CIS Political Science Chapter 11. Legislative Branch: Congress. Mr. Makela. St. Clair High School. University of Minnesota

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1 CIS Political Science Chapter 11 Legislative Branch: Congress Mr. Makela St. Clair High School University of Minnesota

2 The Origin and Powers of Congress Bicameral problems w/ Representation (Great Compromise) Checks and balances Representation 535 members in Congress (Wash. DC does not vote) House of Representatives Based on population 435 members (plus 3 members w/ DC) At least 1 representative per state Senate Equal representation 100 members (2 per state) Reappointment every 10 years House may give/take representation every 10 years (after census count)

3 The Origin and Powers of Congress Terms and Qualifications House of Representatives 2 year term (all 435) 25 yrs old Citizen for 7 yrs Resident of their district they represent Senate 6 year term (1/3 elected every 2 yrs) 30 yrs old Citizen for 9 yrs Resident of the state they represent

4 The Origin and Powers of Congress House of Representatives Originates revenue bills The House impeaches a President Has power of impeachment: Senate the formal charging of a government official with treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors Votes to convict impeached President or other officials (has a trial) Must approve major presidential appointments Sole power to affirm treaties with other countries In 1913 the Senate was to be determine by the popular vote---before this, it was state legislatures which voted for their senators

5 The Incumbency Effect Incumbent: a current officeholder Incumbents have a very high reelection rate Yet the public does not hold Congress in very high esteem Voters seem only to be satisfied with their own representatives

6 Gerrymandering: redrawing a congressional district to intentionally benefit one party Politics drives this ideology of redistricting Contributes to the increasing pattern of polarization between the two parties

7 When it comes to ethics and honesty, here s how careers rank. Least Trusted Positions: (April 2013 Gallup Poll) 10. Business Executives 9. State Governors 8. Lawyers 7. Insurance Salespeople 6. Senators 5. HMO Managers 4. Stockbrokers 3. Advertising Executives 2. Members of Congress 1. Car Salespeople The Most Trusted Professions: 10. Chiropractors 9. Psychiatrists 8. Clergy 7. College Teachers 6. Police Officers 5. Dentists 4. Engineers 3. Medical doctors 2. Pharmacists 1. Nurses

8 Name Recognition Recognition increased by being member of Congress Franking privilege: the right to send mail free of charge to their constituents

9 Whom Do We Elect? Most members of Congress are professionals (generally lawyers and businesspeople) Women and minorities have long been underrepresented, but numbers are increasing

10 WHOM DO WE ELECT? Racial gerrymandering: the drawing of legislative districts to maximize the chance that a minority candidate will win election Shaw v. Reno (1993) deemed racial gerrymandering unconstitutional North Carolina case Supreme Court modified this position in 2001, saying race could be a consideration in drawing congressional districts

11 1. Levy taxes 2. Borrow money 3. Regulate commerce and trade with foreign nations/interstates 4. Coin money 5. Issue patents & copyrights 6. Declares War 7. Regulate bankruptcies 8. Regulates Naturalization 9. Establish postal system 10. Establish federal courts 11. Administers copyright/patents 12. Wars Powers Act Acquires/Disposal/Manages territories 14.Create/maintain/rules for armed forces

12 A. Elect President (House) & Vice-President (Senate) if Electoral College has no majority winner B. Propose amendments to the U.S. Constitution C. Confirm appointments and treaties made by the President (Senate) D. Admit new states to the Union E. Bring Impeachment charges (House) F. Try impeachment cases (Senate)

13 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

14 Watch 2 Videos on how a Bill becomes a Law Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

15 The Dance of Legislation: An Overview Introduction Assigned to committee Assigned to subcommittee Subcommittee may hold hearings; bill is modified or revised; if passed is sent to full committee Bill approved by full committee is reported to the entire chamber Chamber may debate, amend, and pass or defeat Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

16 The Dance of Legislation: An Overview Bills coming out of House committees go to Rules committee Rules committee attaches rule to the bill that governs floor debate On major legislation, rules can be complex Senate does not have comparable committee Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

17 The Dance of Legislation: An Overview Senate and House versions have to be reconciled by conference committee Compromise version has to go to both houses for a vote If both chambers approve, bill goes to president Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

18 The Dance of Legislation: An Overview President s action Sign it or.. Veto: president s disapproval of a bill that has been passed by both houses of Congress; can be overridden by a 2/3 vote in each house If the President neither signs nor vetoes within 10 days a bill becomes law Neither sign nor veto within 10 days but Congress adjourns pocket veto Content of bill can be changed at any time in legislative process Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

