India s Competitiveness: A Perspective from States. Presented By: Amit Kapoor Chair, Institute for Competitiveness

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1 India s Competitiveness: A Perspective from States Presented By: Amit Kapoor Chair, Institute for Competitiveness

2 WHAT IS COMPETITIVENESS? Competitiveness is the productivity (value per unit of input) with which a nation, region, or cluster utilizes its human, capital, and natural resources. Productivity sets a nation s or region s standard of living (wages, returns on capital, returns on natural resources) Productivity depends both on the value of products and services (e.g. uniqueness, quality) as well as the efficiency with which they are produced. It is not what industries a nation or region competes in that matters for prosperity, but how firms compete in those industries Productivity in a nation or region is a reflection of what both domestic and foreign firms choose to do in that location. The location of ownership is secondary for prosperity. The productivity of local industries is of fundamental importance to competitiveness, not just that of traded industries Devaluation and revaluation do not make a country more or less competitive Nations and regions compete in offering the most productive environment for business Source: Michael E. Porter and Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness

3 WHAT DETERMINES COMPETITIVENESS? MICROECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS Quality of business environment State of cluster development Sophistication of company operations and strategy MACROECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS Sound monetary and fiscal policy Human Development and effective public institutions ENDOWMENTS Source: Michael E. Porter and Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness

4 WHY INNOVATE? The capability to innovate and to bring innovation successfully to market is a crucial determinant of the global competitiveness of nations. Land Labour Capital Inherited Prosperity (Natural Resources) Created Prosperity Firms create value adding goods and services by realizing the potential of natural resources Government To create conducive conditions to enable innovation

5 Data Source: Global Innovation Index GLOBAL INNOVATION

6 Total Number of Patents granted in 2015 COUNTRY-WISE GROWTH IN PATENTS UNITED STATES JAPAN SRI LANKA BERMUDA GERMANY SOUTH KOREA TAIWAN FRANCE CANADA CHINA UNITED KINGDOM NETHERLANDS ISRAEL SWITZERLAND INDIA SWEDEN AUSTRALIA AUSTRIA FINLAND BELGIUM SPAIN SINGAPORE DENMARK NORWAY RUSSIA IRELAND NEW ZEALAND BRAZIL MEXICO MALAYSIA POLAND SOUTH AFRICA HUNGARY THAILAND CHILE TURKEY ARGENTINA GREECE KUWAIT UKRAINE ICELAND ROMANIA PORTUGAL PHILIPPINES UNITED ARAB EMIRATES COLOMBIA ESTONIA VENEZUELA EGYPT BULGARIA INDONESIA COSTA RICA CUBA LITHUANIA LEBANON PAKISTAN URUGUAY PERU KENYA SAUDI ARABIA Source: USPTO, CAGR Growth Rate of Patents granted from

7 Number of Patents filed in (in log scale) LINK BETWEEN PATENTS AND COMPETITIVENESS West Bengal Assam Jharkhand Tripura Mizoram Odisha Goa Bihar Jammu & Kashmir Chhattisgarh Kerala Punjab Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh Haryana Uttar Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Uttarakhand Sikkim Delhi Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Gujarat Maharashtra y = x R² = Tamil Nadu 1 Nagaland Source: Annual Reports of CGPDTM Various Rounds State Competitiveness Index Scores 2016

8 R&D Expenditure as a Percentage of GDP Country-wise R&D Expenditure as a Percentage of GDP Brazil India Sweden China Israel United States European Union Russian Federation World Source: World Bank

