1 Strasbourg, 9 July 2002 Opinion no. 210/2002 Or. English EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW (VENICE COMMISSION) OPINIONS ON THE DRAFT LAW ON MODIFICATION AND AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA by Mr J. HAMILTON (Substitute Member, Ireland) Mr L. LOPEZ GUERRA (Expert, Spain) endorsed by the Venice Commission at its 51 st Plenary Session (Venice, 5-6 July 2002) This document will not be distributed at the meeting. Please bring this copy. Ce document ne sera pas distribué en réunion. Prière de vous munir de cet exemplaire.
2 - 2 - Opinion by Mr J. Hamilton 1. The opinion of the Venice Commission has been sought in relation to a draft law on modification and amendment to the Constitution of the Republic of Moldova in a letter from the Vice-President of the Parliament of Moldova to the Secretary of the Commission dated 24 May The proposed amendments relate to parliamentary immunity, the organization of courts of law, the status of and removal of judges, the composition and powers of the Higher Magistrates Council, and the status and powers of the ombudsman. Parliamentary Immunity 3. The existing provisions concerning immunity for members of Parliament are contained in Articles 70 and 71 of the Constitution which are as follows: Article 70 Incompatibilities and Immunities (1) The quality and rights ascribed to members of Parliament are incompatible with the holding of another remunerated position. (2) Other possible incompatibilities shall be established by organic law. (3) Except in cases of flagrant infringement of law members of Parliament may not be detained for questioning, put under arrest, searched or put on trial without Parliament s assent, after prior hearing of the member in question. Article 71 Independence of Opinion Members of Parliament may not be prosecuted or tried by law for their votes or opinions expressed in the exercise of their mandate. 4. The proposed amendments would delete the words and Immunities from the title of Article 70, would delete paragraph (3) of Article 70, and would insert the word political before opinions in Article The effect of these changes would be to delete the constitutional guarantee of parliamentary immunity under which members of Parliament may not be detained for questioning, put under arrest, searched or put on trial without the assent of Parliament after first hearing the member of Parliament. 6. The background to this proposal would appear to be the current situation of political crisis in Moldova which has been described in some detail in the Council of Europe s Report of 23 April 2002 on the functioning of democratic institutions in Moldova (Doc. 9418). This crisis has involved almost daily rallies in the capital, Chisinau, organised by the Christian Democrat People s Party, which are vigorously anti-communist and nationalist in tone and are considered by the authorities to be illegal, contrary to public order and a threat to public safety. This has led to a Government response which the Council of Europe s rapporteurs considered manifestly disproportionate and which
3 - 3 - included the suspension of the CDPP for one month in January The Parliament has on two separate occasions voted to lift the parliamentary immunity of a number of deputies from the CDPP. 7. The Venice Commission, in its opinion of 31 March 2000 on the Constitutional Referendum in Ukraine, emphasized the importance of the principle of parliamentary immunity which that referendum proposal had sought to limit. The Commission described parliamentary immunity as an important safeguard for the independence of Parliament. Parliamentary immunity is an achievement of the 19 th century, and the independence it is designed to safeguard still is pertinent, particularly in a new democracy. 8. These observations hold equally true in respect of Moldova. If the present proposal is accepted it will represent a serious diminution in the independence of Parliament and its members. Furthermore, the existing constitutional provision does not confer an absolute immunity, but one which is qualified and may be lifted, and which indeed has been lifted on a number of occasions. Nevertheless, the necessity to seek parliamentary approval to lift immunity, even in a situation where the ruling Communist Party has an overall majority, would appear capable of providing some safeguard for the independence of members of Parliament, since, according to the Council of Europe s report, the Parliament, when asked in March 2002 to lift the immunity of eight opposition members, agreed only to do so in the case of two, found the evidence insufficient to lift immunity in three other cases, and deferred consideration of the remaining three. (Doc. 9418, paras 35 41). It further appears from the report that the current arrangements are to some extent subject to supervision and control by the courts. It remains to be seen whether there would be any continuing role for the courts if the amendment which is now proposed were accepted. 9. It is not clear what is the intention behind the proposal to add the word political in Article 71. The existing provision seems intended to safeguard the right to freedom of expression within Parliament the use of the term expressed in the exercise of their mandate would appear to protect parliamentary utterances as distinct from what is said outside parliament. It is a fundamental attribute of the independence of Parliament that members of Parliament should not be answerable to any outside body, even a court of law, for what is said there. For this reason, I think that any attempt to qualify a member s freedom to express opinions in Parliament or to subject it to possible criminal sanctions would be a step backward from democratic principles. The organization of courts of law 10. The existing Article 115 of the Constitution deals with courts of law and provides as follows:- (1) Justice shall be administered by the Supreme Court of Justice, the Court of Appeal, by tribunals and the courts of law. (2) To hear certain categories of cases special courts may be set up under the law. (3) It is forbidden to set up courts of exception. (4) The structure of the courts of law, their areas of competence and the corresponding judicial procedures shall be established by organic law.
