Ch. 7: Citizen Participation and Political Parties

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1 Ch. 7: Citizen Participation and Political Parties

2 I. What defines citizenship? p US Constitution did not originally say how citizenship was to be determined 2. Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) the court held that Dred Scott was not a citizen because he was born a slave 3. The Fourteenth Amendment clarified who is a citizen All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside.

3 II. African Americans Long Struggle for Civil Rights p What are Jim Crow Laws? Laws that enforced segregation and denied legal equality to blacks 2. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) the Supreme Court upheld the separate but equal doctrine

4 II. African Americans Long Struggle for Civil Rights p. ## 3. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) the Supreme Court declared separate but equal unconstitutional, and public facilities needed to be desegregated 4. Civil Rights Act of banned discrimination in most areas of American life on the basis of race, sex, religion, or national origin. It also committed the U.S. government to protecting the rights of all Americans, regardless of skin color or country of birth

5 III. Rights and Responsibilities p. ## 1. lawful permanent residents immigrants who enjoy most of the same rights as nativeborn Americans; have full protection under Bill of Rights and Constitution; aka resident alien 2. What are other rights given to legal residents? Right to vote, hold public office, claim certain social and economic benefits a. Citizens? All of the above plus certain welfare benefits and federal government jobs

6 III. Rights and Responsibilities p. ## 3. What is an undocumented immigrant? A person who has come to the US to live and work without the required papers 4. What are some responsibilities of all people in the US? Obey laws, pay taxes, register with military service

7 I. American Citizens: Native Born or Naturalized p. ## 1. What are the two ways to become an American citizen? Born in the US or naturalized 2. What are the requirements to be eligible for naturalization? Must be 18, lawful permanent resident, and most moust have lived in the US for at least 5 years

8 I. American Citizens: Native Born or Naturalized p. ## 3. What are the Steps to Citizenship? a. Immigration arrive in the US with a legal visa b. Permanent residency apply for permanent resident status c. Application once an immigrant has been in the country for 5 years, they can apply for citizenship d. Interview applicants are interviewed by the US Citizenship and Immigration Services e. Test applicants take an English and civics test on basic concepts of American History and Government f. Ceremony applicants receive citizenship in a formal ceremony; take the oath of allegiance to the US

9 Title p. ##

10 I. Political Parties and What They Do. p. ## 1. What is a political party? an organization that seeks to achieve power by electing its members to public office 2. What do parties do? a. Nominate candidates for public office b. Inform and activate the people to participate in public affairs Information is skewed to fir that party s needs Try to shape positions that will attract as many voters as possible

11 I. Political Parties and What They Do. p. ## 2. What do parties do? c. Ensures the good performance of its candidates and officeholders d. Govern Partisanship the strong support of a political party and its policy standards. e. Act as watchdogs over the conduct of the public s business party out of power scrutinizes every action of the party in power (control the executive branch)

12 II. The Two System p What are the characteristics of a One- System? a. really a no party system; the party is the government; tolerates no opposition b. authoritarian government c. Examples of one-party systems. communist countries Cuba, North Korea and China

13 II. The Two System p What are the Characteristics of a Multiparty System? a. a country with 3 or more major political parties parties are based on particular interests b. no one major party can control the government form coalitions with other political parties to gain control coalitions often break down due to ideological difference c. Examples of multi-party systems France (5)and Italy (10) From , Italy had 67 different changes in power in its government

14 II. The Two System p Why does the US have a Two- System? a. tradition the two party system just developed b. electoral system usually only one person can win c. American ideological consensus there is a broad consensus among most Americans on fundamental matters the US is free of long-standing, bitter disputes both major parties in the US are built on compromise and try to be moderate

15 The Democratic Donkey The most common mascot symbol for the party has been the jackass, or donkey. Andrew Jackson's enemies twisted his name to "jackass" as a term of ridicule regarding a stupid and stubborn animal. However the Democrats liked the common-man implications and picked it up too, so the image persisted and evolved. Its most lasting impression came from the cartoons of Thomas Nast 1870 in Harper's Weekly..

