Today s Topics. Review Jeffersonian Republic

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1 Today s Topics Review Jeffersonian Republic 1

2 The Constitutional Convention This painting of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 by an unknown artist shows George Washington presiding. Because the convention met in secrecy, the artist used his imagination to paint the scene. 2 Independence National Historical Park

3 Philadelphia Convention Summer of groups: Nationalists versus localists Constitution is finished on September 17, 1787, written mostly by James Madison Electoral College: a group of people chosen by states 3

4 Struggle over Ratification Federalist, support the Constitution Anti-Federalist

5 U.S. Constitution 1787 Argentina Constitution 1853, 1860, 1866, 1898, 1949, 1957 Australia 1900 Brazil, seven constitutions, 1988 Canada 1982 China, 1954, 1975, 1978, 1982 France 1791, 1958 Germany 1949 Japan,1947 Mexico 1824, 1835, 1917 Spain 1978

6 Jefferson s Article read, discuss, write When was it written? Who wrote it? Is it a primary source or a secondary source? What is the discovery? What is the evidence based on? What is the controversy?

7 George Washington s Presidency A colorful image from around the time of the War 7

8 Washington Presidency

9 French Revolution War in Europe France v.s England Americans divided on foreign policy Edmond Genet, French diplomat 1793 Washington declares neutrality

10 Relations with Great Britain Violation of Treaty of Paris English trade with Native Americans and support their resistance to U.S. Seizure of U.S. ships and cargos, and the impressing of sailor Jay s Treaty No future plans to stop the seizures and the impressments of Americans Avoided war

11 Spain 1. American access to New Orleans 2. Boundary dispute in southeast Thomas Pinckney Treaty of San Lorenzo (Pinckney s Treaty) 1. Granted Americans free access to New Orleans Parallel = U.S. boundary with Spanish Florida

12 Washington s Farewell Address 1796 In contemplating the causes which may disturb our Union, it occurs as matter of serious concern that any ground should have been furnished for characterizing parties by geographical discriminations, Northern and Southern, Atlantic and Western; whence designing men may endeavor to excite a belief that there is a real difference of local interests and views. One of the expedients of party to acquire influence within particular districts is to misrepresent the opinions and aims of other districts. You cannot shield yourselves too much against the jealousies and heartburnings which spring from these misrepresentations; they tend to render alien to each other those who ought to be bound together by fraternal affection. The inhabitants of our Western country have lately had a useful lesson on this head; they have seen, in the negotiation by the Executive, and in the unanimous ratification by the Senate, of the treaty with Spain, and in the universal satisfaction at that event, throughout the United States, a decisive proof how unfounded were the suspicions propagated among them of a policy in the General Government and in the Atlantic States unfriendly to their interests in regard to the Mississippi; they have been witnesses to the formation of two treaties, that with Great Britain, and that with Spain, which secure to them everything they could desire, in respect to our foreign relations, towards confirming their prosperity. Will it not be their wisdom to rely for the preservation of these advantages on the Union by which they were procured? Will they not henceforth be deaf to those advisers, if such there are, who would sever them from their brethren and connect them with aliens? 12

13 13

14 Ideological Confrontations The rise of political parties Federalist Democratic-Republicans 14

15 15

16 XYZ Affair Americans delegation asked to pay a $250,000 to meet with the French minister Anti-French sentiment spreads in the U.S. and backlash against the Democratic-Republicans 16

17 Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798 Aimed at foreigners, who support Democratic-Republicans President could expel any foreigner consider a danger to the nation Foreigners could be jailed or deported during wartime Residency for citizenship increased 5 years to 14 years Sedition Act Most controversial» Limits free speech: illegal to criticize government or president» 4 out of 5 Democratic-Republican newspaper charged with sedition

18 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions 1798 Opposition to Sedition Act States could judge the constitutionality of the laws passed by Congress States could nullify laws considered unconstitutional Election of 1800

19 Haiti Revolution

20 Barbary Wars in North Africa

21 Louisiana Purchase It removes a major European power from the U.S. western border Gave U.S. control of New Orleans and Mississippi River Lewis & Clark Expedition members in the expedition, soldiers, civilians, frontiersmen Lewis & Clark Sacajawea, Shoshone Indian, guide & interpreter Stimulated interest in the West

22 Foreign Affairs U.K and France seize U.S. ships Chesapeake-Leopard Affair (1807) Embargo of 1807 Prohibits American ships from carrying exports abroad

23 James Madison ( ) Dolly Madison Non-Intercourse Act 1809, trade with all nations except France and UK Congress taken over by war hawks Congress Votes for War of 1812 (June ) U.K. arming Native Americans Impressments of Americans by the British Violation of U.S. neutral rights

24 Map 8.3 The War of Give Me Liberty!: An American history, 3rd Edition Copyright 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

25 British Sacking Washington, 1814 British Sacking Washington, 1814 Thinking that the British would attack Baltimore, the government failed to provide an adequate defense of Washington. On August 25, 1814, after their victory at Bladensburg, the British entered Washington unopposed, "for the barbarous purpose of destroying the city," confessed a British officer. After setting much of the city ablaze, the British withdrew on August 26 and President Madison returned the following day. (Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection, Brown University Library) Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

26 Treaty of Ghent 1814 Peace treaty, restores prewar status quo Battle of New Orleans 1815 Andrew Jackson

27 Hartford Convention 1814 Decline of the Federalist Party Era of Good Feelings

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