US History 1 Honors/AP Prep. The Constitution and Early U.S. Government

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1 US History 1 Honors/AP Prep Mr. Mulry The Constitution and Early U.S. Government Part 1: Multiple Choice (content) 1. The United States officially gained its independence with the (A) Treaty of Westphalia (B) Treaty of Versailles (C) Treaty of Ghent (D) Treaty of Paris (E) Treaty of Tordesillas 2. Which of the following is not a legacy of the Articles of Confederation? (A) Creation of the Great Seal (B) Establishment of the reservation system for Native Americans (C) Creation of the U.S. Treasury (D) Allowing the statehood of western territories (E) Establishment of a post office 3. Which state did not attend the 1787 Philadelphia convention? (A) New York (B) South Carolina (C) Georgia (D) Rhode Island (E) New Hampshire 4. The New Jersey Plan would most likely be supported by (A) states with large populations (B) states with small populations (C) states that were mostly agricultural (D) states in the South (E) states in the North 5. Which statement concerning the Virginia Plan is not correct? (A) It was drafted by James Madison. (B) It was a bicameral body. (C) Representatives were based on population. (D) It was a unicameral body. (E) It gave the legislative branch the power to tax. 6. At the Constitutional Convention, the Great Compromise referred to (A) the counting of slave populations in censuses for representation (B) the ratification of the U.S. Constitution (C) the agreement of northern and southern states to allow the expansion of slavery in the South (D) the creation of the Senate and the House of Representatives (E) the creation of checks and balances 1 of 18

2 7. Which of the following people is referred to as the Father of the Constitution? (A) James Madison (B) Benjamin Franklin (C) Thomas Jefferson (D) George Washington (E) John Adams 8. What is judicial review? (A) The Supreme Court s power to strike down laws that are unconstitutional (B) The requirement that the Senate approve all Supreme Court nominations (C) The president s right to appoint judges to the Supreme Court (D) The establishment of lower federal circuit courts (E) The process of removing justices from the Supreme Court 9. The main point of the Three-Fifths Compromise was to (A) establish the number of votes needed to approve legislation (B) appropriate congressional seats (C) formalize a number of state votes needed to ratify the Constitution (D) develop a method to amend the Constitution (E) create a system to override a presidential veto 10. Which of the following statements best describes the overall impact of the Three-Fifths Compromise? (A) The institution of slavery became officially recognized under the Constitution. (B) The compromise provided a clear method for amending the Constitution. (C) The compromise provided a clear method for overriding a presidential veto. (D) The compromise gave the southern states a clear majority in the House of Representatives. 11. Which of the following beliefs would not be held by the Antifederalists? (A) The Necessary and Proper Clause gave the central government too much power. (B) The government should be able to hold a standing army in times of peace. (C) A Bill of Rights was necessary. (D) The executive branch threatened states rights. (E) Power was best vested in the hands of state governments. 12. Which of the following framers of the Constitution would most likely view a Bill of Rights as a threat to individual liberties? (A) Patrick Henry (B) George Mason (C) Samuel Adams (D) James Monroe (E) Alexander Hamilton 2 of 18

3 13. The powers of the president are outlined in which article of the Constitution? (A) Article I (B) Article II (C) Article III (D) Article IV (E) Article V 14. Which of the following individuals was not a member of the first presidential cabinet under the Constitution? (A) Edmund Randolph (B) Alexander Hamilton (C) John Marshall (D) Thomas Jefferson (E) Henry Knox 15. The Judiciary Act of 1789 established (A) judicial review (B) a federal court system (C) the Supreme Court (D) the chief justice (E) writs of assistance 16. Alexander Hamilton s debt plan consolidated the nation s Revolutionary War debts into one debt to be paid off by (A) American merchants (B) the individual states (C) the national government (D) newly discovered gold deposits in the West (E) foreign investors 17. Which of the following led directly to an undeclared naval war between the United States and France? (A) Jay s Treaty (B) Pinckney s Treaty (C) The XYZ Affair (D) The Whiskey Rebellion (E) The Treaty of Alliance 18. Which of the following statements is most accurate concerning the Alien and Sedition Acts? (A) The acts were passed by a Republican Congress. (B) The acts loosened the requirements for U.S. citizenship. (C) The acts were passed to protect John Adams from his critics. (D) The acts furthered U.S. citizens First Amendment rights. (E) All of the acts expired in of 18