16 The Republican Elephant

17 II. The Two System p What are all minor parties called? Third Parties 1. Constitution 2. Green 3. Libertarian 4. American 5. America First 6. American Independent 7. American Nazi 8. American Reform 9. Boston Tea 10. Christian Falangist of America 11. Communist 12. Democratic Socialist 13. Freedom Socialist/ Radical Women 14. The Greens 15. Independence 16. Independent American 17. Labor 18. Light 19. Moderate 20. National Socialist 21. Natural Law 22. New 23. New Union 24. of Socialism and Liberation 25. Peace and Freedom 26. Prohibition 27. Reform 28. Socialist 29. Socialist Action 30. Socialist Equality 31. Socialist Labor 32. Socialist Workers 33. U.S. Marijuana 34. U.S. Pacifists 35. Veteran s of America 36. Workers World 37. American Patriot 38. American Socialist 39. Constitutionalist 40. Libertarian National Socialist Green 41. Multicapitalist 42. Pansexual Peace 43. Pot 44. Progressive Labor 45. Social Democrat USA 46. The Third 47. Worker s USA 48. World Socialist of the USA

18 1. The Nation s First Parties p. 004 a. Federalists supported the ratification of the Constitution; organized by Alexander Hamilton Narrowly defeated the democratic republicans and Thomas Jefferson in the 1796 election when John Adams ran against Thomas Jefferson b. Anti-federalists led by Thomas Jefferson; renamed them the Democratic Republicans

19 2. American Parties: Four Major Eras p. 004 a. The Era of the Democrats Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic Republicans (Democrats) Defeated the Federalists in the 1800 election, the federalists never returned to power Won 13 of the next 15 presidential elections Under Jackson, drew support from small farmers, debtors, frontier pioneers, and slaveholders Advocated (1) voting rights for all white males, (2) a huge increase in the number of elected offices around the country, and (3) the spoils system Split into two factions over slavery, the North and South

20 2. American Parties: Four Major Eras p. 004 a. The Era of the Democrats Whigs Led by Henry Clay and Daniel Webster Supported by bankers, merchants, industrialists, and owners of large southern plantations Fell apart after the deaths of Clay and Webster

21 2. American Parties: Four Major Eras p. 004 a. The Era of the Democrats Republicans Founded in 1854, Drew support from the former Whigs and anti-slavery Democrats Elected first President, Abraham Lincoln, in 1860 Only third party to jump from third to major party status

22 b. The Era of the Republicans p. 004 Republicans Won 14 out of 18 elections Supported by business and financial interests, farmers, laborers, and newly free blacks A little ironic because T. Roosevelt and trust busting

23 b. The Era of the Republicans p. 004 Democrats Were crippled by the Civil War, but were able to maintain their hold on the Solid South

24 b. The Era of the Republicans p. 004 Ideological Shift Democrats began to champion the little man; took the focus off of sectionalism from the Civil War By the time FDR rose to power, support base was built largely of southerners, small farmers, organized labor, and big-city political organizations

25 c. The Return of the Democrats p. 004 Franklin Roosevelt Won the 1932 election Brought forth revolutionary economic and social welfare programs, bringing increasing support from black voters Won 4 elections

26 d. The Start of a New Era p. 004 Republicans won 8 elections from (democrats took 5) Most of these presidents faced an opposing party in control of the House of Representatives for part of their presidency

27 Authoritarian 1 st Block Libertarian Mahatma Gandhi Gary Johnson Communism Jill Stein Donald Trump Free Enterprise Hillary Clinton Josef Stalin Adolph Hitler

28 Authoritarian 2 nd Block Libertarian Mahatma Gandhi Gary Johnson Communism Jill Stein Donald Trump Free Enterprise Hillary Clinton Josef Stalin Adolph Hitler

29 Authoritarian 6 th Block Libertarian Mahatma Gandhi Gary Johnson Communism Jill Stein Donald Trump Free Enterprise Hillary Clinton Josef Stalin Adolph Hitler

30 Authoritarian 7 th Block Libertarian Mahatma Gandhi Gary Johnson Communism Jill Stein Donald Trump Free Enterprise Hillary Clinton Josef Stalin Adolph Hitler

31 Authoritarian All Classes Libertarian 1 st Block = Blue 2 nd Block = Red 6 th Block = Green 7 th Block = Black Communism Mahatma Gandhi Jill Stein Gary Johnson Donald Trump Free Enterprise Hillary Clinton Josef Stalin Adolph Hitler

32 Democrats v. Republicans p. 005 Democrats (liberal) v. Republicans (conservative) Taxes - higher taxes are necessary to create government jobs and provide programs - taxes are necessary, but should be as low as possible to stimulate the economy

33 Democrats v. Republicans p. 005 Democrats (liberal) v. Republicans (conservative) Entitlements - it is the government s responsibility to provide healthcare and social security - healthcare and social security should be the primary responsibility of the individual through savings and private investments

34 Democrats v. Republicans p. 005 Democrats (liberal) v. Republicans (conservative) Balancing the Budget - the government should balance the current budget through taxes - the government should be forced to balance the budget without raising taxes

35 Democrats v. Republicans p. 005 Democrats (liberal) v. Republicans (conservative) Death Penalty - the death penalty is inhumane - the death penalty is just

36 Democrats v. Republicans p. 005 Democrats (liberal) v. Republicans (conservative) Regulation of Guns - supports the regulation of handguns through registration, licensing and waiting periods - anyone without a felony has the right to own a gun

