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1 Unit Assessment: War of 1812-Election of Mark all answers on the Scan Sheet provided. Header: Last name, First name; Class Period; (Subject) Unit Test; Today s Date 02/03/14 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. After declaring independence, the American colonies had to establish a new government. In 1777, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation. What was the major weakness of this document? a. It continued to give the King of England a certain amount of power, which contrasted with the original intentions of the American Revolution. b. It put all political power into the hands of one man, similar to a monarchy. c. It gave the federal government too much power, which made the state governments insignificant. d. It did not give the federal government enough power, so it was difficult to get anything accomplished. 2. Which of the following arguments would South Carolina's delegates to the Constitutional Convention most likely have made? a. Representation in the new government should not be determined solely by the population of the state. b. The federal government should establish tariffs to limit the amount of goods shipped by overseas companies to America. c. The federal government should provide incentives for states to switch from agriculture to industry. d. If the United States is going to be a free nation, the institution of slavery should be abolished. 3. Which of the following best explains why the state capital was moved from Charleston to Columbia in 1786? a. The majority of the state's wealthy citizens moved from Charleston to Columbia after the Revolution. b. Columbia was a more centrally located city, and moving the capital helped ease tensions between the Low Country and the Upstate. c. Charleston was too damaged during the American Revolution to remain the state's capital. d. Charleston was becoming too populated and crowded to house the state's political offices. 4. Which event officially made South Carolina the 8th state to enter into the United States of America? a. The recapture of the city of Charleston b. The signing of the Declaration of Independence c. The ratification of the Federal Constitution d. The surrender of the British at Yorktown Page 1

2 5. One of the main concerns at the Constitutional Convention (1787) was that the federal government would become too powerful. Which of the following features of the Constitution was created to prevent that from happening? a. The addition of a Vice-President b. The Electoral College c. Term limits for the President d. A series of checks and balances 6. During the Constitutional Convention, states with smaller populations (like South Carolina) became concerned that they would not have fair representation in the new government. In the end, delegates came up with the Great Compromise. Which of the following gives the details of the compromise? a. The House of Representatives would be based on population; the Senate would include two senators from each state. b. Participation in the House of Representatives and in the Senate would be determined by the combined wealth of the state, not population. c. Participation in the House of Representatives and in the Senate would be determined by land area of the state, not population. d. The House of Representatives only includes members from smaller states; the Senate only includes members from larger states. 7. While left out of the original version of the Constitution, the delegates soon agreed to add a Bill of Rights to the document. What were the Bill of Rights? a. A timeline for the establishment of new offices within the government (such as Supreme Court, Congress, and local governments). b. The first ten amendments to the Constitution, which protected the basic liberties of American people against the power of the government. c. An evaluation form created to monitor how well the government was performing. This gave the American people a voice in the Federal government. d. An estimation for the cost of the new government, written to let the American people know the amount of taxes they would be expected to pay. 8. In 1785, the Treaty of Hopewell was signed on a plantation owned by Andrew Pickens in northwestern South Carolina (present-day Pickens County). This treaty was between the Cherokee Indians and the people of South Carolina. What was the purpose of the treaty? a. To make the few Cherokees who remained in South Carolina official citizens of the state. b. To give compensation for the Cherokees who had assisted South Carolina during the American Revolution. c. To establish the boundaries between the Cherokees and white population in the area. d. To allow the Cherokees to participate in the new form of government being created in the United States. Page 2

3 9.. With the exception of a few areas, the people living in the Back Country of South Carolina opposed the Constitution. Considering the lifestyle of the people who lived in this area, which of the following is probably the most likely reason why they did not like the new Constitution? a. They were loyal to the King of England during the American Revolution, and protested the creation of the United States government. b. They were very independent and were not used to answering to authority, so they did not want a central government telling them what to do. c. They did most of their trading with Native Americans, and they feared that a central government would outlaw this practice. d. They felt that the national capital should be located in Charleston rather than in New York. 10. In 1790, the General Assembly in South Carolina called a convention to write a new Constitution for the state. This new Constitution lasted until Which of the following is the most striking reform included in the South Carolina Constitution of 1790 that did not exist before? a. abolition of slavery b. separation of church and state c. women had the right to vote d. required public education for all citizens under the age of South Carolina native John Calhoun first became a national figure when he became one of the leading War Hawks in the United States congress. The term "War Hawk" described which of the following groups? a. War veterans who had entered into politics after their military careers had ended. b. Dedicated Federalists who interfered with Republican campaigns to keep them out of political office. c. Men who opposed war at all costs, even if it meant being forced to make a payment to enemy nations to keep the peace. d. Eager young Republicans who pushed for war against England prior to the War of George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and John Adams were all part of a political party known as the Federalists. How did this political party get its name? a. It supported a strong federal government. b. It pushed for changes to the federal system that would shift more power to the states. c. It started in New York, the capital of the federal government at the time. d. It only included members who were personally chosen by a federal official. Page 3