4 19. Who was the French foreign minister who interfered with the United States neutrality in the war between Britain and France during the French Revolution? (A) Edmond-Charles Genet (B) Charles Talleyrand (C) Georges Clemenceau (D) Ferdinand Maximilian (E) Maximilian Robespierre 20. Which of the following policies or actions would have been the most popular among people living in the western United States prior to 1812? (A) The Force Bill (B) Hamilton s economic program (C) Pinckney s Treaty (D) The Missouri Compromise (E) The Alien and Sedition Acts 21. Which group directly profited from the creation of the first national bank? (A) Poor farmers (B) Jeffersonian Republicans (C) People of the northern United States (D) People of the southern United States (E) People of the western United States 22. Which of the following actions did not directly address a territorial concern? (A) Jay s Treaty (B) The Whiskey Rebellion (C) The Louisiana Purchase (D) Pinckney s Treaty (E) The Adams-Onis Treaty 23. Which of the following policies was supported by James Madison? (A) Creation of a national bank (B) Jay s Treaty (C) Passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts (D) Creation of the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (E) Issuance of government bonds to help pay the domestic debt 24. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions were passed in order to (A) promote an excise tax on whiskey (B) nullify the power of the federal government (C) support the Alien and Sedition Acts (D) call for the absorption of the state debts by the federal government (E) affirm the power of the federal government 4 of 18

5 25. Which of the following groups would most likely support the policies of Alexander Hamilton? (A) States that independently paid off their debt from the Revolution (B) Western farmers (C) Entrepreneurs in manufacturing (D) People who harbored strong anti-monarchical sentiments after the revolution (E) Strict constitutionalists 26. The Marbury v. Madison decision strengthened the power of the (A) executive branch (B) judicial branch (C) legislative branch (D) legislative and judicial branches (E) judicial and executive branches 27. The appointment of John Marshall enabled the Federalists to retain power in which area of government? (A) House of Representatives (B) Senate (C) electoral college (D) judicial branch (E) executive branch 28. Which of the following policies is most associated with the Native American chief Handsome Lake? (A) Full assimilation into American society (B) Abstention from alcohol (C) Ending land treaties with the U.S. government (D) Total rejection of white society (E) Voluntary relocation west of the Mississippi River 29. Which of the following statements describes a result of the Embargo of 1807? (A) The embargo stopped the smuggling of goods into the United States. (B) The embargo was only against the British. (C) The embargo led to an increase of trade in the southern states. (D) The embargo was strongly supported by New England. (E) The embargo benefited northern manufacturing. 30. Of the following people, who is most associated with the War Hawks prior to the War of 1812? (A) Charles Sumner (B) Elbridge Gerry (C) Henry Clay (D) Daniel Webster (E) Thomas Jefferson 5 of 18

6 31. Which of the following was not a direct reason for the United States to declare war on Britain in 1812? (A) Britain s support of Native American uprisings (B) A desire to take Spanish-held lands in North America (C) British impressments of American sailors (D) British actions during the XYZ Affair (E) Election of the War Hawks in Which group of people would most support the Hartford Convention? (A) New England merchants (B) Southern plantation owners (C) Western frontiersmen (D) Native Americans in the Northwest (E) Democratic Republicans 33. The Star-Spangled Banner is most associated with which battle location? (A) New Orleans (B) Fort McHenry (C) Thames (D) Bladensburg (E) Lake Erie 34. Which treaty ended the War of 1812? (A) The Treaty of Paris (B) The Treaty of Greenville (C) The Treaty of Ghent (D) Jay s Treaty (E) Pinckney s Treaty 35. Which of the following statements does not describe a direct result of the War of 1812? (A) The United States gained further fishing rights along the eastern Canadian coast. (B) American domestic manufacturing increased. (C) The border between Canada and the United States was restored to the prewar locations. (D) British impressments of American ships increased. (E) The United States gained parts of western Florida. 36. What was the name of the ship overtaken by slaves during the early 19th century in the Americas? (A) Leopold (B) Amistad (C) Merrimac (D) Chesapeake (E) Constitution 6 of 18

