International Global Navigations Satellite System Service (IGS)

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1 International Global Navigations Satellite System Service (IGS) Web: (Formerly the International GPS Service until 2005) Chair of the Governing Board: Urs Hugentobler, , Technical University of Munich (Germany) John M. Dow, , European Space Agency / European Space Operations Center (Germany) Director of the Central Bureau: Ruth Neilan, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (USA) Mission: The International GNSS Service provides the highest-quality GNSS data and products in support of the terrestrial reference frame, Earth rotation, Earth observation and research, positioning, navigation and timing and other applications that benefit society. Overview During the years between , the International GNSS Service (IGS) continued to flourish and thrive. The IGS is a voluntary federation of more than 200 organizations in 100 countries that pool resources and permanent GNSS station data, predominantly from GPS and GLONASS, to generate precise data products and information. (See organization chart, Figure 1 and IGS maps, Figure 2 and 3) The IGS is dependent on its cooperative global tracking network of over 400 stations, providing the global reference and links to many denser regional networks, such as EUREF, SIRGAS, AFREF, and so on. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a general term describing space-based position, navigation, and timing (PNT) satellite systems. Currently there are two fully functional GNSSs: the US Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Russian Federation s GLONASS. GPS demonstrates the potential for precise ground- and space-based PNT anywhere in the world. IGS data are collected continuously and archived at distributed Data Centers. Analysis Centers then retrieve the data and produce the most accurate GPS/GLONASS data products available anywhere. IGS data and data products are made readily available to any user reflecting the IGS

2 commitment to an open data policy. The IGS intends to incorporate future GNSSs, the European Union s Galileo and China s COMPASS, and potentially space-based GNSS augmentation systems such as Japan s Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) and India s GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation system (GAGAN). The IGS is a highly successful international scientific federation and a model of international cooperation. IGS is proud to be a recognized scientific service of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) since IGS is one of the key elements of the IAG s new Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). IGS was also a member of the International Council for Science s (ICSU) interdisciplinary body, the Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Data Analysis Services (FAGS) since 1996 until it was dissolved in IGS will apply for membership with the new ICSU body, the World Data System (WDS). IGS Strategic Plan , Mission Statement and Long Terms Goals In , the IGS engaged in a strategic planning process to update the plan. This resulted in a revised mission statement, long term goals and objectives and strategies to achieve the goals. The mission of the IGS is to provide: The highest quality GNSS data, products, and services in support of the Earth observations and research, positioning, navigation and timing, the terrestrial reference frame, Earth rotation, and other applications that benefit society. To accomplish this mission, the IGS outlines six long-term goals for the period These goals are to: Serve as the premier source of the highest-quality GNSS-related standards (conventions), data and products, openly available to all user communities. Attract leading-edge expertise to pursue challenging, innovative projects in a collegial, collaborative and creative culture. Maintain an international federation with committed contributions from its members, and with effective leadership, management and governance. Incorporate and integrate new systems, technologies, applications and changing user needs into IGS products and services. Facilitate the integration of IGS into the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) and other more broadly-based Earth observing and global navigation systems and services. Promote the value and benefits of IGS to society, the broader scientific community, and in particular to policy makers and funding entities.

3 IGS Components IGS Governing Board 2011 The principal roles of the Governing Board are to set policy and to exercise broad oversight of all IGS functions and components. Chair: Urs Hugentobler (Germany) Felicitas Arias (France) Yoaz Bar-Sever (USA) Gerhard Beutler (Switzerland) Founding Chair & IAG Representative Geoff Blewitt (USA) IAG Representative Claude Boucher (France) IERS Representative to IGS Carine Bruyninx (Belgium) Mark Caissy (Canada) John Dow (Germany) Past Chair Bruno Garayt (France) IGS Reference Frame Coordinator Christine Hackman (USA) Gary Johnston (Australia) Andrzej Krankowski (Poland) Bob King (USA) Charles Meertens (USA) TBA, (USA) IGS Network Coordinator Ruth Neilan (USA) Director, IGS Central Bureau Carey Noll (USA) James Park (Rep. of Korea) Jim Ray (USA) IGS Analysis Center Coordinator Chris Rizos (Australia) Ignacio Romero (Germany, Spain) Stefan Schaer (Switzerland) Ralf Schmid (Germany) Tilo Schoene (Germany) Ken Senior (USA) IGS Clock Products Coordinator Tim Springer (Germany) Robert Weber (Germany) Richard Wonnacott (South Africa) IGS Meetings IGS Meeting Location Date 30 th GB Perugia, Italy; IUGG XXIV 30 June st GB San Francisco 9 Dec nd GB Miami 1 June 2008 Analysis Workshop 2008 Miami 2-6 June Closing 32 nd GB Miami 6 Jun rd GB San Francisco 15 Dec th GB Vienna 19 April 2009 IGS Executive & Business Meeting Buenos Aires, IAG General Assembly 1 Sept 2009