4 It is proposed to replace paragraph (1) of Article 115 with the following: Justice shall be administered by the Supreme Court of Justice and courts of law of different levels. 12. Constitutions vary considerably in the amount of detail they contain regarding the judicial system. It is, however, usual for a constitution to set out in general terms the structure and jurisdiction of at least the most important courts, leaving the detail to be filled in by legislation. Apart from the Constitutional Court, which is the subject of a separate chapter in the Constitution, Title V, the existing judicial system of Moldova has four levels of court, only two of which, the Supreme Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal, are referred to in the Constitution. 13. It is now intended to reduce the number of levels of court from four to three, through the abolition of the Court of Appeal, and the proposal is designed to facilitate this. Three levels of court seem appropriate in the circumstances of Moldova and I see no reason to object to such a reform. However, the text of Article 115 will then say very little about the actual organization of courts. The only court with a constitutional basis will be the Supreme Court of Justice. It would seem desirable, for example, that the Article could set out in general terms what the different levels of court should be and what sort of jurisdiction each would have, so that the system of courts in Moldova would have a constitutional basis. The Status of and the Appointment and Removal of Judges 14. The existing provisions on the status of judges are in Article 116 of the Constitution which provides as follows: (1) Judges sitting in the courts of law are independent, impartial and irremovable under the law. (2) The judges of the courts of law are appointed by the President of the Republic of Moldova following the proposal submitted by the Higher Council of Magistrates. Judges who passed the judicature entry test are appointed in their position for an initial term of 5 years. On the expiry of the 5-year term the judges shall be appointed for a term of office that expires when they reach the age limit. (3) The President and the Judges of the High Court of Justice shall be appointed by the Parliament following a proposal submitted by the Higher Council of Magistrates. They must possess previous work experience in the courts of law of no less than 15 years. (4) Judges may be promoted or transferred at their own consent only. (5) Judges may be punished as provided for under the rule of law. (6) The office of judge is incompatible with holding any other public or private remunerated position, except in the area of teaching or scientific research. 15. It is proposed to replace paragraphs (2), (3) and (4) with the following provisions: (3) Judges of the courts of law are appointed, advanced in position, transferred and removed by the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova according to the law, following the proposal submitted by the Higher Magistrates Council.
5 - 5 - (4) Age limit for judge activity is established by law. (5) Chairmen and deputy chairmen of the courts of law are appointed by the Parliament at the Higher Magistrates Council proposal, for four year term of office. 16. The effect of the proposed changes appears to be as follows: (1) Appointment of judges will now be a matter for the Parliament rather than the President, but still following the proposal of the Higher Magistrates Council. Since Moldova is a parliamentary rather than a presidential republic, it is not clear what difference this will mean in practice. (2) The Parliament will now have a role in the advancement in position, transfer and removal of judges. It is not, however, clear from the text what exactly that role is. The provision of Article 116 (1) whereby judges are irremovable under the law remains, so on the face of it there appears to be a contradiction. (3) The respective roles of the Parliament and the Higher Magistrates Council are not clear from the constitutional text. Presumably this will be dealt with in an organic law. The council according to Article 123, performs the appointments, transfer, remove, promotion of judges, as well as the disciplinary actions against them. Does this mean the Parliament s role in these matters is purely formal or can it disagree with or overrule the Council? These matters should be regulated in the Constitution. (4) The provisions relating to the necessary qualification of High Court judges are being removed. This will now be regulated by law. Again, I think it would be preferable that this remain a matter of constitutional law. (5) The provision that judges may be promoted or transferred at their own consent only is being removed. The existing provision is a safeguard for judicial independence and its removal would be a retrograde step. 17. On the whole, the proposed amendments do not clarify the uncertainties in the existing text, which are many. The tendency of the amendments again represents a shift away from regulation in the Constitution towards regulation by law. It would be preferable that matters of such fundamental importance be clearly provided for in the Constitution and be subject to the control of the Constitutional Court. The Higher Magistrates Council 18. Articles 122 and 123 at present provide as follows: Article 122 Composition (1) The Higher Magistrates Council is composed of 11 magistrates whose mandate is valid for 5 years. (2) The following belong by the right to the Higher Magistrates Court (sic) the Minister of Justice, the President of the Supreme Court of Justice, the President of the Court of Appeal, the President of the Court of Business Audit, the Prosecutor General.
