Quarter One: Unit Four

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1 SS.7.C.1.5 Articles of Confederation ****At the end of this lesson, I will be able to do the following: Students will identify the weaknesses of the government under the Articles of Confederation (i.e., Congress had no power to tax, to regulate trade, or to enforce its laws; the national government lacked a national court system [judicial branch] and central leadership [executive branch]; and changes to the Articles required unanimous consent of the 13 states). **** Terms I need to know at the end of this lesson. Articles of Confederation (weaknesses) Shay s Rebellion Debt Key Events: Year Event 1775 Revolutionary War begins (the 13 Colonies revolt against the British) Constitutional Convention 1776 Declaration of Independence written and approved by the Continental Congress 1781 Ratification of the Articles of Confederation by all 13 states March 1, The Articles created a loose confederation of independent states and a weak central government, leaving most of the power with the state governments Revolutionary War Ends Britain recognizes the independence of the USA (Treaty of Paris) US Constitution written at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, PA [May 25 - Sept. 17] US Constitution ratified by 9 states [June 22] and becomes the supreme law of the USA Critical Background Information: Mark the text with a purpose! (NUMBER PARAGRAPHS) 1. The core parts of the Articles of Confederation The first government of the United States following the Declaration of Independence was the Articles of Confederation ( ). A confederation is a statecentered, form of government where the power is held at the state level. The Declaration of Independence spoke of the many abuses of King George III, who, as a king ruled over the executive, legislative and judicial powers of the government in the colonies. In the Declaration, Thomas Jefferson stated that both King George III and the form of government in place at the time both failed to protect the colonists life, liberty and pursuit of happiness..aka natural rights. What did John Locke say that citizens could do if their government did not protect their rights? The colonists decided to create a government that was quite different from a unitary system where the powers of government were concentrated in a single person, the king. This confederal system reflected the colonists fear of a powerful central government or a king that held all the power. Under the Articles of Confederation, states kept their freedom and independence. Each of the 13 states had a vote in the weak national Congress (appointed by the state governments), a unanimous vote of all 13 states was required for the Articles to be amended. That was difficult when each state was looking out for 1

2 themselves. The national Congress was also denied the power to tax, so it could not pay for the army and navy needed to defend the nation. The national Congress also lacked the power to regulate trade. As for the other powers of government, there was no national court system nor was there a national executive. The result of this system was that each state acted in many ways as an independent country. The lack of a national court system meant that criminals committing crimes in one state would often flee to another state where they could not be punished. Without a national military, states that were attacked from outside forces or from inside forces (like a rebellion) could not turn to the national government for support or resources for their defense. The result of these state actions was that the states, despite being part of the same country, did not function as a nation. For instance, fears emerged that the 13 states functioning as independent countries would make the nation vulnerable to attack by Spain, France, by Native Americans. Responding to Shay s Rebellion Shay s Rebellion was a citizen rebellion that began in Two thousand western Massachusetts farmers marched on county courthouses to prevent their homes and land from being foreclosed upon and taken from them. The farmers land was threatened with foreclosure because they were assured that they did not have to pay taxes and other debts on their land during the Revolutionary War. These promises were not kept, which prompted the farmers to revolt. Congress would not respond because it was too weak and did not collect federal taxes therefore it did not have its own army. Shay s Rebellion made it very clear that big changes needed to be made. The federal government needed the power to collect taxes to be able to form a United States military. **What did Shay s Rebellion make obvious? The lack of a weak national Congress along with each state s independent and often conflicting actions, raised concerns that the Articles of Confederation were not designed in a way to protect the new nation. The Articles of Confederation definitely did not UNITE the states. In February 1787, Alexander Hamilton called for a constitutional convention, a Meeting of Commissioners to Remedy Defects of the Federal Government to take place the following May. The original purpose was to amend or tweak the Articles of Confederation. In May 1787, 12 of the 13 states met in Philadelphia, PA for this purpose. It became apparent that tweaking the Articles of Confederation would not do and the outcome of the Constitutional Convention was the U.S. Constitution which was completed on September 17, 1787 and sent to the states for their review and ratification or approval. Purpose ***Why did they meet at the Constitutional Convention? ***What was the outcome of the Constitutional Convention? Outcome 2

3 SS.7.C.1.5 Articles of Confederation Triple D! Define Describe Draw Word/Term Articles of Confederation Paragraph # in the reading Definition/Describe/Draw Define: Describe in your own words: Draw: Confederation (or confederal system of government) Define: Describe in your own words: Draw: Weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation Define: Describe in your own words: Draw: 3

4 Constitutional Convention Define: Describe in your own words: Draw: debt Define: Describe in your own words: Draw: Shay s Rebellion Define: Describe in your own words: Draw: 4