4 35 th GB San Francisco 13 Dec th GB Newcastle-upon-Tyne 27 June 2010 IGS Newcastle Workshop 2010 Newcastle-upon-Tyne 28 June 2 July 2010 Closing 36 th GB Newcastle-upon-Tyne 2 July th GB San Francisco 12 Dec th GB Vienna 3 April 2011 IGS Executive and Business Meeting Melbourne IUGG XXV General Assembly 30 June 2011 Projects and Working Groups The IGS continues to develop and improve traditional products such as orbits, clocks, station positions and velocities, as well as fostering projects and working groups that produce additional data products, such as precipitable water vapor (PWV), a valuable input into weather forecasting; and total electron content (TEC), useful for ionospheric space weather research. IGS projects and working groups are dependent upon the infrastructure of the IGS and include: IGS Projects Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring Project -TIGA Real-Time Pilot Project IGS Working Groups IGS Reference Frame Working Group Ionospheric Working Group Clock Products Tropospheric Working Group Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Data Center Purpose Monitor long-term sea-level change, attempt to de-couple crustal motion/subsidence at coastal sites from their tide gauge records Demonstrate for IGS real-time network and applications Purpose Global reference frame, Earth orientation, station positions and velocities determined by GPS Ionospheric science research, global ionospheric maps Global sub-nanosecond time transfer, and IGS time-scale, jointly with the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) Estimate water vapor in atmosphere from the GPS signal delay Determine actions necessary for IGS to co-opt new GNSS systems, European Union Galileo system, China s COMPASS, and GPS modernization Coordination among IGS data centers and support for increasing number of products and real-time.

5 Calibration and Bias Antenna Space Vehicle Orbit Dynamics Update various values for consistent analysis processing, e.g., differential code biases, cc2nocc, etc. Coordinates research in the field of GNSS receiver and satellite antenna phase center determination. Improved understanding and modeling of satellite dynamics towards further improvement of precise orbit determination. The Low Earth Orbiter Working Group was dissolved in A more detailed description of the IGS s components, structure, and how it works can be found here: and in the publication: IGS Strategic Plan IGS products can be described and accessed here: Key IGS Aspects by Year, Reprocessing campaign initiated to reanalyze all IGS data for improved products and time series James Zumberge and Markus Rothacher complete their four-years terms as Analysis Representatives. New Analysis Representatives elected: Bob King and Tim Springer, for Chris Rizos appointed to a second term for Release of the Real-Time Call for Participation, 32 proposals received. Jim Ray of US NGS succeeds Gerd Gendt of GFZ Potsdam as Analysis Center Coordinator Analysis Workshop held in Miami hosted by the US National Geodetic Survey. Recommendations and summary can be found here: and IGS Infrastructure Committee established. IGS joins RTCM via IGS Institute. Steve Fisher rejoins the IGS CB. ACC website fully transferred from GFZ to NGS. Ionospheric WG Chair and product generations transitions from Manuel Hernandez-Pajares, Technical University of Catalonia) to Andrezj Krankowski, University of Warmia and Mazury, Institute of Geodesy