4 13. For several decades, citizens living in the Upstate of South Carolina were frustrated that the citizens in the Lowcountry dictated most of the state's politics. How did the invention of the cotton gin in the late 1790s shift this balance of power? a. It decreased the value of cotton. This put a great strain on the plantations in the Lowcountry, but finally enabled Upstate farmers to compete. b. It took the place of slave labor. This helped farmers in the Upstate who did not have any slaves, and hurt farmers in the Lowcountry who had hundreds of slaves. c. It limited the exportation of cotton. This hurt merchants working at the ports in Charleston, but helped Upstate farmers who sold their crops locally. d. It helped cotton plantation to thrive in the Upstate. This gave the growing number of wealthy plantation owners more negotiating power with citizens living in the Lowcountry. 14. When the War of 1812 ended, very little land changed hands and England did not agree to all of the demands of the United States. Still, Americans felt that the war was a great victory because: a. the United States gained important allies during the war, specifically Spain and France. b. the United States proved that it could compete militarily with the world powers of Europe. c. the United States was able to make a great profit by selling the British pieces of land in Canada that was useless to American citizens. d. the United States was able to continue using slave labor despite the British objection to it. 15. As one of the nation's leading Federalists, Alexander Hamilton supported the creation of a national bank. His proposal was heavily debated, but eventually approved. Which of the following is an argument that Hamilton would have likely given for his national bank? a. It will abolish slavery in the South by purchasing the freedom of individual slaves. b. It will give the national government more power and help pay off the debt of the American Revolution. c. It will increase the wealth and power of individual states. d. It will transfer money from the wealthy plantation owners to the poor farmers. 16. After the War of 1812 ended, the morale in America improved and citizens began to feel united as a country. A term often used to describe this patriotic feeling is: a. Conservatism b. Nationalism c. Isolationism d. Realism Page 4

5 17. The period following the War of 1812 was defined by a strong feeling of nationalism, a booming economy, and a rise of confidence in the United States. This period, from 1815 to 1824, is often called: a. The Era of Good Feelings b. The Age of Enlightenment c. The Progressive Era d. The Temperance Movement 18. The Era of Good Feelings was harshly interrupted when the Panic of 1819 spread through America. Which of the following circumstances launched this panic? a. Violent attacks by Native Americans b. Falling cotton prices in Britain c. Pirate attacks in the Atlantic Ocean d. Slave rebellions 19. For the most part, South Carolina did not become an industrial state until the 20th century. However, in the mid-1800s, the first signs of industry did start to appear. The first major industry to take hold in South Carolina during the 19th century produced which products? a. firearms b. chemicals c. textiles d. glass 20. Even today, it is easy to see the influence of Robert Mills as you travel through the state of South Carolina. Born in Charleston, Robert Mills published the Atlas of South Carolina in However, he worked most of his life as: a. an architect b. a painter c. a sculptor d. a musician 21. Which of the following statements is true about the changes in the population of African slaves from 1790 to 1820? a. The population of African slaves remained the same because, while the use of slave labor was common, it became illegal to import slaves from overseas. b. The population of African slaves decreased because, while more blacks worked in the fields, most of them were getting paid small wages instead of being forced to work. c. The population of African slaves increased drastically as cotton plantations thrived. d. The population of African slaves decreased because most of the black people living in South Carolina moved to the North to avoid the hardships of slavery. Page 5