9 Global Competitiveness Index Link between Innovation and Competitiveness at Global Level COUNTRY-WISE GROWTH IN PATENTS United Arab Emirates Qatar Malaysia Saudi Arabia Azerbaijan Thailand Chile Lithuania Poland Indonesia Bahrain Mauritius Panama India South Kuwait AfricaRussian Federation Portugal Italy Rwanda Kazakhstan Philippines Mexico Costa Rica Turkey BulgariaLatviaSlovenia Botswana Jordan Oman Georgia Colombia Vietnam Romania Slovakia Sri Lanka Morocco Peru Uruguay Macedonia Hungary Guatemala Tajikistan Albania JamaicaIranBrazil Armenia Montenegro Croatia Algeria Honduras Cambodia Namibia Ecuador Serbia Ukraine Greece Cyprus Cote Nepal divoire Trinidad Kenya Dominican and Tunisia Tobago Republic Moldova Bangladesh Ethiopia El Salvador Lebanon Argentina Mongolia Egypt Uganda Senegal Kyrgyzstan Tanzania Paraguay ZambiaCameroon Mali Benin PakistanBolivia Zimbabwe Nigeria Madagascar Burundi Malawi Mozambique Spain Switzerland Singapore United States of America Germany Netherlands Hong Japan Kong (China) United Kingdom Sweden Norway Finland Belgium New Canada Zealand Denmark Australia Austria Israel France Luxembourg Ireland China Estonia Czech Republic Malta Iceland South Korea y = x R² = Yemen Global Innovation index Score 2017

10 Factors of Production Land Labor Capital Infrastructure (Physical and Technological) Human Capital Social and Political Institutions Healthcare Institutions Educational Institutions Administrative Institutions Financial Institutions State Innovation Index Demand Conditions Market Size Market Sophistication Market Growth Industries, Innovation and Entrepreneurship R&D New Firm Creation Firms Industrial Clusters New Knowledge Creation (Patents, Copyrights etc.)

11 State Per Capita SDP ( ) State Innovation Index Rank Stage Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Delhi Kerala Goa Gujarat Sikkim Himachal Pradesh Haryana Uttarakhand Karnataka West Bengal Arunachal Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Rajasthan Telangana Punjab Mizoram Nagaland Chhattisgarh Uttar Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Madhya Pradesh Manipur Assam Tripura Odisha Meghalaya Bihar Jharkhand Innovation-Driven States Investment-Driven States Factor-Driven States

12 State 2017 Rankings 2016 Rankings Stage Maharashtra 1 1 Tamil Nadu 2 2 Delhi 3 3 Kerala 4 6 Goa 5 4 Gujarat 6 5 Sikkim 7 8 Himachal Pradesh 8 7 Haryana 9 10 Uttarakhand 10 9 Karnataka 1 1 West Bengal 2 4 Arunachal Pradesh 3 6 Andhra Pradesh 4 2 Rajasthan 5 7 Telangana 6 Punjab 7 3 Mizoram 8 5 Nagaland 9 9 Chhattisgarh 10 8 Uttar Pradesh 1 1 Jammu & Kashmir 2 5 Madhya Pradesh 3 4 Manipur 4 2 Assam 5 8 Tripura 6 3 Odisha 7 6 Meghalaya 8 9 Bihar 9 7 Jharkhand Innovation-Driven States Investment-Driven States Factor-Driven States

13 STATE INNOVATION INDEX Maharashtra and Jharkhand are the most and least innovative states in the country Innovation seems to be seriously lacking in the resource-rich eastern states A maximum score of 43 indicates the potential for Indian states to climb up the innovation ladder

14 STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Factors of Production Social and Political Institutions 10 0 Demand Conditions Industries, Innovation and Entrepreneurship Bihar Karnataka Tamil Nadu

15 FACTORS OF PRODUCTION Goa, Delhi and Telangana are the leading states under this pillar Indicative of low infringement on land rights, high labour force participation and high credit availability As expected of a developing nation, factors of production is the most developed aspect of Porter s Diamond having the lowest standard deviation of the four pillars (6.5 as compared to 16 for the other three)

16 DEMAND CONDITIONS Maharashtra, Delhi and Tamil Nadu are the leading states under this pillar A combination of market size and market sophistication define the demand conditions of a region Therefore, states with higher purchasing power tend to perform well

17 INDUSTRIES, INNOVATION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh are the leading states under this pillar These states being India s leading manufacturing centres have expectedly done well in innovation and entrepreneurship The eastern part of India has been a poor performer in this aspect

18 SOCIAL AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS The map is reflective of India s poor institutional standards. Healthcare, educational, financial and administrative institutions have been considered to measure the country s institutional performance Eastern and northern-most states have scored the highest. However, that is the case because troubled regions usually have a higher incidence of institutional support