6 Next generation IGS combination software, ACC2.0 call issued. IGS CB plans and hosts the third meeting of the International Committee on GNSS (ICG-3) in Pasadena. IGS Institute established. ICG-3 results in establishing 2 Task Forces within the International Committee on GNSS: Task Forces on Reference Frame and Timing. IGS GB begins a process for strategic plan implementation (SIP) IGS Special issue in Journal of Geodesy published, edited by Chris Rizos. Remi Ferland, of NRCan ends his role as IGS Reference Frame Coordinator. Bruno Garayt or IGN, France succeeds Ferland as IGS Reference Frame coordinator. During IAG General Assembly on Beunow Aires, John Dow presentation for IGS shows strong links between IGS and GGOS. Ignacio Romero appointed as Chair of the IGS Infrastructure Committee. Template for annual reporting by IGS components developed by the CB. Terms of Norman Beck (Network), Carey Noll (Data) and Urs Hugentobler end (Analysis) end. Noll and Hugentobler re-elected, Gary Johnston, Geoscience Australia, elected as Network Representative for terms Richard Wonnacott re-appointed to the GB on recommendation of the CB. Score card for strategic implementation plan (SIP) developed IGS Newcastle Workshop 2010, links to the presentations are here: newcastle2010/ Newcastle Workshop recommendations and summary can be found here: overview/pubs.html Review of IGS Associate Members results in establishment of the Associate Members Committee to determine and establish a process for better membership. IGS Terms of Reference revised. ITRF 2008 released, highlights issues with uncalibrated radomes and site tie errors. IGS increasing involvement in Multi-GNSS campaign activities initiated within the GNSS WG and at the Newcastle Workshop relating to the CONGO network. Also with JAXA for QZSS tracking demonstration. Predicted iono products introduced. LEO Working Group dissolved.

7 IGS engaging with RTCM and RINEX. Real-time project intensifies and combined products being generated. Space Vehicle Orbit Dynamic Working Group established under leadership of Marek Ziebart, University College London. John Dow completes 8 years as Chair of the IGS Governing Board. A reception was held in December to honor hm. Urs Hugentobler elected as new Chair of the IGS GB. Weijun Gan, China, completes his four year term on the GB Charles Meertens, UNAVCO, appointed to the GB on recommendation of the CB. At the ICG-5 in Turin, the Working Group D co-chaired by IGS, IAG and FIG is renamed to ICG Reference Frames, Timing and Applications (RFTA) Working Group 2011 Initiate effort for developing ACC2.0 by CODE, ESA/ESOC, TUM, TUV. Tropospheric WG and product generation transition from Yoaz Bar-Sever, JPL to Christine Hackman, USNO. Search will begin for next Analysis Center Coordinator. IGS History A number of factors led to the formation of the IGS. By the late 1980's many geodynamics and geodetic organizations recognized the potential applications of GPS. GPS was increasingly used for scientific research applications (e.g., earthquake studies, fault motion, plate tectonics) and many people realized the numerous benefits of this affordable technology. The motivating goal for the solid Earth science community was millimeter-level positioning in support of scientific endeavors anywhere in the world. It became evident that a partnership of organizations could better assume the capital investment and recurring operations costs necessary for a globally-based civilian ground infrastructure. At the same time, international groups began forming joint partnerships for collecting data and making observations, developing cooperative approaches and defining standards to ensure that the activities would be driven by science requirements. The idea for an international GPS service began to crystallize at the 1989 IAG Scientific Assembly in Edinburgh, UK. It was here that people recognized that a standardized civilian system for using GPS would be beneficial to all. Subsequently, a planning committee was established within IAG to transform this recognition into action and agreement. In 1991 a Call for Participation was organized by the IAG Planning Committee, seeking participants and contributors who would help develop the proof of concept for an international service in form of a demonstration campaign. The call requested interested groups to assume the roles of station operations, networks, data centers, analysis centers, and a Central Bureau for coordination of the activity. The response was overwhelming and the project was organized by a

