservatives view the necessary and proper clause.

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