1 2 The Constitution Multiple-Choice Questions 1. At the Constitutional Convention, the delegates agreed that slaves would be counted as of a person for determining population for representation in the House of Representatives. a. four-fifths b. three-fifths c. two-thirds d. one-third e. one-fourth Answer: b 2. is an economic theory designed to increase a nation s wealth through the development of commercial industry and a favorable balance of trade. a. Nationalism b. Socialism c. Mercantilism d. Republicanism e. Commercialism Answer: c
2 3. In what year was the Declaration of Independence signed? a b c d e Answer: a 4. How many constitutions has the United States had in its history? a. three b. five c. one d. two e. four Answer: d 5. The U.S. Constitution was adopted in response to the weaknesses of the Articles of. a. Unity b. Revolution c. America d. Democracy e. Confederation Answer: e Page Reference: pp A-head: The First Attempt at Government: The Articles of Confederation Learning Objective: O Connor L.O. 2.2
3 6. The colonists rebelled against the unilateral imposition by the British government of which of the following? a. taxes b. a military draft c. curfews d. religious laws e. health care Answer: a 7. Who was the author of the Declaration of Independence? a. James Madison b. Benjamin Franklin c. Thomas Jefferson d. Paul Revere e. John Adams Answer: c 8. Which of the following debated and drafted the Declaration of Independence? a. Constitutional Congress b. Continental Congress c. Revolutionary Congress d. American Congress e. Liberty Congress Answer: b 9. Which clause provides that the Constitution shall be the supreme law of the land?
4 a. full faith and credit b. legal c. primacy d. due process e. supremacy Answer: e 10. Which of the following generally favored a strong national government and supported the proposed U.S. Constitution? a. Tories b. Whigs c. Federalists d. Anti-Federalists e. Constitutionalists Answer: c 11. The proposed proportional representation in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. a. Ohio Plan b. Virginia Plan c. New Jersey Plan d. Massachusetts Plan e. Pennsylvania Plan Answer: b 12. How many amendments have been made to the Constitution since its ratification? a. twenty-seven
5 b. ten c. thirty-six d. twelve e. fifteen Answer: a Page Reference: pp A-head: Chapter 2 Introduction Learning Objective: Chapter 2 Introduction 13. In what year was the U.S. Constitution ratified? a b c d e Answer: d 14. Of the fifty-five delegates who attended some portion of the Constitutional Convention, how many ultimately signed it? a. thirty-nine b. twenty-nine c. fifty-four d. forty-eight e. forty-five Answer: a 15. Which of the following is a branch of the U.S. government? a. Congress b. Supreme Court c. presidency
6 d. legislative e. Senate Answer: d Page Reference: pp A-head: The First Attempt at Government: The Articles of Confederation Learning Objective: O Connor L.O The Constitution specifically provides for both the election and the removal of which of the following? a. secretary of defense b. president c. secretary of state d. chief justice e. Speaker of the House Answer: b 17. Which constitutional amendment allowed voting for citizens who were eighteen or older? a. Twenty-Sixth b. Fifteenth c. Twentieth d. Twenty-Seventh e. Nineteenth Answer: a Page Reference: pp A-head: Chapter 2 Introduction Learning Objective: Chapter 2 Introduction 18. Which of the following philosophers greatly influenced the colonists views on the role of government? a. John Dewey b. John Locke c. Martin Heidegger d. Michael Foucalt
7 e. George Berkley Answer: b 19. During the colonial era, the colonists retained the right to do which of the following? a. wage war b. regulate trade c. negotiate treaties d. levy taxes e. require compulsory tithing Answer: d 20. Which of the following required all paper items in the colonies to carry a stamp of the Crown? a. Crown Act b. Paper Act c. Stamp Act d. Tax Act e. Royal Act Answer: c 21. Which Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence? a. Second b. Third c. Fourth d. Fifth e. Tenth
8 Answer: a 22. How many of the thirteen colonies voted for independence? a. thirteen b. ten c. eight d. twelve e. nine Answer: d 23. In what year was the Bill of Rights added to the Constitution? a b c d e Answer: e 24. Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution contains which powers of Congress? a. enumerated b. restrictive c. military d. implied e. executive Answer: a