6 - 6 - (3) Furthermore, the reunited colleges of the Supreme Court of Justice select by secret ballot three more magistrates, and another three are selected by Parliament from amongst accredited university professors. Article 123 Powers The Higher Magistrates Council in accordance with regulations established in the organization of the judiciary performs the appointments, transfers, promotions of judges, as well as the disciplinary actions against them. 19. The proposal would replace the two Articles with the following text: Article 122 Composition (1) The Higher Magistrates Council is composed of magistrates and titular professors whose mandate is valid for 4 years. (2) The following belongs by right to the Higher Magistrates Council: the Chairman of the Supreme Court of Justice, the Minister of Justice and the Prosecutor General. Article 123 Powers (1) The Higher Magistrates Council performs the appointments, transfer, remove, promotion of judges, as well as the disciplinary actions against them. (2) The organization and functioning of the Higher Magistrates Council is established by law. 20. The Higher Magistrates Council, as already seen in the discussion above concerning the status and appointment and removal of judges, is a key institution, even though the Constitution does not specify as clearly as it might its precise powers vis-à-vis other organs of government. 21. The changes proposed appear to have the following effect: (1) The total number of members of Council will no longer be specified in the Constitution. (2) The Minister for Justice, President of the Supreme Court and Prosecutor General will continue to belong ex officio to the Council. The President of the Court of Appeal and the President of the Court of Audit will cease to be ex officio members. (3) The provision under which the judges themselves and the Parliament each elect three members is being abolished. (4) The composition of the Council will in future be fixed by law. Apart from the three ex officio members, the Parliament will be free to provide for any method of appointment of the others, so long as they are magistrates and titular professors, and will be able to fix their numbers.
7 - 7 - (5) At present, at least six of the 11 members either are judges of higher jurisdictions or are elected by senior judges. After the reorganization, it will be possible for the Parliament to secure a majority of the Council elected by themselves. (6) The Council will now have functions referring to the removal of judges. There is no reference to removal in the existing Article 123. This provision appears to contradict Article 116 (1) which provides that judges are irremovable under the law. (7) At present, the Council s powers are to be performed in accordance with regulations established in the organization of the judiciary. Under the proposal, their organization and functioning will be established by law, i.e., by a law made by the Parliament. (8) An effect of shifting provisions out of the Constitution and leaving them to be dealt with by law is to deprive the Constitutional Court of jurisdiction over them. 22. It seems clear that the changes proposed in relation to the Higher Magistrates Council would represent a decisive shift away from control by the judiciary over its own affairs towards control by Parliament, and thereby constitute a potential threat to judicial independence of a serious nature. Ombudsman 23. The final amendment proposed is to insert a provision relating to the Ombudsman as follows:- Title V/1 Ombudsman Article 140/1 Status and Powers (1) Ombudsman is an independent state institution that contributes to the observance of the basic human rights and freedoms. (2) Ombudsman is elected by ballot based on the majority of votes cast by members. (3) Ombudsman submits to the Parliament an annual report on his activity. (4) The organization, areas of competence and manner of activity exerting of the ombudsman is established by the organic law. 24. The insertion of a provision in the Constitution dealing with the Ombudsman is to be welcomed. Unfortunately, the provision is silent as to the necessary qualifications for the post, his or her term of Office, removability or powers, leaving all these matters to be regulated by organic law. * * *
8 - 8 - Art. 70 Content of the proposed reform: Opinion by Mr L. Lopez Guerra a) From the article title the words and immunities are excluded; b) Paragraph (3) is excluded Comments: The two amending clauses concerning the article title, as well as suppressing paragraph 3 have the same objective: the elimination of the immunities of members of Parliament, vis-àvis the executive, as well as vis-à-vis the judicial powers. As such, the proposed reform must be evaluated negatively. Parliamentary immunities are not personal privileges to benefit the members of Parliament, but rather guarantees of their independence and their ability to perform their representative functions, without encroachment or hindrance from other authorities of the State. Certainly, immunities vis-à-vis the judicial powers may be, and have been subject to criticism, and they have been interpreted in a restrictive way by Constitutional Courts. However, in new democracies, in the initial stages of constitutional development, the presence of such immunities must be considered very advisable, in order to avoid undue interference by the judicial organs in parliamentary affairs, particularly when the independence of the judiciary is still being consolidated. Immunities vis-à-vis the executive power, referring to detention, arrest, questioning, seizures, or any other interference of the police or security forces in the personal freedom of members of parliament (apart from cases of flagrancy) are a sine qua non requisite to guarantee the independence of the representatives of the people in the performance of their functions. The proposed reform radically suppresses both types of parliamentary prerogatives, leaving the members of parliament potentially subject to undue prosecution before the courts as well as to harassment by executive agents. It goes against the established constitutional practice of parliamentary democracies, and it seems particularly dangerous in a new democracy. Art. 71 Content of the proposed reform: The inviolability of members of parliament for their expressions is reduced to political opinions Comments The result of the proposed reform would be to reduce the scope of the inviolability (immunity) of members of parliament concerning the opinions expressed in the exercise of their mandate. Such immunity would be reduced to opinions of a political nature.