6 22. The invention of the cotton gin immediately made it more profitable to grow cotton and it revolutionized agriculture in South Carolina. Which of the following explains the exact task that the cotton gin performed? a. It soaked the cotton fibers in chemicals to make them strong enough to use in textiles. b. It picked the cotton from the plant. c. It separated cotton fibers from the cotton seeds. d. It dyed the cotton white, making it much more appealing to the consumer market. 23. The cotton gin separated cotton fibers from the cotton seeds, a task that was very labor intensive. Why did the invention of cotton gin increase the need for slaves by reducing the need for labor to complete this task? a. The cotton gin did save time on labor, but it was an extremely complicated machine. Therefore, more slaves were needed to operate the cotton gin. b. The cotton gin only gathered the fiber and crushed the cotton seeds. Slaves were still needed to physically pick through the fibers and pull out the seeds. c. The cotton gin made it more profitable to grow cotton. This increased the number and size of cotton plantations, so more slaves were needed to pick the cotton. d. The cotton gin was very expensive, and only the very large plantations used them. However, this made cotton a competitive crop, and smaller plantations (without a cotton gin) had to use more slaves to stay in business. 24. A major section of the State Road in South Carolina was completed in This was just one of the many internal improvements being made within the state during that time. Which of the following describes the main purpose for building the State Road? a. To limit trading with other states (the road encouraged merchants to trade only within the boundaries of South Carolina). b. To raise revenue for the local governments (the road was maintained by individual counties and towns, and each charged a toll to those who traveled on it). c. To make it easy to travel from Charleston to Columbia (and later to the Western areas of the state). d. To make sure that all of the African slaves were working on a task (this helped prevent any slave rebellions). 25. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 established the southern boundary of Missouri as an important political divider. According to the compromise, what did this line divide? a. Agricultural states and industrial states. b. Established states and unorganized territories c. The Union and the Confederacy d. New slave states and new free states Page 6

7 26. John Marshall was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1801 to He had a number of influential cases, including Marbury vs. Madison. This established the principle of judicial review, which: a. gave the public a right to vote on Supreme Court decisions, thus giving power to the majority. b. prevented any higher authority (including the President) from questioning the decisions of the Supreme Court. c. gave the Supreme Court the power to decide if acts of Congress were constitutional. d. allowed the media to closely follow and review all Supreme Court cases. 27. As Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1801 to 1835, John Marshall oversaw a number of important cases. His most influential case may have been McCulloch v. Maryland, which officially upheld the Bank of the United States. The more significant outcome of this case was that it: a. determined the types of currency that are used in the United States. b. made it legal for a bank to loan money to people and businesses, and to charge interest on that money. c. prevented the federal government from interfering in the economic affairs of private companies. d. established the power of the federal government over all state governments. 28. Which of the following best describes a typical complaint that a South Carolinian might have about the federal government during the Nullification Crisis of the 1830s? a. The federal government is trying to stop individual states from trading with one another. b. The federal government is trying to infringe on the laws and rights of the individual states. c. The federal government is trying to put an end to the plantation system in South Carolina. d. The federal government is trying to deny South Carolina representation in the Senate. 29. Denmark Vesey was a former slave in South Carolina who managed to purchase his own freedom. In 1822, Vesey organized an event that, when his plans were discovered, led to his hanging. What was the event that Vesey was trying to organize? a. A plot to burn large cotton plantations b. An assassination of John Calhoun c. A massive slave rebellion d. A strike of all government workers Page 7

8 29. In a way, the Vesey Plot had the opposite outcome that was intended. The slave rebellion led to more slave codes (laws to control the African slaves) and more defenses to protect the white population. It also changed the attitude of South Carolinians towards the institution of slavery. Which of the following describes this change in attitude? a. Instead of supporting the institution of slavery, South Carolinians began to feel that it was too risky and difficult. b. Instead of closely dictating the entire life of their slaves, South Carolinians decided that it was better to let the slaves have some degree of freedom. c. Instead of viewing the African slaves as non-threatening, South Carolinians began to realize that they could be extremely smart and crafty. d. Instead of looking at the institution of slavery fairly, South Carolinians began to defend slavery just on principle. 30. Sarah and Angelina Grimke were two sisters born in Charleston, but who moved North to join the Religious Society of Friends, or the "Quakers." The Grimke sisters then gained national fame by: a. speaking out against the cruelties of slavery. b. becoming the first females to vote in a national election. c. convincing thousands of citizens in South Carolina to become Quakers. d. sharing the methods of the plantation system (commonly used in South Carolina) with Northern farmers. 31. In 1828, Andrew Jackson supported a tariff (or tax) on materials arriving from Europe. This tariff sparked the Nullification Crisis because it helped the industrial states in the North, but hurt the economy in the South. Which of the following describes Vice-president John Calhoun's position on the Nullification Crisis? a. Calhoun believed that it would break apart the Union if one state decided that it was going to nullify (or void) a federal law. b. Calhoun believed that individual states should be able to nullify (or void) federal laws if the laws were damaging to the state. c. Calhoun believed that it was okay for an individual state to nullify (or void) a law, so long as the state received approval from the federal government before the law was passed. d. Calhoun believed that the public should be able to vote on certain laws, and the law should be nullified (or voided) if the majority was against it. 32. During the Nullification Crisis of the 1830s, South Carolinians divided into two groups--the "Nullifiers" and the "Unionists." What was the major difference between the two groups? a. The Nullifiers wanted to abolish slavery; the Unionists wanted to continue to use slave labor. b. The Nullifiers wanted to oppose the federal government; the Unionists wanted to support the federal government. c. The Nullifiers wanted South Carolina to become an industrial state; the Unionists wanted South Carolina to remain an agricultural state. Page 8