9 25. During the Constitutional Convention, which states generally opposed an unelected federal judiciary? a. large b. northern c. small d. southern e. border Answer: a 26. Rebellion was a protest by Massachusetts farmers to stop foreclosures by state courts. a. Brown s b. Smith s c. Miller s d. Shay s e. James s Answer: d Page Reference: pp A-head: The First Attempt at Government: The Articles of Confederation Learning Objective: O Connor L.O The Articles of Confederation required consent from the states for ratification. a. three-fifths b. unanimous c. two-thirds d. majority e. three-fourths Answer: b Page Reference: pp A-head: The First Attempt at Government: The Articles of Confederation Learning Objective: O Connor L.O. 2.2
10 28. Many of the Founders believed that the contract gave the government its legitimacy. a. implied b. social c. governing d. consent e. natural Answer: b 29. Which of the following generally opposed the Senate because it would operate as an aristocratic upper house? a. Anti-Federalists b. Federalists c. Tories d. Whigs e. Republicans Answer: a 30. Under the Articles of Confederation, a(n) judiciary was established, but all other courts were left to the states. a. maritime b. taxation c. criminal d. admiralty e. military Answer: a
11 31. What type of legislature did the United States have under the Articles of Confederation? a. bicameral b. unified c. divided d. populist e. unicameral Answer: e 32. Under the Constitution, the president is elected by which of the following? a. Election College b. Congressional College c. Electoral College d. Presidential College e. State College Answer: c 33. What is the principle that each branch of the federal government has the means to thwart or influence actions by other branches of government? a. weights and measures b. checks and balances c. balances and powers d. checks and freedoms e. freedom and power Answer: b
12 34. Which of the following specifies the procedure for amending the Constitution? a. Article I b. Article III c. Article V d. Article VI e. Article IX Answer: c Page Reference: pp A-head: Toward Reform: Methods of Amending the U.S. Constitution Learning Objective: O Connor L.O The First Continental Congress was a response to which of the following? a. Stamp Act b. Intolerable Acts c. Coercive Acts d. Boston Massacre e. Townshend Acts Answer: c 36. As depicted in Figure 2.1, What Are the Separation of Powers and How Do Checks and Balances Work Under the U.S. Constitution?, the executive branch is in charge of which of the following? a. passing federal laws b. declaring war c. interpreting federal laws d. making foreign treaties e. establishing lower courts Answer: d
13 37. The colonists generally believed that a constitution should mark the limits of what type of government power? a. inherent b. natural c. defined d. legitimate e. implied Answer: d 38. The Intolerable Acts was the colonists name for the Acts of a. Stamp b. Tea c. Coercive d. Mercantile e. Commerce Answer: c 39. In the United States, the national government derives its power from which of the following? a. states b. courts c. legislature d. citizens e. laws Answer: d
14 40. Jackie attends a protest against animal testing. Which of the following secures her right to attend this protest? a. Second Treatise of Civil Government b. The Federalist Papers c. Bill of Rights d. Declaration of Independence e. Articles of Confederation Answer: c 41. Which plan called for a one-house legislature and multi-person executive? a. the Ohio Plan b. the Connecticut Plan c. the Maryland Plan d. the Virginia Plan e. the New Jersey Plan Answer: e 42. What was the subject of the Great Compromise? a. the legality of slavery b. the form of the legislative branch c. the number of states in the Union d. the number of Supreme Court justices e. the form of the executive branch Answer: b 43. Which of the following was most likely to support proposed provisions that strengthened national power?
15 a. James Madison b. Patrick Henry c. George Mason d. Samuel Adams e. James Winthrop Answer: a 44. Which of the following was a powerful economic group during the colonial era? a. Massachusetts clergy b. southern fisherman c. New England merchants d. Pennsylvania miners e. northern farmers Answer: c 45. The publication of which of the following galvanized the colonists belief that reconciliation with Great Britain was impossible? a. Common Sense b. Revolution c. Federalist No. 10 d. American Cousin e. Articles of Confederation Answer: a 46. Which of the following was a problem under the Articles of Confederation? a. The national government was too strong compared to the states.