9 - 9 - It must be taken into account that parliamentary prerogatives are only justified as guarantees of the independence of the parliamentary representatives; as a result, these prerogatives must not be considered as personal, unlimited privileges. Concerning the expression of opinions by members of Parliament, the protection of their independence cannot cover those expressions unrelated to their representative functions, which could be considered as detrimental or harmful to public order or private interests (i.e., slander or personal insults directed at individuals). Accordingly, in some Constitutions, certain limits have been imposed on the immunity of members of parliament with regard to comments made during the exercise of their mandates (for instance, in art of the German Fundamental Law). However, the terms of the proposed reform must be considered too vague, and thus conducive to legal uncertainty as to the actual extension of the freedom of expression of the members of parliament. The meaning of the term political is very imprecise; furthermore, very often, in order to perform their duties, members of parliament must refer to non-political issues. It would therefore be advisable to rephrase the amendment, providing members of parliament with immunity for those opinions expressed in the exercise of their mandates, which refer to the performance of the representatives functions. Art. 115 Content of the proposed reform The mention to the Court of Appeals is suppressed. Comments No objections raised. It seems advisable to leave it to the legislator to determine the structure of the Court system. The new proposed version allows greater flexibility in designing the Courts hierarchy. Art. 116 Content of the proposed reform (general overview) The appointment of judges, as well as of members of the High Court of Justice is transferred from the President of the Republic to Parliament (paragraphs 2 and 4). Several constitutional mandates concerning appointment and guarantee of tenure of judges are suppressed (paragraph 2) The term of the Chairpersons and deputy chairpersons of the courts of law is fixed at four years. Comments As long as the appointment of judges derives from a proposal submitted by the Higher Council of Magistrates, it seems of no particular importance whether the formal appointment belongs to Parliament or to the President of the Republic. (Although it may be said that
10 formal appointment by the President of the Republic confers an aura of impartiality lacking in the appointment by vote of the members of Parliament.) However, stronger criticism must be directed to the proposed reforms contained in the new paragraphs 2 and 4. According to new paragraph 2, several constitutional provisions guaranteeing the professional capacity and impartiality of judges have been eliminated. Concerning the professional ability of judges, among others, the need for an entry exam prior to the proposal by the Higher Council has been eliminated. In relation to the impartiality of judges a negative aspect of the proposed reform, which should be underscored, is the fact that the strongly guaranteed tenure of judges (appointment until the legal age limit) has been eliminated. Likewise the appointement of chairpersons and deputy chairpersons has been reduced to a four-year term. Additionally, the provision that judges may be promoted or transferred at their own consent has been deleted from the constitutional text. Certainly, although the elimination from the Constitution of requisites for determining the professional capacity of judges (initial exam, initial appointment for a period of five years, the requisite of 15 years of experience to be appointed judge of the High Court) will undoubtedly have a negative effect on the quality of justice, it cannot be considered as contrary per se to the principles of the rule of law. In contrast, the elimination of the guarantees of independence of the judiciary related to tenure and irremovability, such as they are now present in the Constitution of Moldova, as well as in most of the European Constitutions, must be considered as a serious threat to the rule of law. Tenure and irremovability of judges are, and must be, commonly considered as the ultimate guarantees of the independence of the Courts, preventing the other powers of the State from removing or transferring (or threatening to do so) those judges which are considered hostile or who refuse to yield external pressure or instructions with regard to concerning cases under their jurisdiction. Art. 122 Content of the proposed reform The former three paragraphs of the article