5 SS.7.C.1.5 Constitution Fixes Weakness in Articles of Confederation 1. There was no central leadership (executive branch) 2. Congress had no power to tax 3. Congress had no power to regulate trade 4. The national government lacked a national court system (judicial branch) 5. Changes to the Articles required unanimous consent of the 13 states. 6. Congress Excerpts had no power of the to enforce U.S. Constitution its laws Directions: Below are six excerpts from the U.S. Constitution. Summarize the excerpts in your own words. Then, compare the excerpt to the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and determine which weakness is related to the excerpt. US Constitution: Article I, Section 8: The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts, and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the Unites States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States. What does this mean? Which weakness does this fix? US Constitution: Article I, Section 8: The Congress shall have Power To regulate Commerce foreign Nations, and among the several States What does this mean? Which weakness does this fix? US Constitution: Article II, Section 3:.he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed What does this mean? Which weakness does this fix? US Constitution: Article III, Section 1: The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. What does this mean? Which weakness does this fix? US Constitution: Article II, Section 1: The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. What does this mean? Which weakness does this fix? US Constitution: Article V: The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution What does this mean? Which weakness does this fix? 5

6 NOTES: 6

7 SS.7.C.1.6 Preamble Introduction and Unscramble the Preamble ****At the end of this lesson, I will be able to do the following: Students will explain how the Preamble serves as an introduction to the U.S. Constitution, establishing the goals and purposes of government. Students will identify the SIX goals and purposes of government as set forth in the Preamble of the U.S. Constitution (i.e., 1. form a more perfect union, 2. establish justice, 3. ensure domestic tranquility, 4. provide for the common defense, 5. promote the general welfare, and 6. secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity). Students will recognize that the intention of the phrase We the People means that government depends on the people for its power and exists to serve them. **** Terms I need to know at the end of this lesson. Union Justice Domestic Tranquility Welfare Posterity Ordain Defense The Preamble of the U.S. Constitution We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. What is a synonym for preamble? Following are some words that will help you UNSCRAMBLE the PREAMBLE: 1. union something formed by combining 6. defense method of protecting oneself parts, such as states into one country 2. justice a system of establishing what is 7. welfare well-being legal and illegal by fair rules, legal system 3. insure ensure, to make sure 8. future generations posterity 4. domestic referring to something at home, not 9. ordain to establish something by law foreign, within the country 5. tranquility peace 10. liberty Freedom from, independence Circle the text from this statement that answers the question: Where does the government s power come from? We the People of the United States do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America 7

8 What are the goals and purposes of government? Translate the goals and purposes of government. List the goals and purposes of government: Translate the goals and purposes of government: 8

9 SS.7.C.1.8 Federalists and Anti-Federalists We need a strong central government! We need a bill of rights! ****At the end of this lesson, I will be able to do the following: identify the viewpoints of the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists about the ratification of the U.S. Constitution. compare the viewpoints of the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists about the ratification of the U.S. Constitution. recognize the Anti-Federalists reasons for the inclusion of a bill of rights in the U.S. Constitution. **** Terms I need to know at the end of this lesson. Federalist Viewpoints Federalist Papers Anti-Federalist Viewpoints Anti-Federalist Papers Bill of Rights Ratification Background Reading: Mark the text with a purpose! During the period from the drafting and proposal of the Constitution between May and September, 1787, to its ratification or approval in 1788 there was an intense debate on ratification. During this period, people basically divided into two groups, the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists. People opposed to the ratification of the Constitution were called the Anti-Federalists. They were concerned that the Constitution gave too much power to the federal, or national, government at the expense of the state governments. They were also concerned that, within the federal government, the legislative and executive branches were too powerful. Specifically, the Anti-Federalists were concerned that the necessary and proper clause in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution, which allows Congress to do what it believes is necessary and proper in order to carry out its other responsibilities, was too broad and would give Congress too much power. Anti-Federalists were also concerned that the Constitution lacked a specific listing of rights or a bill of rights. They believed that a bill of rights was essential to protect the people from the federal government. The Revolutionary War had just been fought because the American people needed to defend their rights. With the war experience still in mind, the Anti-Federalists did not want a powerful national government taking away those rights. The lack of a bill of rights became the focus of the Anti-Federalist campaign against ratification. To communicate their concerns, Anti-Federalists such as Patrick Henry wrote essays and newspaper articles to spread their point of view and these writings became known as the Anti-Federalist Papers. Other Anti- Federalists were George Mason and Thomas Jefferson. 9

10 The supporters of the proposed Constitution called themselves Federalists. For the Federalists, the Constitution was necessary in order to protect the liberty and independence that was gained from the American Revolution. The main arguments in favor of ratifying the Constitution were stated in a series of essays published in newspapers written by James Madison, George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay called the Federalist Papers. They believed that the three branches of the national government separated the powers and protected the rights of the people. Each branch represents a different aspect of the people, and because all three branches are equal, no one group can assume control over another. They also believed that a listing of rights can be a dangerous thing. If the federal government were to protect specific listed rights, what would stop it from violating or abusing rights that were not listed? Since they cannot list all the rights, the Federalists argued that it is better to list no rights at all. Overall, the Federalists were more organized in their efforts. By June of 1788, the Constitution was close to ratification. Nine states had voted to ratify it (eight voted yes and New York at first voted no ), and only one more (New Hampshire) was needed. To achieve this, the Federalists agreed that once Congress met, it would draft a bill of rights. Finally, New York and Virginia approved, and the Constitution was a reality. Interestingly, the Bill of Rights (1 st Ten Amendments) was not originally a part of the Constitution, and yet it has proved to be highly important to protecting the rights of the people. Bill of Rights Video: Take Notes from reading and video: Federalist Anti- Federalist Beliefs 10