16 b. The government derived its power from the citizens themselves. c. Congress imposed excessive taxes. d. Citizens lacked a national identity. e. Amendments to the Articles were too easy to ratify. Answer: d Page Reference: pp A-head: The First Attempt at Government: The Articles of Confederation Learning Objective: O Connor L.O Which of the following best describes the Constitutional Convention? a. The Convention was transparent. b. The Convention was secretive. c. The Convention was free of significant disagreement. d. The Convention was inclusive of all types of citizens. e. The Convention lasted only one week. Answer: b 48. Mercantilism is an economic theory designed to increase wealth through the development of which of the following? a. schools b. the government c. industry d. religion e. foreign relationships Answer: c 49. What did supporters of the New Jersey Plan want to do to the Articles of Confederation? a. repeal them b. replace them c. strengthen them
17 d. weaken them e. maintain them Answer: c 50. Prior to the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment, how were senators selected? a. by direct election b. by the president c. by state governors d. by state legislatures e. by the Supreme Court Answer: d 51. Which of the following is a reason for the separation of powers? a. to ensure the power of the executive b. to promote justice c. to prevent tyranny by any one branch d. to create gridlock in government e. to improve international relations Answer: c 52. Which of the following was part of both the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution? a. Congress b. the presidency c. the federal judiciary d. collection of taxes by the federal government e. unanimous consent for ratification
18 Answer: a 53. Which of the following can be found in Article I? a. Electoral College b. procedure for presidential impeachment c. necessary and proper clause d. supremacy clause e. penalty for treason Answer: c 54. Which government entity has the power to settle disputes between the states? a. Senate b. House of Representatives c. Department of State d. Supreme Court e. president Answer: d 55. Aside from the First Amendment, what portion of the U.S. Constitution deals with the relationship between the state and religion? a. Article III b. Article VII c. Article VI d. Article XIII e. Article IX Answer: c
19 56. Which of the following were most likely to oppose the proposed Constitution? a. lawyers b. merchants c. bankers d. plantation owners e. farmers Answer: e 57. Which of the following remains a compelling source for determining the intent of the Framers? a. Minutes of the Constitutional Convention b. The Federalist Papers c. Common Sense d. Treatise on Government e. Declaration of Independence Answer: b 58. What was the greatest fear of the Anti-Federalists during the Constitutional Convention and subsequent debate? a. that a weak national government would undermine the survival of the United States b. that a strong national government would infringe on the essential liberties of the people c. that a powerful judiciary would restrict freedom of religion d. that powerful state governments would never assent to the new Constitution e. that a weak judiciary would be unable to enforce the new Constitution Answer: b
20 59. Which of the following is a method of ratification for a constitutional amendment? a. by three-fourths of the state legislatures b. by three-fourths of the state governors c. by three-fourths of voting-age citizens d. by half of the state legislatures e. by half of the state governors Answer: a Page Reference: pp A-head: Toward Reform: Methods of Amending the U.S. Constitution Learning Objective: O Connor L.O The Committees of were used by colonists to keep each other abreast of developments with the British. a. Collegiality b. Collaboration c. Congress d. the Continent e. Correspondence Answer: e True-False Questions 61. The Constitution was ratified in Answer: FALSE Page Reference: pp A-head: The First Attempt at Government: The Articles of Confederation Learning Objective: O Connor L.O. 2.2
21 62. Under the Articles of Confederation, the federal government had broad power to levy taxes. Answer: FALSE 63. The New Jersey Plan proposed a one-house legislature with one vote for each state. Answer: TRUE 64. Generally, smaller states wanted to strengthen the Articles of Confederation, rather than replace them. Answer: TRUE 65. The Three-Fifths Compromise specified that only three-fifths of slaves could vote. Answer: FALSE 66. Article I describes the powers of the president. Answer: FALSE
22 67. As described by Table 2.1, How Do the Articles of Confederation and the U.S. Constitution Compare to One Another?, the Articles of Confederation did not include an executive. Answer: TRUE 68. The Stamp Act was a major catalyst for the American Revolution. Answer: TRUE 69. The main weakness of the Articles of Confederation was the lack of a strong national government. Answer: TRUE Page Reference: pp A-head: The First Attempt at Government: The Articles of Confederation Learning Objective: O Connor L.O A constitution is a written document establishing the structure, functions, and limitations of a government. Answer: TRUE 71. The New Jersey Plan proposed a powerful central government with three branches. Answer: FALSE
23 72. Article III of the Constitution permits Congress to establish lower national courts. Answer: TRUE 73. Article IV of the Constitution requires Ohio to honor an adoption that took place in California. Answer: TRUE 74. North Carolina s rejection of the Constitution prompted Congress to submit the Bill of Rights to the states for ratification. Answer: TRUE 75. The Anti-Federalists strongly supported the Bill of Rights. Answer: TRUE Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 76. The Amendment protects freedom of assembly. Answer: First
24 77. The Constitution has been amended times. Answer: twenty-seven Page Reference: pp A-head: Chapter 2 Introduction Learning Objective: Chapter 2 Introduction 78. The Continental Congress signed the Declaration of Independence. Answer: Second 79. Congress passed the in Answer: Articles of Confederation Page Reference: pp A-head: The First Attempt at Government: The Articles of Confederation Learning Objective: O Connor L.O The of powers is a key feature of the government established by the Constitution. Answer: separation 81. Article III of the Constitution establishes a and defines its jurisdiction. Answer: Supreme Court
25 82. In a, the national government derives its powers from the states. Answer: confederation 83. Rebellion exposed the problems under the Articles of Confederation. Answer: Shays s Page Reference: pp A-head: The First Attempt at Government: The Articles of Confederation Learning Objective: O Connor L.O The favored a weak national government and strong state governments. Answer: Anti-Federalists 85. James Madison was the author of many of the essays known as the. Answer: Federalist Papers 86. Article II of the Constitution addresses the powers of the branch. Answer: executive 87. percent of the delegates at the Constitutional Convention were slaveholders.