are reduced to two. The constitutional reference to the number of members of the Higher Magistrates Council has been eliminated. The mandate of the members of the Higher Magistrates Council has been reduced from five to four years. The constitutional reference to the election of the members of the Council by judicial and parliamentary authorities has been eliminated. The members of the Council by right have been reduced to the Minister of Justice, the General Prosecutor and the Chairman of the Supreme Court. Comments Two aspects of the proposed reform must be evaluated negatively: a) The elimination of any reference in the Constitution to the number of members of the Council and to the way in which they are selected means the legislator will free to choose any system of selection. According to the present constitutional regulation,
11 three members are elected by the Supreme Court, and three by Parliament; of the remaining five members, three are the Presidents of the High Courts (Supreme Court, Court of Appeals and Court of Business Audit) plus the Minister of Justice and the General Prosecutor. In the new proposed version, the composition of the Council would be open to the discretion of Parliament, even one allowing for the possibility of influencing the Council, on the part of social or political powers. Furthermore, the lack of constitutional constraints would mean that the parliamentary majority could change the system of selection at will at any time. b) In other respects, the reduction of the number of ex officio judicial members of the Council, together with the deconstitutionalisation of this organ described above, contributes to a negative evaluation of the proposal, since it reduces the Council s appearance of impartiality. Art. 123 The proposed reform of article 123 does not present any special problem from the point of view of respect for the rule of law. In any case, the introduction of a new explicit power of the Council, the power to remove judges, which is not expressly included in the present text of the Constitution, should be underscored. This is not a complete innovation, however, since this power could probably be logically derived from the now existing powers of appointment and disciplinary action. However, the condition for the removal of judges as exception from Article should be set forth explicitely in the text of the Constitution. Art. 140 The introduction of the Ombudsman, not previously contemplated in the Constitution, must be considered as a positive part of the proposed constitutional reform.
Strasbourg, 24 October 2005 Opinion no. 342/2005 CDL-AD(2005)022 Or. Engl. EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW (VENICE COMMISSION) INTERIM OPINION ON CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC
Strasbourg, 4 December 2006 Opinion no. 397/2006 CDL(2006)098 Engl. only EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW (VENICE COMMISSION) LAW OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA ON THE HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDER This
Strasbourg, 8 October 2004 Opinion no. 314/2004 Or. Engl. EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW (VENICE COMMISSION) OPINION ON THE REFERENDUM OF 17 OCTOBER 2004 IN BELARUS Adopted by the Venice
Council of Europe Conseil de l'europe européenne European Union Union Strasbourg, 18 October 2010 Opinion No. 588 / 2010 Or. Engl. EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW (VENICE COMMISSION) JOINT
Strasbourg, 28 October 2003 Opinion no. 261 / 2003 Restricted CDL (2003) 77 Eng. only. EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW (VENICE COMMISSION) LAW ON THE REFERENDUM OF GEORGIA This document will
CONSTITUTIONAL LAW OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN ON JUDICIAL SYSTEM AND STATUS OF JUDGES OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS Article 1. Judicial Power Dated 25 December 2000 No.
Strasbourg, 31 March 2008 Opinion no. 444 / 2007 Or. Engl. EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW (VENICE COMMISSION) OPINION ON THE CONSTITUTON OF BULGARIA Adopted by the Venice Commission at its
THE WORKING DOCUMENT ON CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM FOR PUBLIC CONSULTATION EXPLANATORY NOTES PRELIMINARY The Preamble The Preamble which has existed since 1962 and is the existing provision in the 1976 Constitution
AN ACT TO AMEND THE CONSTITUTION OF THE DEMOCRATIC SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF SRI LANKA Be it enacted by Parliament of Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka as follows:- Short Title and dates of operation.
