2 CONFLICTS - KEY ASPECTS Imperialism / colonialism ( ). World War 1 (WW1) ( ). Inter-war period ( ). The Russian Revolution; Spanish Civil War; The Roaring Twenties; The rise of fascism. World War 2 (WW2) ( ).
3 THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION PAGES
5 CAUSES OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION SIMILAR TO THE FRENCH REVOLUTION Economic causes: Medieval (rural) economy. Social causes: The ruler, an absolute monarch, Tsar. Political causes: The common people had no representation at all in the government. The people were sick and tired of WW1, and their situation.
6 TWO REVOLUTIONS FEBRUARY & OCTOBER February Revolution 1917: Tsar and his family overthrown; people tired of not being listen. Russia becomes a republic; the execution of the Tsar and family. But, the new leaders kept Russia involved in WW1. October Revolution 1917: Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks, started a civil war. Ideas based on Karl Marx and The Communist Manifesto.
7 UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS THE FIRST COMMUNIST STATE By 1920, L. Trotsky with the Red Army won the civil war. Lenin was the state s leader. Leadership based on the Soviets. The Communist Party was the only legal party. From the theory (Marx) to the practice (Lenin): the Communist System in political form. Total opposition to the capitalism.
8 COMMUNISM 101 THE BASIC CHARACTERISTICS An ideology based on Karl Marx text, The Communist Manifesto. Communism = community versus Capitalism = individualism. Inversion of the social pyramid. (the power for the commoners). The profits of labor (production) would be distributed fairly by the state. (Everybody is going to have the basics, but the same basics). Opposing the exploitation system brought by capitalism, where the profit is only for the bourgeois factory owners.
9 WHO IS WHO IN THE COMMUNISM?
19 THE BOOMING TWENTIES - THE BIG DEPRESSION PAGES
20 THE ROARING TWENTIES SIMILAR CRISIS TO OURS - LIVING OVER OUR POSSIBILITIES 1920s, WW1 is left behind and it seems there is a real chance for peace. The feeling is that the peace is going to last. A generalized feeling of optimism. They learnt the lesson: it was impossible to repeat a horrific and terrible war like WW1 again. Society was becoming more advanced, and more comfortable thanks to the development of new technologies for the domestic markets (cars, planes, radios, cookers, bath-taps, etc.). The industrial development accelerated the consumer demand (people had money and they wanted to buy products).
21 THE USA CENTURY A NEW POWER OUT OF EUROPE, FOR THE FIRST TIME The USA was the world s most prosperous country. The perfect economic spot: cheap labor, high wages, mass production of goods. Billions of dollars loaned by USA to recover Europe from WW1. Cultural boom - jazz, art, fashion, architecture. The way to prove that power were the skyscrapers (symbol of the rise of the USA).
25 THE DEPRESSION THE FIRST MODERN CRISIS Causes: 1929 ( the old good days turned to an end). Too much production = less demand (less buyers). Recuperation of the European economy after WW1. An excessive investment in shares. Consequences - "The Depression. Wall Street Crash of US banks tried to recover its loans from Europe; big depression in Europe; banks closed and economy collapsed.
27 BASIC DICTIONARY CRISIS FOR DUMMIES Stock market. Share or shares. Buy. Sell. Floor. Collapse. Banks.
35 A MOVIE RECOMMENDATION MODERN TIMES
36 EFFECTS OF THE DEPRESSION PAGES 112
37 GERMANY THE INFLUENCE OF THE FUTURE III REICH The Republic of Weimar Consequence: Adolf Hitler. National Socialism. Freedom to re-arm.
38 III REICH
39 JAPAN THE INFLUENCE OVER EAST ASIA & THE PACIFIC OCEAN Economical & political influence on the area. The need to expand their economy to sell their own products. 1932: invasion of Manchuria (China).
42 ITALY THE FASCISM S GROWTH Mussolini. Distract. Economic problems. Increasing power abroad. Goal: a new Roman Empire. Napoleon = emperor.
43 ROMAN EMPIRE
44 ITALY ( )
45 GREAT BRITAIN KEEPING THE STAKES HIGH 3 million of unemployed brought the appearance of fascists groups. Democracy survived.
46 BRITISH UNION OF FASCISTS
47 THE BLACKSHIRTS
48 FRANCE A COUNTRY DIVIDED Depression brought hit later in France. But, same economical principles. Border tension with Germany. Like in England, many internal tensions with several extremist groups.
50 PHILIPPE PÉTAIN
51 SPAIN ALWAYS LATE, LOSING TRACK OF WORLDWIDE EVENTS Many difficulties. Two dictatorships: Republic: Monarchy: Until 1923.
52 ALFONSO XIII
53 FIRST DICTATORSHIP PRIMO DE RIVERA
54 PRESIDENT REPUBLIC NICETO ALCALÁ ZAMORA
55 PRESIDENT CIVIL WAR MANUEL ARAÑA
56 SECOND DICTATORSHIPS FRANCO
57 USA STARTING A NEW ERA, THE CAPITALISM 13 millions of unemployed. Franklin Delano Roosevelt took the lead for Democrats. New Deal. Economy recovered. US economy marked the path for the rest of the world.
61 THE SOVIET UNION THE THEORY VERSUS THE PRACTICE Lenin s death in New leader: Joseph Stalin. Two facts: Cruel dictatorship. Began industrialization. By 1936, a world major power.