11 People What papers did they write? View Points of the Federalist and Anti Federalist From the video and the background reading tell me what you know. Question: Answer in a complete, well-developed sentence. What were the Federalist viewpoints? Who were some Federalists? What were the Federalist papers? What were the Anti-Federalist viewpoints? Who were some Anti-Federalists? What were the Anti-Federalist papers? What is the Bill of Rights? What does ratification mean? Paragraph # 11

12 SS.7.C.1.7 Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances ****At the end of this lesson, I will be able to do the following: Students will explain the concept of limited government as set forth in the U.S. Constitution. Students will describe and distinguish between the concepts of separation of powers and checks and balances. Students will analyze how government power is limited by separation of powers and/or checks and balances. Students will be able to recognize examples of separation of powers and checks and balances. **** Terms I need to know at the end of this lesson. Limited Government Separation of Powers Checks and Balances Constitutional Government ************************************************************************************* The framers of the Constitution feared too much centralized power. Therefore at the national level, they created three different branches of government to administer three different types of power. (Which Enlightenment thinker came up with this idea? ) The legislative branch made the laws through a Congress of two houses, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The executive branch enforced the laws through a president and many advisors called cabinet members. And the judicial branch interpreted the laws through a Supreme Court and other lower courts. In the words of James Madison: The accumulation of all powers, legislative, executive, and judiciary, in the same hands, whether of one, a few, or many, and whether hereditary, self-appointed, or elective, may justly be pronounced the very definition of tyranny. (What does Madison mean? ) Within the separation of powers, each of the three branches of government has checks and balances over the other two. For instance, Congress makes the laws, but the President can veto them and the Supreme Court can declare them unconstitutional. The President enforces the law, but Congress must approve executive appointments and the Supreme Court rules whether executive action is constitutional. The Supreme Court can strike down actions by both the legislative and executive branches, but the President nominates Supreme Court justices and the Senate confirms or denies their nominations. ************************************************************************************* Complete: The legislative branch is made up of, comprised of the House of and the. The executive branch is made up of the and his. The judicial branch is made up of the and lower federal courts. 12

13 SS.7.C.3.3 Structure of the US Constitution PREAMBLE (Introduction) the six goals and purposes of government ARTICLE I - Establishes the Legislative Branch (House of Representatives and the Senate). This branch makes laws ARTICLE II - Establishes the Executive Branch (headed by the President). This branch enforces laws ARTICLE III - Establishes the Judicial Branch (a system of courts and judges). This branch interprets laws ARTICLE IV - Establishes the relationship between the states and the federal government. Describes how to admit new states to the Union. ARTICLE V - Describes how to amend the Constitution. ARTICLE VI - Establishes the Constitution as the supreme law of the USA. Authorizes the national debt (Congress can borrow money). Public officials must take an oath to support the Constitution. ARTICLE VII - Lists the requirements for ratification of the Constitution. AMENDMENTS 1-27 (1-10 THE BILL OF RIGHTS) Complete 13

14 SS.7.C.3.5 The Amendment Process ****At the end of this lesson, I will be able to do the following: recognize the methods used to propose and ratify amendments to the U.S. Constitution. identify the correct sequence of each amendment process. identify the importance of a formal amendment process. recognize the significance of the difficulty of formally amending the U.S. Constitution. **** Terms I need to know at the end of this lesson. Amendment Process Caucus Ratify Amending the U.S. Constitution Article V (FIVE) of the U.S. Constitution outlines two methods for introducing amendments to the U.S. Constitution. One method of amending the Constitution is for 2/3 of each house of CONGRESS (287 of the 435-member House of Representatives, and 66 of the 100 Senators. That is a total of 353!) to pass a proposed amendment and send it to the states legislatures. It takes 3/4 (38) states approval of the amendment in order for it to be added to the Constitution What is Congress? ****We the People do not directly vote on new amendments, and the President does not vote on or veto any amendment. **** Another method for amending the Constitution is a Constitutional Convention to be called for by 2/3 (33) of the state legislatures. At such a convention, one or more amendments can be proposed and then sent to the state legislatures (or state conventions) for approval again, 3/4 of the state legislatures must approve. (This method has not been used successfully). The Constitution has been amended 27 times; the first 10 amendments, the Bill of Rights, were ratified in The Constitution was last amended in Questions: Define Amendment: Define Caucus: How many amendments to the Constitution have been ratiftied? What are the first 10 Amendments to the Constitution called? Which Article of the Constitution states the process for amending the Constitution? True or False: The President directly votes on amendments to the Constitution? Remember the song..2/3s of both houses, 3/4s of all states! 14

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