2 Standards SSUSH20 The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States. c. Describe the Cuban Revolution, the Bay of Pigs, and the Cuban missile crisis. d. Describe the Vietnam War, the Tet offensive, and growing opposition to the war. SSUSH21 The student will explain economic growth and its impact on the United States, b. Describe the impact television has had on American culture; include the presidential debates (Kennedy/Nixon,1960) and news coverage of the Civil Rights Movement. SSUSH23 The student will describe and assess the impact of political developments between 1945 and a. Describe the Warren Court and the expansion of individual rights as seen in the Miranda decision. b. Describe the political impact of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy; include the impact on civil rights legislation. c. Explain Lyndon Johnson s Great Society; include the establishment of Medicare. d. Describe the social and political turmoil of 1968; include the assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy, and the events surrounding the Democratic National Convention.
3 Eisenhower s Presidency Dwight D. Eisenhower was president from Architect of D-Day Richard Nixon was his vice president John Foster Dulles was his secretary of state Dulles advocated for brinksmanship: active support for nations that wanted liberation from communism The Us would push the aggressor nation to the brink of nuclear war, forcing it to back down and make concessions in the face of American superiority He wanted to emphasize nuclear and air power more than traditional troops and weapons Massive retaliation: the US would unleash its arsenal of nuclear weapons on any nation that attacked it
4 US Intervention As colonial governments collapsed in Asia, the Pacific, and Africa, the US struggled to keep up with the need to avoid communist take over in these vulnerable countries In addition to brinksmanship and massive retaliation, Dulles supported the use of covert action to fight the Cold War In 1953, the CIA staged a coup that led to the return of the liberal, corrupt, and ruthless shah of Iran Similarly, the CIA aided in the overthrow of a leftlearning government in Guatemala
5 Geneva Convention The French were losing control of their colonies in Indochina; without US assistance, the French were forced to give up the colony entirely As a result of the Geneva Convention, the region was divided into three countries: Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos The convention also decided to divide Vietnam at the 17 th parallel, with the communists led by Ho Chi Minh in the north and the Nationalists led by Ngo Dinh Diem in the south (It further decided that elections to reunite the country would occur in two years) Ngo Dinh Diem became increasingly dictatorial Fearing a communist take over, the elections were never allowed to take place
6 Domino Theory Domino Theory: where one Asian nation would fall to communism and the rest would follow Dulles was urged to action by the domino theory He created the South East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO), which resembled NATO, to give mutual military assistance to member nations to hold up Ngo s crumbling regime
7 Eisenhower & the Middle East Middle Eastern countries were also a concern Egyptian leader Nasser asked the US to assist in building the Aswan Dam The Us refused, as Egypt seemed to threaten the security of the new Jewish state of Israel Nasser seized the foreign-held Suez Canal in response This cut-off the free flow of oil from the Middle East to Europe and the US
8 Eisenhower & The Middle East Unbeknownst to Eisenhower, Britain, France, and Israel launched a surprise attack on Egypt and regained control of the Suez Canal An angry Eisenhower called upon the UN Security Council to denounce the surprise attacks and call for the immediate removal of multinational forces The UN complied, and Britain and France fell from their role as world leaders
9 Eisenhower Doctrine Eisenhower seized this opportunity to become more of a presence in the Middle East by proclaiming the Eisenhower Doctrine Like the Truman Doctrine, but was pointed at the Middle East
10 The Soviet Union & Hungary Stalin died of a stroke in 1953 Many looked for relief from Cold War tensions Signs existed that this was a possibility Hungary successfully overthrew a Soviet puppet government The new government demanded Hungary s removal from the Warsaw Pact The new Soviet premier, Nikita Khrushchev, ordered Soviet troops to crush the resistance The US did not respond Eisenhower feared that sending US troops would begin Word War III USSR brutally crushed Hungarian resistance, killing many
11 Spy Planes over the Soviet Union Khrushchev demanded in 1958 that Western troops be removed from Berlin within 6 months Eisenhower called an urgent meeting with the Soviet premier, and they agreed to hold off any decision until they could meet again in Paris in 1960 Unfortunately, this meeting would never occur A US U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union two weeks before the meeting in Paris It was revealed that the US had been flying regular spy missions over the USSR since 1955 Khrushchev called off the Paris talks
13 Kennedy take office 1960 JFK defeats VP Richard Nixon in one of the closest popular vote races in history. Eisenhower left office with high approval ratings The JFK/Nixon televised debates had a tremendous impact on the election. Some argue these TV debates were the reason Kennedy won. Kennedy became the first (and only) Catholic to be elected President. And up until that time he was the youngest elected as well.