7 37. Which of the following projects was not part of the transportation revolution prior to the Civil War? (A) Erie Canal (B) Cumberland Road (C) Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (D) Clermont (E) Transcontinental Railroad 38. Which construction project connected New York City to the Great Lakes? (A) Erie Canal (B) Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (C) Cumberland Road (D) National Highway (E) Transcontinental Railroad 39. Which of the following statements does not describe a result of the cotton gin? (A) Cotton became a staple export crop. (B) The demand for western lands increased. (C) Eli Whitney made huge profits. (D) The demand for slave labor increased. (E) Greater pressure was exerted on removing Native Americans from the South. 40. Which of the following best describes the practice of slavery from the end of the American Revolution to 1793? (A) The number of slaves was gradually decreasing in the South. (B) All northern states abolished the practice of slavery. (C) Most slaves worked on cotton plantations. (D) The federal government did not formally acknowledge the practice of slavery. (E) The importation of slaves was formally banned. 41. Which religious group is most associated with the Second Great Awakening? (A) Seventh-Day Adventists (B) Quakers (C) Amish (D) Lutherans (E) Pentecostals 42. Which of the following was a goal of Gabriel Prosser s Rebellion? (A) Protesting excise taxes placed on whiskey (B) Voicing disapproval of high tariffs (C) Opposing government actions deemed unconstitutional (D) Creating a massive slave uprising in Virginia (E) Protesting direct taxes imposed by state governments 7 of 18

8 43. The main purpose of passing the Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution was to (A) correct irregularities in presidential elections (B) prevent individuals in one state from suing another state in federal courts (C) allow the federal government to purchase new lands from foreign powers (D) end the importation of slaves from outside of the nation (E) outlaw forced labor and involuntary servitude Part 2: Multiple Choice (primary sources) Questions refer to the excerpt below. It is not denied that there are implied as well as express powers, and that the former are as effectually delegated as the latter. It is conceded that implied powers are to be considered as delegated equally with express ones. Then it follows, that as a power of erecting a corporation [such as a bank] may as well be implied as any other thing, it may as well be employed as an instrument or means of carrying into execution any of the specified powers.but one may be erected in relation to the trade with foreign countries, or to the trade between the states because it is the province of the federal government to regulate those objects, and because it is incident to a general sovereign or legislative power to regulate a thing, to employ all the means which relate to its regulation to the best and greatest advantage. -Alexander Hamilton, Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States, Hamilton s constitutional argument was based on which of the following types of powers? (A) Employed (B) Expressed (C) Implied (D) Regulated 45. Which of the following benefited most directly from the bank that Hamilton strongly supported? (A) Manufacturers (B) Farmers (C) State governments (D) Slaveowners 46. Who of the following would be most critical of Hamilton s position on the bank? (A) George Washington (B) John Adams (C) Thomas Jefferson (D) Henry Knox 8 of 18

9 Questions 47 and 48 refer to the excerpt below. Friends and Fellow Citizens: I should now apprise you of the resolution I have formed to decline being considered among the number of those out of whom a choice is to be made. I have already intimated to you the danger of parties with particular reference to geographical discriminations. Let it simply be asked where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths. As a very important source of strength and security, cherish public credit avoiding likewise the accumulation of debt which unavoidable wars may have occasioned in mind that toward the payment of debt there must be taxes. By interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, [we] entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition, rivalship, interest, humor, or caprice.it is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world. -George Washington, Farewell Address, One of the strong reasons Washington and others warned against political parties was concern about (A) damages to the national reputation (B) divisive sectionalism (C) rights of property owners (D) unavoidable wars 48. Which of the following did Washington believe was very important for the United States to avoid? (A) Excesses of patriotism (B) Foreign alliances (C) Raising taxes (D) Religious obligations 9 of 18