9 d. The Nullifiers wanted to support President Andrew Jackson; the Unionists wanted to support Vice-President John Calhoun. 33. The immediate result of the Nullification Crisis was the reduction of a federal tariff. However, the Crisis had a much more significant impact, which is summarized by which of the following statements? a. It forced South Carolina to abandon its agricultural roots and focus primarily on industrial development. b. It forced South Carolina residents to support the institution of slavery even though most of the plantation owners were getting ready to abolish it. c. It united South Carolina with several Northern states that were also suffering from the tariff. d. It created tension between the federal government and individual states (especially in the South), and gave South Carolina the reputation as the most radical state. 34. Following the Denmark Vesey Plot in 1822, African Americans (both slaves and free men) were subject to special taxes, travel restrictions, and constant observation. The laws that limited the freedom of African Americans were known as: a. Fort Hill Letters b. The Spoils System c. Vesey Laws d. Black Codes 35. After the Denmark Vesey Plot (1822), South Carolina decided to respond to the growing threats to the state. The legislature decided to construct two military forts--the Citadel (in Charleston) and the Arsenal (in Columbia). During the 1840s, it was decided that there might be a better use for these buildings, and they were turned into: a. Cotton gins b. Military academies c. Textile mills d. Government office buildings 36. The term Antebellum is Latin for "before the war." Why does this term describe the years commonly known as the "Antebellum Period"? a. The Antebellum Period refers to decades prior to the Civil War in the 1860s. b. The Antebellum Period refers to the decades prior to the Spanish-American War in the 1890s. c. The Antebellum Period refers to all of the 19th century, a relatively peaceful period that came before the ongoing violence of the 20th century. d. The Antebellum Period refers to the time in American history when the majority of the population was born before or during the American Revolution. Page 9

10 37. During the Antebellum Period, most of the farmers in South Carolina had a similar outlook on life, especially the wealthy plantation owners. Which of the following describes the attitude of these farmers? a. They believed that farming was a respectable living, but only if it was done without the use of slave labor. b. They believed that working in agriculture was the most admirable profession, and they did not want to introduce industry to South Carolina. c. They believed that agriculture could be profitable, but only if farmers stopped growing cotton and focused on growing rice. d. They believed that farming was a dying trade, and that industry was the wave of the future. 38. The 1840s brought the first signs that South Carolina was switching from an agricultural state to an industrial one. Industry first began to thrive in South Carolina in which of the following fields? a. Firearms b. Steel c. Chemicals d. Textiles 39. During the 1830s, a group of concerned citizens started the Temperance Movement. It lasted for a century, and helped shape the early part of the 20th century. What was the goal of the Temperance Movement? a. To end slavery b. To build public schools across the country c. To raise the minimum working age d. To end the abuses of alcohol 40. During the early 1800s, there were great improvements made in public education across America. Which of the following is true about public education in South Carolina from 1820 to 1860? a. Public education was not necessary because the majority of South Carolinians were wealthy and could afford to send their children to private school. b. Public education was common for children living on small farms, but the children living on large plantations did not go to school because there was too much work to be done. c. Public education was very scarce, and almost no children in the rural community received more than an elementary school education. d. Public education was common across the state, and all children under the age of 16 were enrolled in school. Page 10