The Act of 19 November 2015 (/en/about the tribunal/legal basis/the constitutional tribunal act/#19november) amending the Constitutional Tribunal Act The Act of 22 December 2015 (/en/about the tribunal/legal
Strasbourg, 28 February 2007 CDL-JD(2007)001 Or. Engl. EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW (VENICE COMMISSION) JUDICIAL APPOINTMENTS Revised discussion paper prepared by the Secretariat for the
Czech Republic - Constitution Adopted on: 16 Dec 1992 Preamble We, the citizens of the Czech Republic in Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, at the time of the renewal of an independent Czech state, being loyal
Council of Europe Conseil de l'europe European Union Union européenne Strasbourg, 18 October 2010 Opinion No. 588 / 2010 Or. Engl. EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW (VENICE COMMISSION) DRAFT
Strasbourg, 20 June 2011 Opinion No. 606 / 2010 CDL-AD(2011)015 Or. Engl. EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW (VENICE COMMISSION) INTERIM OPINION ON THE DRAFT DECISIONS OF THE HIGH JUDICIAL COUNCIL
UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL Working Group on Arbitrary Detention INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION OF JURISTS SUBMISSION TO THE WORKING GROUP ON ARBITRARY DETENTION ON ITS REVISED DRAFT BASIC PRINCIPLES
CONSOLIDATED EDITION 2006 Commencement: 30 July 1980 except Articles 87 and 93 which commenced 23 October 1979 CONSTITUTION OF THE Act 10 of 1980 REPUBLIC OF VANUATU Act 15 of 1981 Act 20 of 1983 ARRANGEMENT
European Convention on Human Rights as amended by Protocols Nos. 11 and 14 Council of Europe Treaty Series, No. 5 Note on the text The text of the Convention is presented as amended by the provisions of
(GG 6450) This Act has been passed by Parliament, but it has not yet been brought into force. It will come into force on a date set by the Minister in the Government Gazette. ACT To provide for the establishment
Republika e Kosovës Republika Kosovo-Republic of Kosovo Kuvendi - Skupština - Assembly Law No. 03/L-121 ON THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOSOVO Assembly of Republic of Kosovo, Pursuant to
Council of Europe Conseil de l'europe * * * * Strasbourg, 10 May 1994 [K:\3MEET\ECAHMIN. 12] Restricted CAHMIN (94) 12 COE056947 AD HOC COMMITTEE FOR THE PROTECTION OF NATIONAL MINORITIES (CAHMIN) PRELIMINARY
Strasbourg, 21 April 2016 Opinion No. 848 / 2016 CDL-REF(2016)031 Engl. only EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW (VENICE COMMISSION) ELECTORAL CODE OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA AS OF 31 DECEMBER
Constitution of the Czech Republic of 16 December 1992 Constitutional Law No. 1 / 1993 Coll. as amended by Act No. 347/1997 Coll. 300/2000 Coll., 448/2001 Coll. 395/2001 Coll., 515/2002 Coll. and 319/2009
Strasbourg, 22 September 2017 Opinion No. 855 / 2016 CDL-REF(2017)040 Engl. only EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW (VENICE COMMISSION) BULGARIA 2017 AMENDMENTS (*) TO THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM ACT
The Parliament: 2 Speaker of Lok Sabha: Election: o Elected by lok sabha from amongst its members o Date of election is fixed by President o Remains in office during the life of lok sabha [ Even when Lok
S t a t u t e s of the M a x P l a n c k S o c i e t y for the Advancement of Science * - as amended on 14 June 2012 - All personal function designations in this Statute are to be understood as being gender
OFFICE OF LEGAL AFFAIRS Rules of Procedure of the ICPO-INTERPOL General Assembly [II.A/RPGA/GA/1996(2004)] REFERENCES Rules of Procedure of the ICPO-INTERPOL General Assembly adopted by the General Assembly
CONSEIL DE L EUROPE COUNCIL OF EUROPE COUR EUROPÉENNE DES DROITS DE L HOMME EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS COURT (CHAMBER) CASE OF LAWLESS v. IRELAND (No. 1) (Application n o 332/57) JUDGMENT STRASBOURG
LABOUR RELATIONS ACT 66 OF 1995 [ASSENTED TO 29 NOVEMBER 1995] [DATE OF COMMENCEMENT: 11 NOVEMBER 1996] (Unless otherwise indicated) (English text signed by the President) as amended by Labour Relations
THE LAW OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA ON THE HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDER 21.10.2003 Non official translation Unofficial translation from the Armenian Article 1. General Provisions The present Law defines the procedure
New South Wales Civil and Administrative Tribunal Act 2013 No 2 Contents Part 1 Part 2 Preliminary Page 1 Name of Act 2 2 Commencement 2 3 Object of Act 2 4 Definitions 2 5 Notes 3 6 Meaning of application
RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE GENERAL COURT This edition consolidates: the Rules of Procedure of the Court of First Instance of the European Communities of 2 May 1991 (OJ L 136 of 30.5.1991, p. 1, and OJ L
PARLIAMENTARY ASSEMBLY OF THE ORGANIZATION OF THE BLACK SEA ECONOMIC COOPERATION RULES OF PROCEDURE International Secretariat ISTANBUL 2017 The Rules of Procedure of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Black
The Text of the Proposed Constitution for the State of Israel The New York Times (10 December 1948) Text of Proposed Constitution for State of Israel to be Voted on After the January Elections Preamble:
RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION CIVIL SERVICE TRIBUNAL This edition consolidates: the Rules of Procedure of the European Union Civil Service Tribunal of 25 July 2007 (OJ L 225 of 29.8.2007, p.
CONSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BILL SUMMARY NOTE The Constitutional Review Bill lays down provisions to overcome "perfect" bicameralism, reduce the number of parliamentarians and contain costs arising from institutions'
1 No. 19 of 2011. Public Service Act, 2011. 19. Saint Christopher and Nevis. I assent, LS CUTHBERT M SEBASTIAN Governor-General. 20 th July, 2011. SAINT CHRISTOPHER AND NEVIS No. 19 of 2011 AN ACT to provide
European Convention on Human Rights European Convention on Human Rights as amended by Protocols Nos. 11 and 14 supplemented by Protocols Nos. 1, 4, 6, 7, 12 and 13 The text of the Convention is presented
Constitutional Court of Romania concerning NATIONAL REPORT, Separation of Powers and Independence of Constitutional Courts and Equivalent Bodies, for the 2nd Congress of the World Conference on Constitutional
Print THE NETHERLANDS National Ombudsman Act Act of 4 February 1981 (Bulletin of Acts and Decrees 1981, 35), most recently amended by Act of Parliament of 12 May 1999 (Bulletin of Acts and Decrees 1999,
REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA NATIONAL ASSEMBLY WHISTLEBLOWER PROTECTION BILL (As read a First Time) (Introduced by the Minister of Justice) [B. 1-2017) 2 BILL To provide for the establishment of a Whistleblower
ACTS SUPPLEMENT No. 1 10th February, 2009. ACTS SUPPLEMENT to The Southern Sudan Gazette No. 1 Volume I dated 10th February, 2009. Printed by Ministry Legal Affairs and Constitutional Development, by Order
LAW for the revision of the Constitution of Romania * Article I. The Constitution of Romania, published in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, no. 233 of 21 November 1991, approved through the national
Justice (Northern Ireland) Act 2004 CHAPTER 4 CONTENTS The judiciary 1 Transfer to Lord Chancellor of functions relating to Judicial Appointments Commission 2 Membership of the Commission 3 Duty of Commission
RULES OF COURT (1978) ADOPTED ON 14 APRIL 1978 AND ENTERED INTO FORCE ON 1 JULY 1978 1 PREAMBLE * The Court, Having regard to Chapter XIV of the Charter of the United Nations; Having regard to the Statute
THE CONSTITUTION OF BURKINA FASO Adopted on 2 June 1991, promulgated on 11 June 1991, amended on 27 January 1997 and on 11 April 2000 We, the Sovereign People of Burkina Faso, PREAMBLE Conscious of our
Strasbourg, 22 May 2017 T-PVS/Inf (2017) 11 [Inf11e_2017.docx] CONVENTION ON THE CONSERVATION OF EUROPEAN WILDLIFE AND NATURAL HABITATS Standing Committee 37 th meeting Strasbourg, 5-8 December 2017 EMERALD
the National Council, but shall be referred by the Speaker directly to the President to enable the bill to be dealt with in terms of Articles 56 and 64 hereof. Article 76 Quorum The presence of a majority
Strasbourg, 2 November 2005 Study No. 287/2004 CDL-AD (2005)034 Or. Engl. EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW (VENICE COMMISSION) REFERENDUMS IN EUROPE AN ANALYSIS OF THE LEGAL RULES IN EUROPEAN
Strasbourg, 19 September 2013 Opinion no. 735 / 2013 CDL(2013)039 * Or. Engl. EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW (VENICE COMMISSION) DIRECTORATE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS (DHR), DIRECTORATE GENERAL FOR
No. 86 of 1994 Section 1. Purpose 2. Commencement 3. Part II substituted TABLE OF PROVISIONS PART 1 PRELIMINARY PART 2 RESTRUCTURING PART IIA THE ESTATE AGENTS COUNCIL 6. Estate Agents Council 6A. Objectives
Report of the Court of Justice of the European Communities (Luxembourg, May 1995) Caption: In May 1995, the Court of Justice of the European Communities publishes a report on several aspects of the application
Only the official text in Catalan language is authentic Law 19/2017, of 6 September, on the Referendum on Selfdetermination Procedure 202-00065/11 Passed by: Plenary Assembly Session 42, 06.09.2017, DSPC-P
Rules of Procedure and Evidence* Adopted by the Assembly of States Parties First session New York, 3-10 September 2002 Official Records ICC-ASP/1/3 * Explanatory note: The Rules of Procedure and Evidence
CHAPTER III COMPOSITION OF TRIBUNALS As stated in the previous chapter, it is necessary to ensure independence of tribunals from the executive control so that the people may have faith in their judgments.