10 Questions refer to the excerpt below. Resolved, that the several States composing the United States of America are not united on the principle of unlimited submission to their general government; but that by compact under the style and title of a Constitution for the United States and of amendments thereto, they constituted a general government for specific purposes, delegated to that government certain definite powers, reserving, each State to itself, the residuary mass of right to their own self-government; and that whensoever the general government assumes undelegated powers, its acts are unauthoritative, void, and of no force. That this would be to surrender the form of government we have chosen, and to live under one deriving its powers from its own will, and not from our authority; and that the co-states, recurring to their natural right in cases not made Federal, will concur in declaring these acts void and of no force. -Thomas Jefferson (anonomously), Kentucky Resolutions, November 16, The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions were issued in reaction to the (A) ratification of the Bill of Rights (B) passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts (C) the revelations about the XYZ Affair (D) the declaration of the Proclamation of Neutrality 50. According to the passage, the final decision on whether a federal law or action was legal should be made by (A) Congress (B) the president (C) the Supreme Court (D) each state 51. Which individual or group among the following would be the strongest supporter of the Kentucky Resolution? (A) John Adams (B) Democratic-Republicans (C) Federalists (D) Alexander Hamilton 10 of 18

11 Questions refer to the excerpt below. I am ready to allow, Mr. President, that both Great Britain and France have given us abundant cause for war.my plan would be, and my first wish is, to prepare for it to put the country in complete armor in the attitude imperiously demanded in a crisis of war, and to which it must be brought before any war can be effective.i must call on every member of this Senate to pause before he leaps into or crosses the Rubicon declaring war is passing the Rubicon in reality. -Senator Obadian German of New York, speech in the Senate, June Based on the tone of the excerpt, which of the statements below best expresses German s position declaring war in June of 1812? (A) He opposed going to war because he did not believe the country was prepared for one (B) He opposed the war because he thought people did not have the right attitude about fighting (C) He supported going to war immediately against both Great Britain and France (D) He supported the war to prevent British troops from Canada invading New York and other northern states 53. Who of the following would be most likely to agree with German s position on the war? (A) John Calhoun and other politicians from the South (B) Henry Clay and other politicians from the West (C) James Madison and other politicians from the executive branch (D) Merchants from New England 54. Which of the following is the best support for German s claim that the United States has abundant cause for war? (A) the impressment of U.S. sailors (B) the controversy over the Louisiana Purchase (C) the actions by the Barbary pirates (D) the findings of the Lewis and Clark expedition 11 of 18

12 Questions refer to the excerpt below. All, too, will bear in mind this sacred principle, that though the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail, that will to be rightful must be reasonable; that the minority possess their equal rights, which equal law must protect, and to violate would be oppression. We have called by different names brethren of the same principle. We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists. If there by any among us who would wish to dissolve this Union or to change its republican form, let them stand undisturbed as monuments of the safety with which error of opinion may be tolerated where reason is left free to combat it. Equal and exact justice to all men, of whatever state or persuasion, religious or political; peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none. Thomas Jefferson, First Inaugural Address, According to Jefferson s address, which of the following should be relied on to protect equal rights for all people? (A) The majority (B) Elections (C) Laws (D) Religion 56. Which person would most strongly disagree with Jefferson s statement, We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists? (A) John Calhoun (B) Alexander Hamilton (C) James Madison (D) James Monroe 57. Jefferson s call to avoid entangling alliances is similar to the advice of (A) John Adams (B) Aaron Burr (C) John Marshall (D) George Washington 12 of 18

