The Historical Evolution of International Relations

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1 The Historical Evolution of International Relations Chapter 2 Zhongqi Pan 1 Ø Greece and the City-State System p The classical Greek city-state system provides one antecedent for the new Westphalian order. p The major features of the Greek city-state system are two aspects. 1st, organized in independent city-states and engaged in classic power politics. 2nd, carried on economic relations and trade with each other to a record degree. Zhongqi Pan 2 Ø Roman Empire p The Roman Empire served as the precursor for larger political systems. p The governance of the Roman Empire was based upon following strategies: Disseminating the Latin language; Granting citizenship to free peoples; Giving local rulers considerable autonomy. Ø Roman Empire p Cicero ( B.C.) Uniting the empire by a law among nations applicable to humanity as a whole. Maintaining state security by expanding resources and boundaries, while ensuring domestic stability. Zhongqi Pan 3 Zhongqi Pan 4 Ø The Middle Ages p Disintegration of the Roman Empire led to decentralization of power in Europe. p By 1000 A.D. three civilizations had emerged from the rubble of Rome. The Arabic civilization The Byzantine Empire The Holy Roman Empire Zhongqi Pan 5 Ø The Middle Ages p Much of Western Europe reverted to feudal principalities. p The preeminent institution in the medieval period was the church. p In late 8th century, the church s monopoly on power was challenged by Charlemagne. p The pope made Charlemagne emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Zhongqi Pan 6 1

2 Ø The Middle Ages p Dante ( ) There should be a strict separation of the church from political life. p Centralization in religious authority and decentralization in secular authority became the two faces in the medieval period in Europe. Zhongqi Pan 7 p In the late Middle Ages, secular trends began to undermine both the decentralization of feudalism and the universalization of Christianity. Commercial activity and communication New technology Trading relationships and diplomatic practices Zhongqi Pan 8 p These developments led to fundamental changes in social relations. 1st, a transnational business community emerged, transnational networks were developed, the movement of Renaissance appeared, the individualism and humanism were introduced, and the secular education was made possible. (cultural explorations) Zhongqi Pan 9 p These developments led to fundamental changes in social relations. 2nd, a period of European territorial expansion was fueled. (geographical exploration) EG. Christopher Columbus sailing to the New World in 1492, Hernan Cortes to Mexico in 1519, Francisco Pizarro to the Andes in Zhongqi Pan 10 p Cultural exploration made the separation of the church from political life possible. p Geographical exploration made interactions among states and civilizations unavoidable. p Machiavelli ( ) Leaders act in the state s interest and answer to no moral rules. Zhongqi Pan 11 Ø Key Developments Before 1648 p The Greek city-states reach the height of their power in 400 B.C.; they carry out cooperative functions through diplomacy and classic power politics. p The Roman Empire (50 B.C.-A.D. 400) originates imperialism, develops the practice of expanding territorial reach. The empire is united through law and language, allowing some local identity. Zhongqi Pan 12 2

3 Ø Key Developments Before 1648 p The Middle Ages ( ) witness the centralization of religious authority in the church, with decentralization in political and economic life. p The Age of Exploration ( ) fosters the development of transnational networks. Zhongqi Pan 13 Ø Impacts of Treaty of Westphalia on IR p First, the Treaty of Westphalia embraced the notion of sovereignty. p Legitimizing territoriality and the right of states to choose their own religion. p Establishing that states could determine their own domestic policies, free from external pressure and with full jurisdiction in their geographic space. Zhongqi Pan 14 Ø Impacts of Treaty of Westphalia on IR p Second, states began to build their own permanent national militaries. The state with a national army emerged, its sovereignty acknowledged, and its secular base firmly established. State became increasingly more powerful. Zhongqi Pan 15 Ø Impacts of Treaty of Westphalia on IR p Third, the Treaty of Westphalia established a core group of states: Austria, Russia, Prussia, England, France, and the United Provinces. Capitalism in west vs. feudalism in east. Yet in both regions, absolutist states dominated: Louis XIV, Peter the Great, and Frederick II. Zhongqi Pan 16 p Bodin ( ) Sovereignty is absolute and perpetual power of state. p Smith ( ) The invisible hand of the market makes the system work. Ø Key Developments After Westphalia p Notion and practice of sovereignty develops. p Centralized control of institutions under military grows. p Capitalist economic system emerges. Zhongqi Pan 17 Zhongqi Pan 18 3

4 Ø The Aftermath of Revolution: Core Principles p The American Revolution (1776) against British rule and the French Revolution (1789) against absolutist rule. p Two core principles: Legitimacy -Locke ( ) Nationalism Zhongqi Pan 19 p A centurial peace ( ) p Exception: the Crimean War in 1854 p Surprising: changes of political landscape Italy unified in 1870, Germany in 1871; Holland divided into the Netherlands and Belgium in the 1830s; Greece got independence in 1829 and Moldavia and Wallachia in Zhongqi Pan 20 p First, the European states enjoyed a solidarity among themselves. p Second, European elites were united in their fear of revolution from the masses. p Third, two of the major issues confronting the core European states were internal ones: the unifications of Germany and Italy. Zhongqi Pan 21 p Fourth, European state rivalries were mainly played outside Europe, in particular in Africa and Asia. p Fifth, the balance of power and the Concert of Europe prevented direct confrontation in Europe. Zhongqi Pan 22 France Austria Britain Russia Prussia Zhongqi Pan 23 Ø Key Developments in 19 th Century Europe p From revolutions emerge two concepts: legitimacy and nationalism. p A balance of power system brings relative peace to Europe. Elites are united in fear of the masses, and domestic concerns are more important than foreign policy. p European imperialism in Asia and Africa helps maintain balance of power in Europe. Zhongqi Pan 24 4