11 41. During the Antebellum Era, most slaves were "field hands" (i.e. they worked in the fields). During the day, the slaves were organized by either the "gang system" or "task system". What was the difference between the two? a. Under the gang system, slaves used their own skill and labor to do the work; under the task system, slaves operated specific machines that did the tasks for them. b. Under the gang system, slaves worked in groups for a certain period of time; under the task system, slaves worked until they finished a daily task. c. Under the gang system, slaves were allowed to associate with one another while they worked; under the task system, slaves had to work alone. d. Under the gang system, slaves worked under the instruction of the white farmers; under the task system, slaves worked on a task by themselves, and they were not allowed to talk to the white farmers. 42. Historians often note that the Compromise of 1850 delayed the Civil War in the United States for an entire decade. The Compromise eased tensions dealing with which of the following issues? a. border disputes with Mexico b. the institution of slavery c. rising industry in the North d. declining agriculture in the South 43. One of the most controversial parts of the Compromise of 1850 was the passage of the "Fugitive Slave Law." South Carolinians supported this law, but it angered people in the North because it did which of the following? a. Enabled a plantation owner to have slaves in the free states of the North, so long as the slaves were purchased in the South. b. Forced citizens in the North to provide housing and assistance to a slave who has run away from his home in the South. c. Provided southern slave owners a new slave (paid for mainly by taxes collected in the North) if one of his slaves ran away to a free state. d. Protected the right of southern slave owners to travel North into the free states to recover a runaway slave. 44. Each time a new state was added to the United States prior to the Civil War, it was debated whether it would allow slavery or be a Free State. Which of the following describes why South Carolina was so interested in these new states? a. Many South Carolinians were planning to head west and move to these new states. b. If the government outlawed slavery in the new states, it wouldn't be long before the government made the practice illegal in South Carolina. c. South Carolina felt that it could help the new states thrive economically. d. South Carolina did not want new states taking away its supply of slaves. Page 11

12 45. Which of the following best describes the way the leaders of South Carolina felt about the issue of States' Rights in the decades prior to the Civil War? a. They believed that the nation's more populated states should make all of the major decisions. b. They believed that the laws in one state should apply to the rest of the states in the nation. c. They didn't want the federal government to interfere with the laws of the state. d. They believed that the state government should keep tight control over its citizens. 46. During the Secession Convention of 1860, South Carolinians argued whether or not to secede (or break apart) from the Union. Which of the following is an argument that was used to support secession? a. Secession will undoubtedly bring about a Civil War. b. The federal government is abusing its power. c. The Constitution of the United States is capable of solving the problem. d. The southern states have no experience in self-government. 47. South Carolina voted to secede from the Union on December 20, Over the next few months, several more southern states broke away from the Union. These southern states united to form a new nation known as the: a. The Southern States of America b. The Dixie States of America c. The Confederate States of America d. The Rebel States of America 48. One of the most controversial parts of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 was that it allowed the public in a certain area to vote on whether or not to allow slavery. This concept, itnroduced by Illinois Senator Stephen Douglas, was known as: a. Ordinance of Secession b. The Dred Scott Decision c. Popular Sovereignty d. Lincoln-Douglas Debate 49. In 1857, the Supreme Court ruled that a slave could not sue for his own freedom, even if he lived in a Free State. This was because a slave was not considered an American citizen and had no protection under the law. This historical Supreme Court case is known as: a. Dred Scott vs. Sanford b. Brown vs. Board of Education c. Roe vs. Wade d. Plessy vs. Ferguson Page 12

13 49. South Carolina's decision to secede, or break away, from the Union came only a few weeks after which event in American history? a. The Lincoln-Douglas debates b. The first shots fired on Fort Sumter c. The Supreme Court issues the Dred Scott Decision d. The election of Abraham Lincoln as president 50. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina issued this document to formally declare its intention to break apart from the Union prior to the Civil War: a. Constitution of the Confederate States b. Ordinance of Nullification c. Ordinance of Secession d. Reconstruction Amendments 51. During the 1850s, John Brown and a number of other political activists headed to Kansas and created national news with their violent attacks (over 200 people were killed). This episode, known as "Bleeding Kansas," was the result of which of the following? a. Fighting between Union and Confederate soldiers b. Fighting between abolitionist groups and pro-slavery groups c. Fighting between American citizens and illegal immigrants d. Fighting between white settlers and Native American tribes 52. The first shots of the Civil War were fired at Fort Sumter on April 12, By that time, a number of southern states had joined South Carolina to create the Confederate States of America. A few states that became allies of South Carolina during the Civil War were: a. Ohio, Indiana, Illinois b. California, Oregon, Washington c. Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi d. Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia 53. The Great Compromise provided for a: a. Fair division in both houses of Congress, with each state receiving the same number of representatives. b. Supreme Court and a number of inferior federal courts. c. Gradual end to slavery by the start of the 19th century. d. House of Representatives based on population; a Senate with each state getting two senators. Page 13