13 Questions refer to the excerpt below. It is true I am a Shawnee. My forefathers were warriors. Their son is a warrior. From them I take only my existence; from my tribe I take nothing.[i] come to Governor Harrison to ask him to tear the treaty but I would say to him: Sir, you have liberty to return to your own country. Once, nor until lately, there was no white man on this continent.it then all belonged to red men.once a happy race, since made miserable by the white people, who are never contented but always encroaching. The way, and the only way, to check and to stop this evil, is for all the red men to unite in claiming a common and equal right in the land.for it never was divided, but belongs to all for the use of each. For no part has a right to sell. -Tecumseh, Letter to Governor William Henry Harrison, August Tecumseh believed that which of the following would be the best way for the American Indians to respond to the desire of white settlers for land? (A) Signing a treaty with the United States (B) Joining the British in order to stop westward expansion (C) Moving westward to lands unoccupied by American Indians (D) Forming a confederacy among all American Indians 59. Tecumseh objected to the treaty selling Indian land because he thought (A) the price offered by the United States was too low (B) American Indians were always encroaching on settlements (C) the white settlers would divide the land among them (D) no individual or single tribe had the right to sell the land 13 of 18

14 Part 3: Short-Answer Questions Briefly answer the questions in complete sentences. A thesis is not required. Question 60 is based on the excerpt below. Sir, suffer me to recall to your mind that time, in which the arms and tyranny of the British crown were exerted. This, Sir, was a time when you clearly saw into the injustice of a State of slavery that you publicly held forth this true and invaluable doctrine. we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights. But, Sir, how pitiable is it to reflect, that although you were so fully convinced of the benevolence of the Father of Mankind, and of his equal and impartial distribution of these rights and privileges, which he hath conferred upon them, that you should at the same time counteract his mercies, in detaining by fraud and violence so numerous a part of my brethren, under groaning captivity, and cruel oppression. -Benjamin Banneker, African American scientist and surveyor, letter to Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, Using the excerpt, answer a, b, and c. a) Briefly explain why Banneker questioned Jefferson s actions on slavery. b) Briefly explain why ONE of the following people would either support or question Banneker s view. -Ben Franklin -John Adams -George Washington c) Briefly explain how Thomas Jefferson might have responded to Banneker s questions about slavery. 14 of 18

15 61. Answer a, b, and c. a) Briefly explain how ONE of the following best supports the statement that the United States Constitution is a bundle of comprises. Provide at least ONE piece of evidence to support your explanation. -the office of the presidency -the system of representation -the institution of slavery b) Briefly explain a criticism of ONE of the compromises cited above. c) Identify and briefly explain the role played by an individual at the Constitutional Convention in bringing about ONE of the compromises mentioned above or a compromise not mentioned. Question 62 is based on the excerpts below. The freedom of the press and opinions was never understood to give the right of publishing falsehoods and slanders, nor of exciting sedition, insurrection, and slaughter, with impunity. A man is always answerable for the malicious publication of falsehood; and what more does this bill require? Such liberty of the press and of opinion is calculated to destroy all confidence between man and man; it leads to a dissolution of every bond of union; it cuts asunder every ligament that unites man to his family, man to his neighbor, man to society and to government. God deliver us from such liberty. -Congressional Representative John Allen, Speech for the Sedition Act, 1798 Does the situation of the country, at this time require that any law of this kind should pass? Do there exist such new and alarming symptoms of sedition as render it necessary to adopt, in addition to the existing laws, any extraordinary measure for the purpose of suppressing unlawful combinations, and of restricting the freedom of speech and the press? For such were the objects of the bill, whatever modifications it might receive. While, therefore, they support the bill in its present shape, do they not avow that the true object of the law is to enable one party to oppress the other.is it not their object to frighten and suppress all presses which they consider as contrary to their views; to prevent a free circulation of opinion; to delude and deceive and through those means, to perpetuate themselves in power? -Congressional Representative Albert Gallatin, Speech Against the Sedition Act, of 18