62 JOSEPH STALIN
64 THE RISE OF FASCISM PAGES
66 THE RISE OF FASCISM DONEC QUIS NUNC (Where do fascists movements develop their tentacles? The logic of fascist movements - useful factors for their development). 5 steps - taking advantage of the unpreparedness of the political institutions. (First, economics ) Financial crisis. Unpopularity of democratic governments (not able to solve the people s problems). (Scapegoat) Some to blame (migrants more likely). High unemployment rate. Social unrest.
67 REASONS FOR THE RISE OF FASCISM ITALY & GERMANY LOOK ALIKE EXALTATION COMMUNISM OF NATIONALISM ECONOMIC CRISIS WEAKNESS OF DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS
68 FASCES, FASCIO THREE RELEVANT ASPECTS  Between 1919 and 1922 Italy had four different governments. Frustration after WW1 - winner s side - no recognition. Strikes / demonstrations. No reaction by the different governments.  Benito Mussolini parliamentarian - Fasci di Combattimento. Authoritarian ideas took control over the government.  Mussolini s Italy = a dictatorship (no parties; no unions).
70 SITUATION IN GERMANY THE ORIGIN OF THE THIRD REICH INTERNATIONAL HUMILIATION EX-SOLDIERS FELT BETRAYED UNEMPLOYMENT THREAT OF A COMMUNIST REVOLUTION ECONOMIC CRISIS MADE WORSE BY THE POST-WAR REPARATIONS
71 THE SEEDS OF DISCONTENT TOWARDS THE DISASTER WW1 left Germany critically injured in their political, economic, social institutions. The Republic of Weimar could not solve any of the problems. Hitler took advantage of the discontent and won the elections in 1932 for the National Socialist Germany Workers party (Nazi party). 1933: Hitler was named Chancellor. Under his government, first measures, illegality of the political parties & creation of concentration camps to imprison his opponents.
72 THE NUREMBERG LAWS
73 THE NUREMBERG LAWS ON CITIZENSHIP AND RACE SEPTEMBER 15, 1935
74 SPAIN - DICTATORSHIPS & REPUBLIC PAGES
75 SPAIN: TWO DIFFERENT PHASES (1) KEY ASPECTS: DICTATORSHIP The battle of Annual (Moroccan war). The Cánovas system was dying. Alfonso XIII accepts the coup d erat. Miguel Primo de Rivera s dictatorship: Supported by the high bourgeoisie; the church; big landlords. Goals: restore the public order and end Moroccan war. Measures: banned all political parties; forbade strikes; closed parliament; reduced the freedom of expression.
76 SPAIN: TWO DIFFERENT PHASES (2) KEY ASPECTS: REPUBLIC (1) 1931: municipal elections republican parties won king forced to abdicate 2nd Republic was declared. Solving problems: World economic crisis; The negative socio-economic situation**; Growing desire for regional autonomy; The influence of fascism and communism.
77 **High illiteracy. **Underdeveloped agriculture. **Few landlords too many dependent rural workers. **Hunger. **Misery. **Few industrial areas. **Old-fashioned army.
78 SPAIN: TWO DIFFERENT PHASES (2) KEY ASPECTS: REPUBLIC (2) 1931 Constitution: Agricultural reform. Primary education (no church control). Votes for women. Civil marriage and divorce. Army reform. Petitions for autonomy.
79 SPAIN: TWO DIFFERENT PHASES (2) KEY ASPECTS: REPUBLIC (3) 1993: elections right and central parties won fascist movement increased in importance with José Antonio Primo de Rivera and Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Jons.
80 TANTO MONTA CATHOLIC MONARCHS
81 THE OLD GOOD DAYS SPAIN S SYMBOLS
82 SPAIN: TWO DIFFERENT PHASES (2) KEY ASPECTS: REPUBLIC (4) February 1936 Frente Popular won the new elections. Frente Popular = socialist + communist + republicans. The right wing and the military totally disagreed with the results. July 17, the leader of the African army Francisco Franco began a coup d etat. July 18, other generals in the peninsula joined him. The coup d etat failed, but the Spanish Civil War had begun.
83 THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR PAGES 120
84 THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR STEP 1 Two main groups: Republicans (Reds) versus Nacionales (Blues). The Republicans represented the legitimate government; while the Nacionales were the rebels against the government. The Republicans got the support of the Soviet Union and the International Brigades (70,000 soldiers). The Nacionales got the help of Germany and Italy and their modern arms (200,000 soldiers).
85 THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR STEP 2 The nacional side was under the command of the fascists principles. There was only one legal political party (Falange). These two concepts were supported by Franco, and during his dictatorship they were implemented.
86 THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR STEP , three long years of a long war. The fascists defeated the republicans. Franco s dictatorship had begun ( ).
87 THE BASQUE STATUTE PAGES 121
88 THE BASQUE COUNTRY CIVIL WAR AND BEYOND October 1936: the Statute was approved by the Cortes (Parliament) for Araba, Biscay and Gipuzkoa. Jose Antonio Agirre was nominated as first Lehendakari of the Jaurlaritza. Summer 1937: The Basque Government capitulated and went into exile (Europe & America). The nacionales turned the economic agreement down until the end of the dictatorship.
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CHAPTERS COVERED: - Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment - Reform, Democracy, & Technology - French Revolution - World War I & Russian Revolution - Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna - World War