26 Answer: Sixty-nine 88. The Twenty-First Amendment was the only amendment to be ratified through special conventions. Answer: ratifying 89. Article VII specified that at least states would have to ratify the Constitution for it to become law. Answer: nine Page Reference: pp A-head: Toward Reform: Methods of Amending the U.S. Constitution Learning Objective: O Connor L.O would prohibit Congress from requiring a president to be Christian in order to be elected. Answer: Article VI Short Answer Questions 91. Discuss the developments that led to the American Revolution. 1. Explain that the colonies were relatively independent from Great Britain, 2. Discuss the series of taxes levied against the colonies by the British crown.
27 3. Recognize that taxation without representation in Parliament was deeply offensive to the colonists. 92. Explain the process for amending the Constitution. 1. Identify the two processes for proposing an amendment two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress or national constitutional convention called by Congress at the request of two-thirds of the states. 2. Identify the two processes for ratifying an amendment by legislatures in threefourths of the states or by ratifying conventions in three-fourths of the states. 93. Explain what inspired the Constitutional Convention in Detail the problems under the Articles of Confederation, including the inability of the national government to levy taxes or to fund Revolutionary War debt, monetary problems, and problems with interstate commerce. 2. Discuss the role of civil uprisings and disorder like Shays s Rebellion. 3. Recognize that the original purpose of the Convention was to strengthen the Articles of Confederation. Page Reference: pp A-head: The First Attempt at Government: The Articles of Confederation Learning Objective: O Connor L.O Describe Article III of the Constitution. 1. Identify Article III as the part of the Constitution that describes the powers of the judicial branch. 2. Explain that Article III establishes a Supreme Court and defines the jurisdiction of that court.
28 3. Explain that Article III permits, but does not require, Congress to create additional lower federal courts and proscribe their jurisdiction. 95. Describe the system of checks and balances created by the Framers. 1. Indicate that the powers of the government were divided into three branches. 2. Identify the ways in which the Constitution allocates the power to make, interpret, and enforce laws among the three branches. 3. Explain the ways in which each branch has a role in the actions of the others. 96. Describe the meaning and purpose of the Ninth Amendment. 1. Explain that the Ninth Amendment specifies that the Bill of Rights is not the exclusive list of rights enjoyed by the people. 2. Discuss the ways in which the Ninth Amendment has been used to recognize modern constitutional rights, such as the right to privacy. 97. Explain the informal methods of amending the Constitution and why such methods are useful given the structure of the Constitution itself. 1. Identify judicial interpretation, social and cultural change, and technological change as the three common informal methods of informally changing the Constitution. 2. Explain that formal amendment to the Constitution is very difficult and, at times, society needs to be able to respond to changing social conditions more rapidly.