16 62. Using the excerpts, answer a, b, and c. a) Briefly explain the main point of the first excerpt. b) Briefly explain the main point of the second excerpt. c) Provide ONE piece of evidence from the era before 1800 that is not included in the in the excerpt and explain how it supports the interpretation of either excerpt. 63. Answer a, b, and c. a) Choose ONE of the choices below, and explain why it best supports this statement: America s first foreign policy under Presidents Washington and Adams had the primary goal of avoiding war. -Citizen Genet controversy -Jay Treaty -XYZ Affair b) Contrast your choice against ONE of the other options, demonstrating why that option is not as good as your choice. c) Briefly explain an argument for war involving ONE of the choices provided OR another situation during this period of the first two presidents. 64. Answer a, b, and c. a) Choose ONE of the choices below, and explain why your choice best demonstrates how Presidents Jefferson and Madison largely relied on economic policies to carry out their foreign policies. -Louisiana Purchase -Embargo Act -Macon s Bill No. 2 b) Contrast your choice against ONE of the other options, demonstrating why that option is not as good as your choice. c) Provide ONE piece of evidence involving one of the choices provided or another situation during this period of Presidents Jefferson and Madison that either supports or contradicts their reliance on economic policies to carry out their foreign policies. 16 of 18

17 65. Answer a and b. a) Briefly explain how ONE of the following either supports or contradicts this statement: From the point of view of President Madison, none of the goals for the War of 1812 had been achieved. Provide at least ONE piece of evidence to support your explanation. -foreign relations -nationalism -industry b) Briefly explain how ONE of the following goals of the United States in the War of 1812 would continue after the war to play a major role in the politics and policies of the nation. -impressment of sailors -American Indian conflicts -expansion Question 66 is based on the following excerpts. What Mr. Speaker, are we now called on to decide? It is, whether we will resist by force the attempt, made by that Government [Britain], to subject our maritime rights to the arbitrary and capricious rule of her will; for my part I am not prepared to say that this country shall submit to have her commerce interdicted or regulated, by any foreign nation. Sir, I prefer war to submission. The British Government, for many years past they have been in the practice of impressing our seamen, from merchant vessels; this unjust and lawless invasion of personal liberty, calls loudly for the interposition of this Government This war will have its advantages. We shall drive the British from our continent they will no longer [be] intriguing with our Indian neighbors.i am willing to receive the Canadians as adopted brethren. -Felix Grundy, Speech in the House of Representatives December 1811 This war of conquest, a war for the acquisition of territory and subjects, is to be a new commentary on the doctrine that republics are destitute of ambition; that they are addicted to peace. But is war the true remedy? Who will profit by it? Speculators a few lucky merchants.who must suffer by it? The people. It is their blood, their taxes that must flow to support it. Our people will not submit to be taxed for this war of conquest and dominion. The government of the United States was not calculated to wage offensive war; it was instituted for the common defense and general welfare; and whosoever should embark it in a war of offense would put it to a test which it was by no means calculated to endure. -John Randolph, Speech in the House of Representatives December of 18

18 66. Using the excerpts, answer a, b, and c. a) Briefly explain the main point of excerpt 1. b) Briefly explain the main point of excerpt 2. c) Provide ONE piece of evidence from the debate over war during this period that is not included in the excerpts and explain how it supports the interpretation in either excerpt. Question 67 is based on the following excerpt. And if this court is not authorized to issue a writ of mandamus.it must be because the law is unconstitutional and therefore absolutely incapable of conferring the authority. Certainly, all those who have framed written constitutions contemplate them as forming the fundamental and paramount law and consequently an act of the legislature repugnant to the constitution is void. If, then, the courts are to regard the Constitution, and the Constitution is superior to any ordinary act of the legislature, the Constitution, and not such ordinary act must govern the case to which they both apply. The judicial power of the United States is extended to all cases arising under the Constitution. Thus, the particular phraseology of the Constitution confirms and strengthens the principle that a law repugnant to the Constitution is void and that courts, as well as other departments, are bound by that instrument. 67. Using the excerpt, answer a and b. -John Marshall, Marbury v. Madison, 1803 a) Briefly explain the significance of Marshall s opinion presented as Jefferson became the third president of the United States. b) Briefly explain how TWO of the following people would either support or question Marshall s view. -William Marbury -John Adams -Thomas Jefferson -Alexander Hamilton 18 of 18

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