Democratic Republican Era

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1 Democratic Republican Era Thomas Jefferson s Administration James Madison s Administration James Monroe s Administration Jefferson Madison Monroe Following the election of 1800, the Democratic Republicans took power for the next 25 years Also known as the Virginia Dynasty

2 The Era of Good Feelings? ( ) Political differences seemed to disappear, which caused a Boston newspaper to coin this time in American history as The Era of Good Feelings. The period following the War of 1812 was marked by an absence of political parties in the United States. This helped forge a sense of national unity. Upon President Monroe s visit to Boston, there seems to be a sense of an Era of Good Feelings. Benjamin Russell, Columbian Centinel

3 The Election of 1816 [The Demise of the Federalist Party!] In the election of 1816, James Monroe faced almost no opposition. The Democratic- Republicans nominated James Monroe of Virginia. The Federalists nominated Rufus King. Monroe won the election by an overwhelming majority. I m related to David Crosby

4 James Monroe [ ] Monroe s Programs a high tariff to protect American industries a national bank internal improvements -roads and canals-in the United States

5 Monroe s s Cabinet Quincy Adams perhaps the best? Secretary of State John Quincy Adams A bulldog among spaniels Secretary of Treasury William Crawford Secretary of War John C. Calhoun Crawford Calhoun

6 The Convention of 1818 In the years following the War of 1812, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and President James Monroe moved to resolve long-standing disputes with Great Britain. In the Convention of 1818, the United States and Great Britain set the official boundary between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel.

7 The West & the NW: Adams also gained the right to settle in the Oregon Country.

8 The Fight for Florida Spain claimed that she owned East and West Florida. The United States, however, contented that West Florida was part of the Louisiana Purchase. In 1810 to 1812, Americans added West Florida to the states of Louisiana.

9 President s Orders President Monroe instructed Jackson to lead a campaign in Georgia against the Seminole Indian raids. Jackson believed the only way to secure Georgia was to take Florida. "Let it be signified to me through any channel... that the possession of the Floridas would be desirable to the United States, and in sixty days it will be accomplished. Mr. Jackson I will give you orders that were purposely ambiguous, sufficient for international denials so I don t take the blame. "Let it be signified to me through any channel... that the possession of the Floridas would be desirable to the United States, and in sixty days it will be accomplished.

10 Court Martial General Jackson? In April 1818, General Andrew Jackson invaded East Florida and captured two Spanish forts. He had been instructed to stop Seminole raids on American territory from Florida. In capturing the forts, however, Jackson went beyond his instructions and hanged two British officers. (this is in Spanish territory, an act of defiance in their land) WAR! Luis de Onis, the Spanish minister to the United States, demanded the punishment of Jackson and his officers. Secretary of War John Calhoun and most of President Monroe s cabinet suggested that Jackson be court-martialed. John Quincy Adams disagreed.

11 Quincy Adams Response "Spain must immediately [decide] either to place a force in Florida adequate at once to the protection of her territory... or cede to the United States a province, of which she retains nothing but the nominal possession, but which is, in fact... a post of annoyance to them." Quincy Adams used Jackson's conquest, and Spain's own weakness, to get Spain to cede Florida to the United States by the Adams-Onis Treaty. Jackson was subsequently named military governor and served from March 10, 1821, to December 31, 1821! (Instead of being hanged)!

12 Adams-Onis Treaty, 1819 [ The Transcontinental Treaty ] Spain was having troubles in South America, and Adams figured that the Spanish give up its claim in Florida. Adams was right. In 1819, the United States and Great Britain signed the Adams- Onis treaty. The United States purchased all of Florida for five million dollars. The two countries also agreed between the United States and Spanish possessions in the West. The border extended northwest from the Gulf of Mexico to the 42nd parallel and then west to the Pacific, giving the United States a large piece of territory in the Pacific Northwest.

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14 The American System Henry Clay, The Great Compromiser Tariff of 1816 Chartering of the Second Bank of the United States [BUS]. Internal improvements at federal expense. - National Road In an 1824 speech, Henry Clay proposed the American System to benefit all sections of the United States. The American System included a protective tariff to stimulate the growth of the nation s industries; a program of internal improvements, especially the building of roads and canals, to stimulate trade; and a national bank to promote one currency throughout the nation and to lend money to build developing industries.

15 A New Form of Federalism Support for a high tariff to protect American industries and generate revenue for the federal government Maintenance of high public land prices to generate federal revenue Preservation of the Bank of the United States to stabilize the currency and rein in risky state and local banks Development of a system of internal improvements (such as roads and canals) which would knit the nation together and be financed by the tariff and land sales revenues

16 This 1831 cartoon ridiculing Clay's American System depicts monkeys, labeled as being different parts of a nation's economy, stealing each other's resources (food) with commentators describing it as either great or a humbug.

17 Critics of the American System WEST got roads, canals, and federal aide. EAST got the backing of protective tariffs from the West SOUTH?? Not everyone, however, saw Clay s program in such a positive way. Former president Thomas Jefferson and many people in the South believed the American System favored the wealthy manufacturing classes in New England.