37 Democrats v. Republicans p. 005 Democrats (liberal) v. Republicans (conservative) Abortion - abortion is a woman s right - abortions (with exceptions to rape and health risks to the mother) should be illegal

38 Democrats v. Republicans p. 005 Democrats (liberal) v. Republicans (conservative) Government Control of Economy - there should be a little more government involvement in the economy - capitalism is fair and rewards those who work hard

39 Democrats v. Republicans p. 005 Democrats (liberal) v. Republicans (conservative) Balance of Power - power should rest in the national government - state and local governments should be the main authority in people s affairs

40 1. What are the four main categories of minor parties? p. 005 a. ideological parties based on a particular set of beliefs Examples Socialist, Socialist Labor, Communist parties b. single issue parties concentrate on only one public policy matter Example Right to Life c. economic protest parties no clear ideological base; proclaim their disgust with the major parties and demanded better times usually disappear as the nation climbs out of difficult economic periods d. splinter parties have split away from one of the major parties form around a strong personality who failed to win his major party s nomination Examples Bull Moose (Theodore Roosevelt split from Republican), Progressive (Henry Wallace from Democrat)

41 2. Why are Minor Parties Important? p. 006 a. a strong third party candidate can play a spoiler role; even if the candidate does not win, he can pull votes away from one of the major parties Examples Bull Moose party cost the Republicans the election of 1912, the Green cost the Democrats the election in 2000 b. important critics and innovators - willing to take clear-cut stands on issues the major parties won't touch sometimes the major parties steal their popular ideas Examples - women's suffrage; progressive income tax

42 3. What three obstacles do minor parties face? p. 006 a. Not popular b. No money c. difficult to get on the ballot

43 4. The Green p. 006 a. places a high importance on environmental goals b. offer meaningful work with dignity to all members of the community c. rejection discrimination based on distinctions between class, gender, ethnicity, or culture d. shift of power from a representative government to the lowest governmental organization and have a direct democracy e. in 2012, presidential candidate Jill Stein came in 4 th in the general election

44 5. The Libertarian p. 006 a. all individuals are the absolute owners of their own lives and should be free to whatever they wish to their selves and property, provided they allow others to do the same b. reduction of the government s role in the economy eventual elimination of taxes c. privatization of Social Security and welfare d. reduced regulation of business e. unrestricted right to the means of self-defense f. pro-drug legalizations, pro-choice, pro-gay marriage g. in 2012, presidential candidate Gary Johnson came in 3 rd in the general election

45 6. The Constitution p. 006 a. favors a noninterventionist foreign policy b. eventual elimination of the role the United States plays in multinational and international organizations c. abolishing most forms of federal taxation, especially the income tax most current regular federal expenditures, such as those for health care, education, and welfare, as unconstitutional d. opposes illegal immigration and also seeks a more restrictive policy on legal immigration e. pro-life and thus opposes euthanasia and abortion, but supports the death penalty f. in 2012, presidential candidate Virgil Goode came in 5 th in the general election

46 Third Stances p. 007 Issues Abortion Restrictions Green Democratic Libertarian Republican Constitution Limiting Private Financing of Campaigns Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage Universal Government Health Care Progressive Taxation Immigration Restrictions Capital Punishment Drug Liberalization Civilian Gun Control Non-interventionist foreign policy

47 Third Stances p. 007 Issues Green Democratic Libertarian Republican Constitution Abortion Restrictions No No No Yes Yes Limiting Private Financing of Campaigns Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage Universal Government Health Care Progressive Taxation Immigration Restrictions Capital Punishment Drug Liberalization Civilian Gun Control Non-interventionist foreign policy

48 Third Stances p. 007 Issues Green Democratic Libertarian Republican Constitution Abortion Restrictions No No No Yes Yes Limiting Private Financing of Campaigns Yes Yes No No No Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage Universal Government Health Care Progressive Taxation Immigration Restrictions Capital Punishment Drug Liberalization Civilian Gun Control Non-interventionist foreign policy

49 Third Stances p. 007 Issues Green Democratic Libertarian Republican Constitution Abortion Restrictions No No No Yes Yes Limiting Private Financing of Campaigns Yes Yes No No No Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage Yes Yes Yes No No Universal Government Health Care Progressive Taxation Immigration Restrictions Capital Punishment Drug Liberalization Civilian Gun Control Non-interventionist foreign policy

50 Third Stances p. 007 Issues Green Democratic Libertarian Republican Constitution Abortion Restrictions No No No Yes Yes Limiting Private Financing of Campaigns Yes Yes No No No Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage Yes Yes Yes No No Universal Government Health Care Yes Yes No No No Progressive Taxation Immigration Restrictions Capital Punishment Drug Liberalization Civilian Gun Control Non-interventionist foreign policy