19 State Competitiveness Scores, 2017 LINK BETWEEN INNOVATION & COMPETITIVENESS: STATES y = 1.021x R² = Karnataka Gujarat Maharashtra Goa Delhi 40 Chhattisgarh Uttarakhand Tripura Punjab Haryana Himachal Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Sikkim Kerala Tamil Nadu Jharkhand Bihar Assam Nagaland Rajasthan West Bengal Madhya Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Uttar Pradesh 10 Meghalaya Odisha Manipur State Innovation Scores, 2017

20 Social Progress Index LINK BETWEEN INNOVATION AND SOCIAL PROGRESS : STATES OF INDIA COUNTRY-WISE GROWTH IN PATENTS y = x R² = Uttarakhand Punjab Himachal Pradesh Kerala Tamil Nadu Sikkim Goa Delhi Haryana Gujarat Nagaland Andhra Pradesh Chhattisgarh Manipur Jammu & Kashmir Madhya Pradesh West Bengal Tripura Meghalaya Rajasthan Odisha Karnataka Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Jharkhand Assam 45 Bihar State Innovation Index

21 Access to Information & Communication LINK BETWEEN INNOVATION AND ACCESS TO INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION: COUNTRY-WISE STATES OF GROWTH INDIA IN PATENTS Delhi Punjab Himachal Pradesh Kerala Tamil Nadu Jharkhand Uttarakhand Haryana Gujarat Andhra Pradesh Sikkim Jammu & Kashmir Madhya Pradesh Chhattisgarh Manipur Rajasthan Tripura Meghalaya Nagaland West Bengal Maharashtra KarnatakaGoa Uttar Pradesh 20 Bihar Odisha Assam State Innovation Scores

22 Average Wage, LINK BETWEEN INNOVATION AND WAGES: STATES OF INDIA COUNTRY-WISE GROWTH IN PATENTS Assam Punjab Sikkim Uttar Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Meghalaya Manipur Haryana Andhra Pradesh Kerala y = x R² = Maharashtra Karnataka Himachal Pradesh Uttarakhand Tripura Goa Gujarat Madhya Pradesh Tamil Nadu Jharkhand West Bengal Odisha Bihar Patents per employees Figure 12. Average Wage vs Patents per employees by States, 2014 Higher innovative capabilities provide a region with a considerable competitive advantage over other regions. Patenting is the best available measure for quantifying this aspect. It seems to be the case that larger states by employment size show higher innovative tendencies.

23 Employment in High-tech Clusters HIGH-TECH CLUSTERS Employment growth does not show a relationship with the presence of high-tech clusters Employment in High-Tech Clusters vs Growth in Employment Maharashtra y = x R² = Tamil Nadu Gujarat Dadra & Nagar Haveli Karnataka Uttarakhand Andhra Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Rajasthan Delhi Haryana Kerala Goa West Bengal Chhattisgarh Tripura Chandigarh Bihar Sikkim Manipur Meghalaya CAGR of Total Employees

24 RELATIVE IMPACT BY STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Low Income Countries Middle Income Countries High Income Countries MACROECONOMIC POLICY SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS MICROECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS Data: Michael E. Porter and Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness Competitiveness in high-income countries is mainly driven by innovation.

25 GIPC INTERNATIONAL IP INDEX United States United Kingdom Germany Japan Sweden France Switzerland Singapore South Korea Italy Spain Australia Hungary New Zealand Poland Israel Canada Taiwan Malaysia Mexico Russia China Brazil South Africa India

26 DIMENSIONS OF INNOVATION POLICY Research Dimensions of Innovation Policy Education Finance Government can support innovation in two ways: Directly - by investing in development of technology Indirectly - by creating an environment that supports research and development. Industry

27 DIMENSIONS OF INNOVATION POLICY ROLE OF GOVERNMENT Incentives to support innovators Establish institutions to facilitate research and development Provide environment that supports innovation by removing obstacles faced by companies Invest in the creation of knowledge workers

28 DIMENSIONS OF INNOVATION POLICY ROLE OF GOVERNMENT Incentives to support innovators Establish institutions to facilitate research and development Provide environment that supports innovation by removing obstacles faced by companies Invest in the creation of knowledge workers