8 Campaign Oversight Committee. The pilot activity took place from June to September 1992 and was highly successful, demonstrating the viability of the IGS. The IGS was officially established as an IAG international service on January 1, The IGS celebrated its tenth anniversary in 2004 at a highly successful symposium at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern in Switzerland. The IGS, as a completely voluntary organization, continues to operate the global civilian GPS and GLONASS tracking system for science research and novel applications. Since the pilot project in 1992, the network has grown from approximately 30 permanent GPS stations to more than 400 (including GLONASS stations since 1998) and the accuracy of the IGS orbits has improved an order of magnitude, from 50 cm to less than 5 cm (3d-wrms). In December 2005, the GLONASS Pilot Project Service ( ) was dissolved as a separate IGS activity, and GLONASS tracking and processing became an integral part of the IGS, demonstrating IGS as a truly global GNSS service. Earlier that year during a revision of the IGS Terms of Reference, the Governing Board decided that a name change was appropriate to reflect the IGS s utilization of GLONASS and GPS, and plans for incorporation of any future GNSS. Former Members of IGS Governing Board Norman Beck Mike Bevis Yehuda Bock Henno Boomcamp (Carine Bruyninx)* Nicole Capitaine Loic Daniel Bjorn Engen Peng Fang Martine Feissel Joachim Feltens Remi Ferland Steve Fisher Weijin Gan Gerd Gendt Manuel Hernandez Tom Herring Teruyuki Kato Jan Kouba Bill Kuo Gerry Mader John Manning Bill Melbourne Angelyn Moore Ivan Mueller Paul Paquet David Pugh (Jim Ray*) Christoph Reigber Markus Rothacher Bob Schutz Robert Serafin Jim Slater (Tim Springer*) Michael Watkins Pascal Willis 1999 Peizhen Zhang Jim Zumberge * Re-elected to the GB

9 Report of the International Association of Geodesy Travaux de l Association Internationale de Géodésie Summary Through the IGS contributing organizations, its associate members, hundreds of participating scientists and engineers, and the many respective sponsoring agencies, the IGS operates a collective system that has provided geodetic reference data and related products of enormous value to scientific research, applications, and society. The IGS has accomplished much as a fully voluntary, globally de-centralized organization, self-governed by its members, and without any central source of funding. Financial support is provided through the various member organizations and the agencies around the world that sponsor them. The IGS is indebted to these many sponsors and expresses sincere appreciation for their continued support through the years. Each contributor to the IGS adds value to the federation, and this community of dedicated individuals can be proud of a stellar record of accomplishments. IGS Associate Members External Interfaces Governing Board Oversight IAG/GGOS IERS BIPM ICSU/WDS UNOOSA/ICG Product Coordinators Commi ees of the GB Execu ve Commi ee Strategic Planning Commi ee Elec ons Commi ees Infrastructure Commi ee Associate Member Commi ee Analysis Coordinator Reference Frame Clock Products Central Bureau Execu ve Management Network Coordina on Informa on Portal Support Organiza ons IGS Ins tute UNAVCO Pilot Projects and Working Groups Antenna WG Analysis Bias & Calibra on WG Centers Clock Product WG Data Centers WG GNSS WG Global Network ACs Ionosphere WG Global Network AACs Real me WG Regional Network AACs Reference Frame WG Other AACs (Ionosphere, Space Vehicle Orbit Dynamics WG Real Time) Troposphere WG Tide Gauge PP Figure 1. IGS Organization Chart 2011 Data Centers Global Data Centers Regional Data Centers Opera onal Data Centers Project Data Centers Tracking Sta ons Reference Frame Sta ons Mul GNSS Sta ons Real me Sta ons Applica on Sta ons (e.g., Tide Gauge) Interna onal Associa on for Geodesy/Global Geode c Observing System (IAG/GGOS) Interna onal Earth Rota on and Reference System Service (IERS) Bureau Interna onal des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) Interna onal Council for Science/Word Data Systems (ICS/WDS) United Na ons Office for Outer Space Affairs/Interna onal Commi ee on GNSS (UNOOSA/ICG) Analysis Center (AC) Associate Analysis Center (AAC)

10 Figure 2. IGS Tracking Network, all stations. Figure 3. IGS Tracking Network of GPS/GLONASS Stations.

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