14 54. The initial purpose of the Constitutional Convention was to: a. revise the methods of election. b. create a standing army. c. create an income tax. d. revise the Articles of Confederation. 55. In a broad sense, the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 helped set the stage for American politics over the next century because it: a. created restrictions to the slave trade. b. defined the role of the President of the United States. c. gave all male settlers the right to vote. d. established a plan for the admission of new states to the Union. 56. South Carolina was pleased with the three-fifths compromise at the Constitutional Convention because it gave the state: a. more money. b. more land. c. more representation. d. military protection. 57. Shay's Rebellion in 1786 was a revolt of: a. unhappy slave owners. b. unhappy farmers. c. unhappy soldiers. d. unhappy merchants In 1803, Thomas Jefferson assisted in doubling the size of the United States by: a. going to war against France for the Louisiana Territory. b. signing a treaty for the Louisiana Territory with Native Americans in the area. c. forcing Spain to buy the Louisiana Territory from France and give it to the United States. d. purchasing the Louisiana Territory from France. Page 14

15 59. During the Battle of Fort McHenry in the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key wrote which famous patriotic song? a. Battle Hymn of the Republic b. America the Beautiful c. God Bless America d. Star-Spangled Banner 60.. In 1801, James Marshall became the: a. Chief advisor to John Adams. b. Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Army. c. Chief-of-Staff for John Adams. d. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. 61. Judicial Review is the authority of the Supreme Court to review the actions of other branches of government to determine if they are constitutional. This privilege was granted in the Supreme Court decision of: a. Gibbons v. Ogden b. McCulloch v. Maryland c. Marbury v. Madison d. Fletcher v. Peck 62. The architect from South Carolina who designed the Washington Monument was: a. John Wilson b. James Hoban c. Robert Mills d. Joel Poinsett 63.. During the Missouri Compromise debates, Charles Pinckney of South Carolina warned that "the division of this Union, and a civil war," might be caused by the disagreement over: a. slavery. b. foreign tariffs. c. internal improvements. d. trade with Britain. Page 15

16 64. In South Carolina, the Panic of 1819 led to: a. an economic depression across the state. b. an end to cotton farming in the state. c. a rise in cotton prices. d. a rise in cotton production. 65. The only President who claimed to have been born in South Carolina (he was born near the North and South Carolina border) was: a. Andrew Jackson b. James K. Polk c. Woodrow Wilson d. Andrew Johnson 66. Written by John Calhoun in 1828, The South Carolina Exposition and Protest fueled the Nullification Controversy by arguing that a state could: a. maintain its own armed forces. b. pass its own tariff laws. c. refuse to pay federal taxes. d. void a federal law John Calhoun wrote the South Carolina Exposition and Protest in 1828 to protest the: a presidential election b. Tariff of Abominations c. Spoils System d. use of the veto 68.. Held in New York in 1848, the Seneca Falls Convention was the start of the: a. Romantic Movement b. Anti-slavery Movement c. Temperance Movement d. Women's Rights Movement 69.. Often considered the "father" of South Carolina's textile industry, this man built the state's first textile mill in Graniteville (near Aiken) in the 1840s. a. Eli Whitney b. David R. Williams c. William Aiken d. William Gregg Page 16

17 70. Beginning in 1831, William Lloyd Garrison used his newspaper, The Liberator, to attack: a. the institution of slavery b. the Communist Party c. the Women's Rights Movement d. organized religion 71. Known as the "Great Compromiser," this Senator organized the Compromise of 1850, which prevented the nation from erupting into Civil War for another decade: a. John Calhoun b. Henry Clay c. Daniel Webster d. James Hammond 72. Abolitionists were people who: a. wanted to end the institution of slavery. b. wanted the treatment of slaves to be improved. c. wanted to protect the institution of slavery. d. wanted to restrict slavery to the Southern states. 73. From a national perspective, the most significant outcome of the Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858 was that: a. Stephen Douglas was re-elected to the Illinois state senate. b. both candidates agreed that slavery should be limited to the Southern states. c. More campaigns began to feature "stump speeches" and outdoor rallies. d. Abraham Lincoln gained attention across the United States. 74. In 1860, the South Carolina Secession Convention was moved from Columbia to Charleston because of: a. the report of small pox in Columbia. b. the need for better communication facilities. c. the need for more space for the convention. d. the need for better transportation. 75. This man served as the first--and only--president of the Confederate States of America: a. Stephen Douglas b. Robert E. Lee c. William Lloyd Garrison d. Jefferson Davis Page 17

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