29 Data: Global Innovation Index

30 DIMENSIONS OF INNOVATION POLICY ROLE OF GOVERNMENT Incentives to support innovators Establish institutions to facilitate research and development Provide environment that supports innovation by removing obstacles faced by companies Invest in the creation of knowledge workers

31 Data: World Bank

32 Data: World Bank

33 DIMENSIONS OF INNOVATION POLICY ROLE OF GOVERNMENT Incentives to support innovators Establish institutions to facilitate research and development Provide environment that supports innovation by removing obstacles faced by companies Invest in the creation of knowledge workers

34 Data: Global Innovation Index

35 DIMENSIONS OF INNOVATION POLICY ROLE OF GOVERNMENT Incentives to support innovators Establish institutions to facilitate research and development Provide environment that supports innovation by removing obstacles faced by companies Invest in the creation of knowledge workers

36 RESEARCHERS IN R&D (PER MILLION PEOPLE) IN 2013

37 Data: Global Innovation Index

38 Context for Firms Strategy And Rivalry WHAT IF A COUNTRY LACKS A ROBUST IP REGIME Factor Conditions Distortion in access to high quality business inputs especially in :- Information Scientific and Technological infrastructure. Intellectual capital is not being recognised. In case of no protection this may result in companies having no incentive to innovate. Local rules and incentives that encourage productivity and investment are decreased : Lower salaries due to low end work. Lower capital investments as companies want adequate standards. Lesser incentive to innovate as knowledge is not adequately protected. Competition between companies becomes more distorted as there is an absence of a level playing field. Companies reduce spending on R and D as they expect others to invest while they reap the benefits. Related, Supporting Industries And Institutions Demand Conditions Sophisticated and demanding local customers and needs. Strict quality, safety, and environmental standards are not met as IPR laws are weaker. Greater imports as companies are not able to meet sophisticated demand. Government procurement of advanced technology as no laws are in place. Source: Michael E. Porter and Institute for Competitiveness Analysis IPR rules if they are not adequately present. Distort incentives to share knowledge. Adverse impact on innovation at the related and supporting industry level. It also results in a reduced network effect in clusters as different firms in clusters are adamant about sharing their business knowhow.

39 DOES LACK OF TRUST UNDERMINE COMPETITIVENESS? Context for Firms Strategy And Rivalry Factor Conditions Trust is critical in factor markets for appropriate resource allocation. Rent seeking reduces trust and creates an atmosphere of corruption. Inadequate/arbitrary policy design leads to erosion of trust. Risk of the market is in the form of trust that the goods and services produces will be consumed. Lower level of trust in market competition leads to collusion and illegal cartels as well as corruption. Low trust also results in negative perception of the regulators. Trust in regulators and rule of law also critical for smooth functioning. Independent regulators critical for institutional trust. Related, Supporting Industries And Institutions Lower level of trust in institutions undermines the rule of law. Low level of trust leads to non sharing of know how resulting in lesser network externalities of agglomerations. Trust in institutions undermined when they harass companies. Vicious cycle also leads to poor quality services as nobody is willing to provide them in an over-regulated economy. Demand Conditions Quality, price and differentiation are the main considerations essential for the consumer to trust the producer. If the consumer does not trust the producer sale may not happen. Effect is a slowing down economy with low level of consumption and investments. Safeguards in the economy include quality certifying institutions as well as branding of the product.

40 HOW CORRUPTION UNDERMINES COMPETITIVENESS? Context for Firms Strategy And Rivalry Heightened income disparity. Consumer interests are compromised. Social versus self-interest. Factor Conditions Resource allocation is skewed; providing goods and services at below market price. Rent seeking behaviour by bureaucracy. Arbitrary tract for fast track treatment. Disincentives for labour to perform. Source: Institute for Competitiveness Analysis High level of government intervention. Degree of regulation a predictor of corruption. Collusion and Cartelization. Too much market power to a few companies. Innovation is curtailed. Manipulation of Policy and provision of poor quality services. Failure of Institutional support. Related, Supporting Industries And Institutions Demand Conditions Lower acceptance of established institutions. Beauraucratic rigidity. Weakening institutional Foundations.

41 India s Competitiveness: A Perspective from States Presented By: Amit Kapoor Chair, Institute for Competitiveness

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