14 New Frontier Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country. JFK s domestic policy was named the, New Frontier Promised equality, full employment, and financial aid to the needy
15 Kennedy and the Cold War 1959 Cuban Revolution turns Cuba Communist; led by Fidel Castro April 1961 Kennedy proceeds with CIA plan to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro This attempt (known as the Bay of Pigs) fails; Kennedy embarrassed, US image ruined
16 Berlin Wall Khrushchev threatened that Kennedy must remove US troops from Berlin Kennedy did not back down, and refused to move the troops The Soviets responded by beginning construction of a wall around West Berlin to stem the flow of East Berliners escaping to the West JFK did not stop the building of the wall, but he did travel to West Berlin in 1963 to proclaim support for its citizens
17 Kennedy and the Cold War October 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis begins. US discovers nuclear missile in Cuba, 90 miles from Miami, FL. US had similar missiles stationed in Turkey. For 13 days the world was on the brink of nuclear war. Crisis was averted when JFK and Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev agree to withdrawal missiles from respective bases. A direct line known as the red phone was installed so that the world leaders could have immediate contact in the event of an emergency
18 Kennedy and the space race April 1961 Russians put a man in space; Kennedy then vows to put a man on the moon by the end of the decade. He would not live to see his dream realized on July 20, 1969 when Apollo 11 landed on the moon. One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind Neil Armstrong Kennedy Space Center in Orlando named in his honor
19 Kennedy and civil rights Because of his narrow win in 1960, Kennedy was reluctant to pursue major Civil Rights legislation. However after violence erupted across the South, he changed his mind. Together with his brother, Attorney General Robert Bobby Kennedy, JFK pressed for sweeping Civil Rights legislation.
20 JFK assassinated November 23 rd, 1963 During a trip to Dallas, TX Kennedy is shot while riding in a motorcade. Alleged lone gunman Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested hours later. Oswald himself was killed on live TV by gunman Jack Ruby. Numerous conspiracy theories still circulate as to why JFK was killed.
21 Lyndon Johnson sworn in After the death of JFK, LBJ becomes President. Despite being from Texas, Johnson politically supported Civil Rights. He vowed to continue the work of JFK.
22 Johnson s Great Society Johnson sought to expand New Frontier goals he found to be too modest. Johnson s vision for America was known as the Great Society. He continued New Deal programs started by FDR He pushed for legislation that would: End poverty Provide job training to young people Improve education End the Quota System on immigration Provide medical care for the elderly (Medicare) and the poor (Medicaid).
24 Johnson defeats Goldwater In 1964, LBJ runs for President against conservative Barry Goldwater of Arizona. The conservative movement was gaining ground for years during and after the New Deal era. Conservatives believe in a smaller federal government in all aspects from economic to social issues. Infamous Daisy ad used fear of nuclear war to help LBJ attain votes.
25 Warren Court expands individual freedoms During the 1960s the Supreme Court took the lead on controversial social, religious and political issues. Court was led by Chief Justice Earl Warren who also guided the court in the Brown v. Board ruling of Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) All accused criminals had the right to a lawyer whether they could afford one or not. Miranda v. Arizona (1966) All accused criminals had to be informed of his or her 5 th and 6 th amendment rights before being questioned. These included the right to an attorney and protection against self-incrimination. You have the right to remain silent
26 The Vietnam War Despite the efforts to improve America domestically, the nation was experiencing a foreign policy nightmare: the Vietnam War. Seen as another front in the Cold War; an attempt to stop the spread of communism. North Vietnam was communist; supported by Soviet Union. South Vietnam was democratic; supported by the US US came to the aid of South Vietnam in an effort to stop the North from invading and turning the South communist.
27 Instability in South Vietnam The Ngo Dinh Diem regime had become more and more of a liability Buddhist monks in the South Vietnamese capital set themselves on fire to protest Ngo s policies discriminating against against fellow Buddhists Ngo was assassinated shortly before JFK as assassinated When LBJ took office, Vietnam was very politically unstable and LBJ took the advice of his secretary of defense, Robert McNamara, to take more forceful action to prevent the fall of South Vietnam to Communism
28 Gulf Of Tonkin Resolution In August of 1964, LBJ claimed that a North Vietnamese gunboat had carried out an unprovoked attack on two US destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin off the coast of North Vietnam LBJ used this event to ask Congress for an increase in his authority to wage war in Vietnam without an actual war declaration Gulf of Tonkin Resolution increased executive power to engage in the Vietnam War It was later discovered that the US destroyers had actually been involved in an attack to aid the South Vietnamese
29 Vietnam Continued US forces focused on destroying the Ho Chi Minh Trail, which linked the South Vietnamese Vietcong fighters with the North Vietnamese supply lines The US dropped more bombs on North Vietnam than were used in all of WWII In January 1968, Vietcong forces surprise attacked American troops by attacking military bases and capitals The Tet Offensive changed the course of the war in Vietnam and at home Increasingly, people demanded that the US pull out of the war-torn country Doves =people in the US that did not support the Vietnam War Hawks =people in the US that supported the Vietnam War
The New Frontier and the Great Society President John F. Kennedy s efforts to confront the Soviet Union and address social ills are cut short by his assassination. President Lyndon B. Johnson spearheads
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