51 Third Stances p. 007 Issues Green Democratic Libertarian Republican Constitution Abortion Restrictions No No No Yes Yes Limiting Private Financing of Campaigns Yes Yes No No No Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage Yes Yes Yes No No Universal Government Health Care Yes Yes No No No Progressive Taxation Yes Yes No No No Immigration Restrictions Capital Punishment Drug Liberalization Civilian Gun Control Non-interventionist foreign policy

52 Third Stances p. 007 Issues Green Democratic Libertarian Republican Constitution Abortion Restrictions No No No Yes Yes Limiting Private Financing of Campaigns Yes Yes No No No Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage Yes Yes Yes No No Universal Government Health Care Yes Yes No No No Progressive Taxation Yes Yes No No No Immigration Restrictions No No No Yes Yes Capital Punishment Drug Liberalization Civilian Gun Control Non-interventionist foreign policy

53 Third Stances p. 007 Issues Green Democratic Libertarian Republican Constitution Abortion Restrictions No No No Yes Yes Limiting Private Financing of Campaigns Yes Yes No No No Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage Yes Yes Yes No No Universal Government Health Care Yes Yes No No No Progressive Taxation Yes Yes No No No Immigration Restrictions No No No Yes Yes Capital Punishment No No No Yes Yes Drug Liberalization Civilian Gun Control Non-interventionist foreign policy

54 Third Stances p. 007 Issues Green Democratic Libertarian Republican Constitution Abortion Restrictions No No No Yes Yes Limiting Private Financing of Campaigns Yes Yes No No No Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage Yes Yes Yes No No Universal Government Health Care Yes Yes No No No Progressive Taxation Yes Yes No No No Immigration Restrictions No No No Yes Yes Capital Punishment No No No Yes Yes Drug Liberalization Yes No Yes No No Civilian Gun Control Non-interventionist foreign policy

55 Third Stances p. 007 Issues Green Democratic Libertarian Republican Constitution Abortion Restrictions No No No Yes Yes Limiting Private Financing of Campaigns Yes Yes No No No Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage Yes Yes Yes No No Universal Government Health Care Yes Yes No No No Progressive Taxation Yes Yes No No No Immigration Restrictions No No No Yes Yes Capital Punishment No No No Yes Yes Drug Liberalization Yes No Yes No No Civilian Gun Control Yes Yes No No No Non-interventionist foreign policy

56 Third Stances p. 007 Issues Green Democratic Libertarian Republican Constitution Abortion Restrictions No No No Yes Yes Limiting Private Financing of Campaigns Yes Yes No No No Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage Yes Yes Yes No No Universal Government Health Care Yes Yes No No No Progressive Taxation Yes Yes No No No Immigration Restrictions No No No Yes Yes Capital Punishment No No No Yes Yes Drug Liberalization Yes No Yes No No Civilian Gun Control Yes Yes No No No Non-interventionist foreign policy Yes No Yes No Yes

57 V. Organization p Decentralized - neither major party ) has a chain of command that runs from the national through the State to the local level 2. What is the role of the Presidency? a. the President s party is usually more solidly united than the opposing party b. the President is automatically his party s leader c. there is seldom one person the opposition party can call it s leader (except for a presidential nominee every four years)

58 V. Organization p What is the role of the presidential nominating process? a. nominations are made within the party b. the nominating process is a divisive one (candidates fight with one another for the nomination) 4. What does a national convention do? held only every four years a. nominates the party s presidential and vice-presidential candidates b. adopts the party s rules and the writing of its platform

59 V. Organization p What does the national committee do? In theory, supposed to handle the party s affairs, but most of the work centers on staging the national convention every four years 6. Who is the Chairperson of the national committees and what do they do? leader of the national committee a. chosen by the presidential nominee for the party b. directs the work of the party s headquarters in DC and works to strengthen the party

60 V. Organization p What is a ward? unit into which cities are often divided for the election of city council members 8. What is a precinct? smallest unit of election administration

61 V. Organization p Why are political parties in a state of decline? a. voters are not willing to identify themselves as Republicans or Democrats b. increase in split-ticket voting - vote for candidates of different parties for different offices in the same election c. structural changes have made parties more "open", but have also led to internal conflict d. changes in the technology for campaigning for office have made candidates much less dependent on party organization e. growth and impact of single-issue organizations do not have to support all the candidate's views

62 V. Organization V. Organization p The Political Spectrum a. Radical (far left) government should be very active in implementing change b. Liberal (left) government should be somewhat active in implementing changes c. Moderate (Middle) sometimes wants change, sometimes doesn t decides on an issue to issue basis d. Conservative (right) somewhat resistant of government intervention on issues e. Reactionary (far right) disapproves of government intervention at almost every level

63 Title p. 008

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