CLERGY DISCIPLINE MEASURE 2003 as amended by the Clergy Discipline (Amendment) Measure 2013 and the Safeguarding and Clergy Discipline Measure 2016 CONTENTS Introductory 1 Duty to have regard to bishop
CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN (Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Uzbekistan, 1993, No. 1, art.4, 1994, No. 1, art. 5; Bulletin of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan,
Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan PREAMBLE PART ONE. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES o Chapter 1. State Sovereignty o Chapter 2. Democracy o Chapter 3. Supremacy of the Constitution and the Law o Chapter
THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT OF THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA The 2nd Congress of the World Conference on Constitutional Justice SEPARATION OF POWERS AND INDEPENDENCE OF CONSTITUTIONAL COURTS AND EQUIVALENT BODIES
Page 1 of 32 PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF DRUG DEPENDENCY ACT 20 OF 1992 (English text signed by the State President) [Assented To: 3 March 1992] [Commencement Date: 30 April 1993 unless otherwise indicated]
JAMAICA THE LABOUR RELATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES ACT 1. Short title. 2. Interpretation. ARRANGEMENT OP SECTIONS PART I PRELIMINARY PART II LABOUR RELATIONS 3. Labour relations code. 4. Rights of workers
Draft Statute for an International Criminal Court 1994 Text adopted by the Commission at its forty-sixth session, in 1994, and submitted to the General Assembly as a part of the Commission s report covering
Northern Ireland Bill of Rights 1 A B I L L TO Give further effect to rights and freedoms guaranteed under Schedule 1 to the Human Rights Act 1998, to protect and promote other rights arising out of the
This document relates to the Judiciary and Courts (Scotland) Bill (SP Bill 6) as introduced in the JUDICIARY AND COURTS (SCOTLAND) BILL POLICY MEMORANDUM INTRODUCTION 1. This document relates to the Judiciary
SIX Group Ltd Rules of Organisation for the Regulatory Bodies of the Group's trading venues (Regulatory Bodies Organisation Rules, RBOR) Dated September 07 Entry into force: 5 February 08 Regulatory Bodies
The Danish Courts an Organisation in Development Introduction The Danish Courts are going through a period of structural upheaval. Currently the Danish judicial system is undergoing sweeping reforms that
Commonwealth Parliamentary Association CONSTITUTION CONSTITUTION OF THE COMMONWEALTH PARLIAMENTARY ASSOCIATION As adopted by the General Assembly of the Association at its meeting in Cyprus on 6 September
THE ELECTORAL CODE OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA (Approved by Law no. 10 019, dated 29 December 2008, amended by Law no. 74/2012, dated 19 July 2012 and Law no. 31/2015, dated 2 April 2015) This publication
Downloaded from http:// FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS People in democratic countries enjoy certain rights, which are protected by judicial system of the country concerned. Their violation, even by the State, is not
Strasbourg, 5 November 2014 Opinion No. 735/2013 CDL-REF(2014)047 Engl. Only EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW (VENICE COMMISSION) LAW ON THE PUBLIC PROSECUTOR'S OFFICE OF UKRAINE Text adopted
TEESSIDE UNIVERSITY ARTICLES OF GOVERNMENT In exercise of the powers conferred upon it by section 125 of the Education Reform Act 1988, Teesside University higher education corporation makes the following
AFRICAN UNION UNION AFRICAINE UNIÃO AFRICANA African Commission on Human & Peoples Rights Commission Africaine des Droits de l Homme & des Peuples Kairaba Avenue, P. O. Box 673, Banjul, The Gambia Tel:
Republic of the Philippines PHILIPPINE STATE COLLEGE OF AERONAUTICS Constitution and By-Laws of Philippine State College of Aeronautics- Supreme Student Council Preamble We, the students of the Philippine
ACT of August 29, 1997 on the Protection of Personal Data (original text - Journal of Laws of 1997, No. 133, item 883) (unified text Journal of Laws of 2002, No. 101, item 926) (unified text Journal of
Strasbourg, 30 June 2015 CDL-JU(2015)009 Engl. only EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW (VENICE COMMISSION) in co-operation with the MINISTRY OF JUSTICE AND LIBERTIES OF THE KINGDOM OF MOROCCO
Council of Europe Conseil de l'europe * * * * Strasbourg, 11 October 1995 COE056905 Restricted CAHMIN (95) OJ13 AD HOC COMMITTEE FOR THE PROTECTION OF NATIONAL MINORITIES (CAHMIN) 13th meeting 6-10 November
(GG 469) brought into force on on 31 August 1992 by GN 117/1992 (GG 472), except for section 45(1) which came into force on the date fixed for regional elections in terms of Article 137(6) of the Constitution
LAW of UKRAINE No. 2453-VI On the Judiciary and the Status of Judges This law determines the legal principles of organization of the judiciary and administering justice in Ukraine in order to protect rights,