29 3. Explain that it is very difficult to amend the Constitution to protect minority rights and the informal methods, especially judicial interpretation, are much more capable of protecting such rights. Page Reference: pp A-head: Toward Reform: Methods of Amending the U.S. Constitution Learning Objective: O Connor L.O Compare and contrast the legislatures established by the Constitution and the Articles of Confederation. 1. Describe the unicameral legislature under the Articles of Confederation in which each state had a vote. 2. Explain the changes to the legislature under the Constitution, including the creation of a bicameral legislature composed of one house to represent the people (House of Representatives) and another house to represent the states (Senate). 99. Describe the differences between the First and Second Continental Congress. 1. Explain the nature of the First Continental Congress and its focus on reaching resolution with Great Britain on issues of important colonial rights. 2. Explain the nature of the Second Continental Congress and its initial focus on averting armed conflict with Great Britain. 3. Discuss the events that eventually prompted the Second Continental Congress to call for independence from Great Britain Describe the ways in which the Constitution addresses the role of religion. 1. Explain that Article VI prohibits religious tests as a qualification for public office.
30 2. Note that the First Amendment protects the religious freedom of individual citizens and also prohibits excessive entanglement between the church and the government. 3. Acknowledge the constitutional balance between protecting individual religious expression while simultaneously prohibiting religion from influencing governmental action Why are checks and balances important to the U.S. Constitution? 1. Define the idea of checks and balances. 2. Explain how checks and balances are used to prevent tyranny and corruption Describe the views of the Anti-Federalists. 1. Note that the Anti-Federalists were deeply suspicious of a strong national government. 2. Explain that the Anti-Federalists broadly opposed many portions of the new Constitution, including the powers of the executive and the creation of a Supreme Court. 3. Discuss the Anti-Federalists concerns that the Constitution provided inadequate protections for individual liberties. 4. Describe the Anti-Federalists favorable view of the Bill of Rights Explain James Madison s claim that Ambition must be made to counteract ambition. 1. Indicate that Madison was discussing the need for separation of powers.
31 2. Describe the three distinct branches of government: legislative, executive, and judicial. 3. Explain why each branch is separately staffed. 4. Discuss the constitutional equality and independence of each branch Describe the Virginia Plan. 1. Explain that the plan called for a powerful central government with three branches the legislative, executive, and judicial. 2. Identify that the plan called for a two-house legislature with one house elected directly by the people and the other chosen from among persons nominated by the state legislatures. 3. Discuss the plan s suggestion that the legislature have the power to select the executive and the judiciary Describe the Equal Rights Amendment. 1. Discuss the content of the proposed amendment that equality of rights under the law shall not be denied on the basis of sex. 2. Explain that the amendment was approved overwhelmingly by both houses of Congress in Note that the amendment failed to gain approval in three-quarters of the state legislatures. Page Reference: pp A-head: Toward Reform: Methods of Amending the U.S. Constitution Learning Objective: O Connor L.O. 2.6 Essay Questions
32 106. Explain the basic structure of the U.S. Constitution. 1. Identify that the Constitution is comprised of the seven original articles, the Bill of Rights, and seventeen subsequent amendments. 2. Describe each of the first three articles and the basic powers given to each branch of government. 3. Briefly discuss the remaining articles and the attempt of the Framers to identify potential future problems and lay out a solution to those problems. 4. Discuss the role of the Bill of Rights in securing individual civil liberties. 5. Discuss the major amendments since the Bill of Rights Discuss which political group had the most impact on the formation of the Constitution and why. 1. Recognize the profound impact of the Federalists on the form and content of the Constitution. 2. Discuss the role of the Federalist Papers in the ratification debate. 3. Explain some of the ways in which Federalist ideas persist in our government to this day Explain Madison s defense of the Constitution in Federalist No Identify the central question of Federalist No. 10 that is, how to deal with the problem of factions. 2. Discuss Madison s definition of factions and their threat to society. 3. Explain Madison s claim that only representative democracy could adequately protect individual liberty from majority rule. 4. Explain the ways in which a democracy differs from a republic according to Madison.
33 109. Identify two amendments to the United States Constitution that are not part of the Bill of Rights and explain the impact of each on government and society. 1. Select two amendments other than the first ten. 2. Provide a detailed explanation of the historical circumstances that led to the adoption of the selected amendments. 3. Discuss how the selected amendments changed the United States government and/or American society. 4. Provide a basic argument as to why the selected amendments were an important development. Page Reference: pp A-head: Toward Reform: Methods of Amending the U.S. Constitution Learning Objective: O Connor L.O How did the Stamp Act help set the country on a path to independence? 1. Explain the requirements of the Stamp Act. 2. Discuss the colonial response to the Stamp Act. 3. Evaluate how the response to the Stamp Act pushed the colonists toward revolution.