5 Ø The Breakdown of Balance of Power and the Solidification of Alliances p Two camps emerged: The Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria, and Italy) in 1882 The Dual Alliance (France and Russia) in 1893 The Entente Cordiale (Britain and France) in 1904 The Triple Entente (Britain, France, and Russia ) in 1907 Zhongqi Pan 25 Ø World War I: Major Players Alliance Powers Entente Powers Germany Great Britain Ottoman Empire Russia Italy (until 1915) Italy (after 1915) United States (after 1917) Zhongqi Pan 26 Ø World War I and Its Aftermath p The impacts of World War I on IR First, three European empires were broke up during or near the end of World War I. (Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, and Ottoman Empire ) Second, Germany emerged out of World War I an even more dissatisfied power. Zhongqi Pan 27 Ø World War I and Its Aftermath p The impacts of World War I on IR Third, enforcement of the Versailles Treaty was given to the League of Nations. Fourth, a vision of the post-wwi order was a vision stillborn from the start. Thus, the results of and the arrangements after WWI paved the way for WWII. Zhongqi Pan 28 Ø The Interwar Years and World War II p The Great Depression. p Germany rearmed under Hitler in 1930s. p Japan invaded China in 1930s. p Italy overrun Ethiopia in p Two camps emerged: The Axis The Allies Ø The Interwar Years and World War II p Causes of WWII: Versailles provisions inflame Germany. Fascism, Nazi and German irredentism. Inaction by France, Britain, and Soviet Union (appeasement). American isolationism. Great Depression and protectionism. Zhongqi Pan 29 Zhongqi Pan 30 5

6 Ø The Interwar Years and World War II p The aftermath of WWII: Both the German Reich and imperial Japan lay in ruins at the end of the war. A major redistribution of power occurs, the US and the Soviet Union rise. Political borders changed. A new international conflict geared up. Ø Key Developments During 2 World Wars p The balance of power breaks down due to solidification of alliances, resulting in WWI. p Three empires collapse: Russia by revolution, the Austro-Hungarian Empire by dismemberment, and the Ottoman Empire by external wars and internal turmoil. Zhongqi Pan 31 Zhongqi Pan 32 Ø Key Developments During 2 World Wars p German dissatisfaction with the WWI settlement leads to fascism. Germany finds allies in Italy and Japan. p A weak League of Nations is unable to respond to Japanese, Italian, and German aggression, as well as economic unrest. p The interwar years turbulence gives rise to World War II. Zhongqi Pan 33 Ø Key Developments During 2 World Wars p The alliance of the Allies forms and beats the alliance of the Axis. p Political landscape experiences a big change after World War II. p The United States and the Soviet Union become two major powers and get into a new confrontation of the Cold War. Zhongqi Pan 34 The Cold War The Cold War: key events Ø Outcomes of WWII & Origins of Cold War p The emergence of two superpowers and the attendant decline of Europe. p Fundamental incompatibilities between two superpowers in national interests and ideology. p The end of the colonial system. p Competitions of superpowers played out indirectly, on third-party stages. Zhongqi Pan 35 Zhongqi Pan 36 6

7 The Cold War The Cold War Ø The Cold War as a Series of Confrontations p Berlin Blockade (48-49), Berlin Wall (61) p Korean War (50-53) p Cuban missile crisis (62) p Vietnam War (55-75) (65-73) p Revolutions in Eastern Europe and dismantlement of Berlin Wall (89) p Germany reunified (90) p Soviet Union collapsed (91) Zhongqi Pan 37 Ø The Cold War as a Long Peace p Nuclear deterrence p The bipolar split in power between the United States and the Soviet Union p US hegemonic economic power p Economic liberalism p A long historical cycle of peace and war Zhongqi Pan 38 The Cold War Ø Key Developments In The Cold War p Two superpowers emerge the United States and the Soviet Union. They are divided by national interests, ideologies, and mutual misperceptions. p A series of crises occurs. p A long peace is sustained. Zhongqi Pan 39 The Post-Cold War Era Ø Key Developments In Post-Cold War Era p The US becomes the only superpower. p Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990, leading to the Gulf War in p Terrorist attacks against the US in 2001 result in Afghanistan war and Iraq war. p Civil ethnic conflicts and nuclear issue become primary global concerns. p Global financial crisis in Zhongqi Pan 40 Emerging Centers of Power In Sum: Learning from History p We examined how core concepts of IR have emerged and evolved over time, most notably the state, sovereignty, the nation, and the international system. p While history provides us answers of IR foundational questions, we also turn to theory. p Next week we will look at critical debates and historical evolution of IR theories. Zhongqi Pan 41 Zhongqi Pan 42 7

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