19 Committees: The Workhorses of Congress Committee Types Standing : a permanent congressional committee that specializes in a particular policy area Joint: a committee made up of members of both the House and the Senate Select: a temporary congressional committee created for a specific purpose and disbanded after that purpose is fulfilled Watergate Conference: a temporary committee created to work out differences between the House and Senate versions of a specific piece of legislation

20 Standing Committees in the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Appropriations Armed Services Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Budget Commerce, Science, and Transportation Energy and Natural Resources Environment and Public Works Finance Foreign Relations Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Judiciary Rules and Administration Small Business and Entrepreneurship Veterans' Affairs

21 Congressional Expertise and Seniority Influence on committees grows formally with seniority: years of consecutive service on a particular congressional committee Senior member of the majority party usually becomes the committee chair, though this has weakened considerably since Congress established term limits for chairs

22 Senate Pro Tempore Patrick Leahy from Vermont (D) Elected to this position by political party in charge of the Senate This position is 4 th in line to become President of the U.S.A. Salary $217,400 This is the longest serving Congressman in the political party Senator Leahy has been a senator since 1975

23 Committees: The Workhorses of Congress Oversight: the process of reviewing the operations of an agency to determine whether it is carrying out policies as Congress intended Oversight has become more difficult in the 21 st century Why? Laws and regulations are written every week

24 The House of Representatives Speaker of the House: the presiding officer of the House of Representatives Most powerful position in the House Majority leader Majority whip Minority leader Minority whip The Senate Vice President is the president of the Senate, but he rarely visits the chamber Majority party elects president pro tempore - honorary position Majority leader: the head of the majority party in the Senate and most powerful person in the U.S. Senate Minority leader

25 PRESIDENT OF THE U.S. SENATE Joe Biden (D) Also the Vice President--Elect of the United States Only votes in the Senate when there is a tie vote Salary $ 223,500 Presiding officer in the Senate but traditionally passes all responsibility to the Senate Majority Leader

26 Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid from Nevada (D) Elected to this position by political party in charge of the Senate Chief Spokesperson for the political party in charge of the Senate Salary $193,400 In charge of the schedule & business in the Senate

27 Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell from Kentucky (R) Elected to this position by political party NOT in charge of the Senate Chief Spokesperson for the political party in the Senate They must talk with Majority Leader to schedule discussions & bills for the U.S. Senate Salary $193,400

28 Leaders Today: House of Representatives Speaker of the House Representatives John Boehner from Ohio (R) Elected to this position by political party in charge the House of Reps This position is 3 rd in line to become President of the USA Chief Spokesperson for the political party in the House of Reps and is the 61 st Speaker of the House Salary $223,500 In charge of the schedule & business in the House of Reps

29 Majority Leader Eric Cantor from Virginia (R) Elected to this position by political party in charge of the House of Reps Salary $193,400 Traditionally works closely with the Speaker of the House of Reps

30 Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi from California (D) Elected to this position by political party NOT in charge of the House of Reps Salary $193,400 Chief Spokesperson for the political party in the House of Reps Talks with Majority Leader to schedule discussions & bills for the House of Reps

31 Rules of Procedure Floor debate House: Rules Committee governs floor debate may only talk up to one hour without unanimous consent Senate: Debate governed by unanimous consent agreement time and length but they may: Filibuster: a delaying tactic, used in the Senate, that involves speechmaking to prevent action on a piece of legislation Cloture: the mechanism by which a filibuster is cut off in the Senate 60 votes required Unwritten codes of behavior to keep things running Members show respect for their colleagues Members should be willing to bargain with one another Some norms have changed in recent years Junior senators and new House reps want on committees

32 The Legislative Environment Constituents: people who live and vote in a government official s district Members have to think about what the voters at home want But is it in the best interest of the country? Or the best interest to get re-elected?

33 Members of Congress live in two worlds Washington: dealing with great issues of national concern Back in the district or state: meeting with constituents, giving speeches to local groups Legislators work hard to keep in touch with constituents

34 Trustee: Votes according to conscience Supports Majoritarianism Delegate: Votes according to constituents wishes Supports Pluralism Partisan: Votes the party line

35 Pluralism vs. Majoritarianism in Congress Congress s inability to reduce the budget deficit reflects a problem with spending control. What s the problem? Earmarks: funds appropriated by Congress for use on local projects Growing partisanship represents trend toward majoritarianism Are Tea Party members supporting Pluralism? No question yes. They are listening to their people who elected them. Is this causing problems in Washington?

36 End of Chapter 11 PP Notes Remember to do your reading with pages for this chapter Sources Janda Textbook: 10 th edition Dale Anderson: Shakopee HS Photos: Google Images Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

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