18 The Tariff of 1816 Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, who served in both houses of Congress, opposed a high tariff, which would protect American industries from foreign competition. Daniel Webster gained fame as one of the best orators, or public speakers, of his time. Higher taxes at the expense of free trade At this time it was Great Britain flooding our markets, not CHINA! The tariff's "great object was to raise revenue, not to foster manufacture," and that it was against "the true spirit of the Constitution" to give "excessive bounties or encouragements to one [industry] over another." Daniel Webster

19 A Second Bank of the United States A Second Bank of the United States to provide sound currency and free the government from having to borrow from many different banks Not chartered in 1811 because of the War of 1812; re-chartered in 1816 for another 20 years. Ironically, many of the Congressmen who voted against the First National Bank, voted for the Second National Bank!

20 Organization of the Bank Not really a national bank, because it was independent from the federal government (privately held banking corporation) It helped the federal government maintain its finances It also helped lend money to citizens for speculation of land Created a money bubble in the economy from post War of 1812 to 1833

21 National [Cumberland] Road The different regions disagreed on the need for tariffs, a national bank, and internal improvements. Internal improvements were federal, state, and privately funded projects, such as canals and roads, to develop the nation s transportation system.

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23 John Loudon McAdam, 1823

24 The Erie Canal E Despite the lack of federal support, in 1817, New York began one of the most ambitious transportation projects of the era finished in E 363 miles Albany to Buffalo. The Hudson River to the Albany River E Much farther than any other American or European canal.

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26 The Industrial Revolution A shift to machine production and manufacturing, which began in Great Britain in the mid-1700 s with the invention of new spinning machines (tried to keep their new technology secret) Mass production manufacturing large quantities of goods Samuel Slater came to the United States and financed the construction of the first spinning mill Eli Whitney interchangeable parts in the manufacturing of firearms and the Cotton Gin

27 The Panic of 1819 CAUSES??? Late in 1818, the Second Bank of the United States ordered state banks to demand repayment of all loans. Also required state banks to exchange notes with gold and silver Few banks could do this and resulted in the Panic of 1819, a chain reaction of bank failures, falling land prices,, and foreclosures Economic depression for next several years

28 Sectionalism and States Rights The United States Supreme Court also became involved in sectional and states rights issues at this time. The state of Maryland imposed a tax on the Baltimore branch of the Second Bank of the United States-a federal institution. The Bank of the United States refused to pay the state tax, and the case, McCullough v. Maryland, reached the Supreme Court in 1819.

29 McCullough v. Maryland Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Maryland had no right to tax the Bank because it was a federal institution. He argued that the Constitution and the federal government received their authority directly from the people, and not state governments. Necessary and Proper. The states had no right to interfere with the Bank. "If any one proposition could command the universal assent of mankind, we might expect it would be this that the government of the Union, though limited in its power, is supreme within its sphere of action."

30 James Monroe won reelection in 1820, winning all but one of the electoral votes. However, the Era of Good Feeling did not last very long. By the time Monroe s administration came to an end, regional differences surfaced, ending the period of national harmony. As a result, most Americans felt a strong allegiance to the region where they lived. This sectionalism, or loyalty to a region, became more intense as differences arose over national policies. The Election of 1820

31 The Compromise of 1820: A Fire bell in the Night! Sectional tensions increased over the issue of admitting new states into the Union. The problem revolved around the question of slavery. The South wanted Missouri, a part of the Louisiana Territory, admitted as a slave state. Northerners wanted Missouri to be a free state.

32 Missouri Compromise Eventually, after much debate, Henry Clay of Kentucky worked out a agreement called the Missouri Compromise. In March 1820, the Missouri Compromise provided for the admission of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. This agreement banned slavery in the remainder of the Louisiana Territory north of the 36 degrees 30 parallel....but this momentous question, like a fire bell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at once as the knell of the Union. it is hushed indeed for the moment. but this is a reprieve only, not a final sentence. a geographical line, coinciding with a marked principle, moral and political, once conceived and held up to the angry passions of men, will never be obliterated; and every new irritation will mark it deeper and deeper. Thomas Jefferson

33 The Tallmadge Amendment All slaves born in Missouri after the territory became a state would be free at the age of 25. Passed by the House, not in the Senate. The North controlled the House, and the South had enough power to block it in the Senate.

34 The Monroe Doctrine, 1823 Referred to as America s Self-Defense Doctrine 1. What foreign policy principles are established? Monroe Doctrine 2. What warning is given to the European countries? 3. What would the US do if the warning was not headed?

35 A President s Message On December 2, 1823, President James Monroe proclaimed the Monroe Doctrine in his Seventh Annual Message to Congress, to put an end to further European intervention in South America. This pronouncement had a dual origin and a dual purpose. First, it resulted from Russia s attempt to increase her control along the northwest coast of America. Second, the doctrine was provoked by the fear of European interference in South America to assist Spain in the recovery of her Latin American colonies, and gave warning against any such intervention.

36 A Joint Declaration? Matters relating to Spanish America were first discussed in a conference between the American minister to London, Richard Rush, and the British Foreign Secretary, George Canning. The British secretary suggested the issuance of a joint declaration by any foreign power in South America. President Monroe, after reviewing Canning s proposals, called upon his cabinet for consideration of the British overtures. After much debate, President James Monroe issued a unilateral statement to curtail the European menace offered in the Western Hemisphere. Everyone in Monroe s cabinet supported a joint declaration, everyone but one person, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams.

37 An Unilateral Declaration The occasion has been judged proper for asserting, as a principle in which the rights and interests of the United States are involved, that the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.... James Monroe, Address to Congress, December 2, 1823 (with the help of JQA)

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