Nationalism movement wanted to: UNIFICATION: peoples of common culture from different states were joined together

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1 7-3.2 Analyze the effects of the Napoleonic Wars on the development and spread of nationalism in Europe, including the Congress of Vienna, the revolutionary movements of 1830 and 1848, and the unification of Germany and Italy. At the end of this investigation you will be able to explain: How following Napoleon s defeat in 1815, 1. Why the Congress of Vienna reestablished the balance of power to Europe. 2. Restored the monarchs removed by Napoleon. 3. Suppressed the democratic movement encouraged by the French Revolution. 4. Despite these moves to return conservatives to power, the ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity had spread, feeding the nationalist movements of the 1830s and 1840s. What is Nationalism? The belief that one s greatest loyalty is to a shared culture, the cultural identity of a people (including aspects of common history, language, religion, and nationality) rather than to a leader or border. Nationalism movement wanted to: UNIFICATION: peoples of common culture from different states were joined together SEPARATION: Groups were formed separate from their government. They formed groups that were tied to their own. Liberals - favorable to progress or reform; as in political or religious affairs but also keep traditions. Radicals - (Jacobins) favoring drastic political, economic, or social reforms extremist 1

2 Nationalism grows for many reasons. At the beginning of the 19 th century Italy and Germany did not exist. These countries were made up of many small states that were independent but not strong enough to keep out invasions of foreign powers. In order to create a strong economy it was beneficial to join together to protect their economies. Napoleon Bonaparte s rise to power and his zeal to fight wars led to a rise in nationalism across Europe. Why would Napoleon get credit for this rise in Nationalism? Think Think Think.. Nationalism paralleled the independence movements of the late 1700 s. The French and American revolutions inspired loyalty in the people toward their nation rather than a ruler or leader. Nationalism s spirit was captured in documents like the Declaration of Independence. Nationalism inspired colonies in Latin America and Europe to come together. This created movements of unification that began to pull nations together. Prior to this movement of nationalism there was no Germany and no Italy. Nationalism is responsible for their formation. Nationalist movements across Europe began in the Balkans with the Greeks, who rebelled against the Ottoman Empire beginning in Supported by Britain, France, and Russia, Greece became an independent nation in Napoleon s armies marched throughout Europe and spread nationalism where ever they went. As Napoleon was trying to build his empire he also spread ideals from the French Revolution. These ideas were about equality for citizens, tolerance for other religions and economic freedom. Napoleon s march across Europe did not help build his empire but undid his plans for his empire. People began to resent Napoleon for forcing them to pay taxes to France. They also did not like sending soldiers to Napoleon s army. This was the beginning of the loyalty toward their nation. They wanted self-rule, just like the American colonists had gained. 2

3 After the fall of Napoleon the Congress of Vienna was set up. It was an international conference that was called in order to remake Europe after the downfall of Napoleon. The main goal of the conference was to create a balance of power that would preserve the peace. Within the next few years, despite the arrangements of the Congress of Vienna, revolutions occurred in Belgium, Italy, and Russia, though most were crushed by the mid-1830s. What?? What was the Congress of Vienna? What is a conservative, a liberal and a moderate? Who was Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte? What is nationalism? Led by the liberals, revolutions erupted across Europe in Most were suppressed by conservative (a political group that want to keep or save the way things are or were) groups by 1849, with the exception of the French uprisings. In France, Charles X had attempted to establish an absolute monarchy in France in 1830 with no success. He was replaced by Louis-Philippe, who ruled until 1848 when he lost favor with the people and was overthrown in favor of a republic. A republic is where the people elect representatives to make and enforce laws. With the establishment of this republic, the radicals were divided as to what reforms should occur next. This uncertainty allowed the moderates (The moderates were the congress leaders during the first phase of the National movement) to take control, elect a president and establish a parliamentary system (A Parliament is the supreme legislative or law-making body of a democratic nation). Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte (Bonaparte s nephew) was elected president. Four years later, Louis-Napoleon took the title of Emperor Napoleon III, taking advantage of the political instability of the country. During his reign, he stabilized and industrialized France. 3

4 UNIFICATION OF ITALY Italy was divided into states (see map below). Most of these states were controlled by Austria. But Piedmont had remained independent. The King Victor Emmanuel and Prime Minister, Count Camillo di Cavour, led the unification of the Northern Italian states. The kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was the largest and most powerful of the Italian states, and with its liberal constitution, unification under this state appealed to many Italians of neighboring northern states. With French assistance, Cavour won the Austrian-occupied land of northern Italy. At the same time, Giuseppe Garibaldi, leader of the Red Shirts, used guerrilla warfare. This was a method of hit-and-run fighting. He used this method to win control of the Southern States. Garibaldi soon captured Sicily in the south. Rome remained under the control of the pope, who resisted Italian unity. However the Pope lost the struggle. It 1870, Rome became part of Italy too. Cavour convinced Garibaldi to unite the two sections, in 1860 allowing King Victor Emmanuel II to lead the united Italy with Rome as its capital. Soon thereafter, Venetia and the Papal States were added as well. 4

5 The Unification of Germany Germany becoming unified was a distant dream. The German Confederation was composed of thirty-nine loosely joined states, of which Austria and Prussia were the largest and most powerful. Prussia had a mainly Germanic population, a powerful army, and a liberal constitution, thus giving this state the advantage in the creation of a unified German state. In Prussia, Wilhelm I was in power, supported by the conservatives. Wilhelm appointed Otto von Bismarck, as his prime minister. Bismarck took full control of the country, ruling under a policy known as realpolitik, meaning the politics of reality, a style of power politics that leaves no room for idealism (behavior or thought based on a conception of things as they should be or as one would wish them to be). Bismarck stated that the decisions of the day would be decided not by speeches but rather by blood and iron. Bismarck practiced his realpolitik theory and embarked on a campaign of German unification. Bismarck used the military to defeat neighboring Denmark and Austria. These successes helped to unite the northern German states. After a successful war against France, the Franco Prussian War, convinced the southern German states to join the unification of Germany. Wilhelm I took the title of Kaiser, or emperor, of a new German empire. Bismarck in turn became the chancellor, or chief minister, of Germany. With military might and industrial resources, Germany became the strongest nation on the European continent. YOUR TURN! 1. Draw a map of Europe. Label Italy, Germany, the Balkans, and France. 2. Compare the unification of Germany and Italy. How were they similar and how were the different? 3. What changed in Europe when Napoleon set out to build his empire? 4. How did nationalism change Italian and German states? 5. Explain why Italy and Germany unified? 6. What was Napoleon s role in the spreading of Nationalism? 7. What is unification? Why did Italy and Germany want to unify? 8. Explain how and why the unification of Italy, the unification of Germany, and Napoleon s role in the spreading of nationalism contributed to the nationalist movements. 9. Fold your paper so that it looks like a French door: Label one door Italy and the other Germany. On the inside, list as many characteristics of each country s unification story. Include key people, events, and fights. Use complete sentences! Decorate your doors to represent each side 5

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