Progressive Era

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1 Progressive Era

2 Progressive Movement Focused on urban problems, government, and business. Political Boss Controlled local business (jobs and services) A citizen closest link to government Corrupt Politicians Claimed that government and big business were taking advantage of the people, not serving Bribes, campaign contributions, kickbacks (legal payments) A contractor would add money to a site, but kickback to the bosses

3 Corruption William M. Tweed AKA Boss Tweed NYC Democratic political machine Tweed ring Police, courts, newspapers Thomas Nast exposed Tweed s ring in political cartoons. Convicting and sentenced to prison Commissioners governed 400 cities How does the right to free press contribute to a democracy? (pg.643)

4 Fighting Spoils System Political supporters were rewarded with jobs and favors Pendleton Act under Pres. Chester A. Arthur Established the Civil Service Commision to give examinations for federal jobs Demonstrate skills 1900 s commission controlled the hiring of federal jobs Why do you think the spoils system would lead to inefficient government?

5 Controlling Big Business The public may regard trusts or combinations with serene confidence. - Andrew Carnegie (pg. 645) Do you think the government should have a role in business? Sherman Antitrust Act First federal law to control trusts and monopolies Applied act against labor unions (misuse of act) Gov t claimed that labor strikes hurt trade Oligopoly - A few large companies that controlled prices for an entire industry Railroads Interstate Commerce Act Required railroads to change and publish reasonable and just rates. Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) oversee railroads and later on truck companies

6 The New Reformers Socialism - social organization that advocates the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole. Socialists - people who advocate for the good or welfare of the people Eugene V. Debs American Socialist Party 1898 Only a few people held the wealth of America Progressives Government to regulate industry rather than More efficient and less influenced by big business power Had a duty to protect and help all members of society own it

7 Muckrakers Newspapers Uncover major problems in society and business; informed the public Muckrakers Raked - exposed- the muck dirt and corruption Lincoln Steffens - McClure's Magazine Corrupt machine politics in NYC Ida Tarbell - McClure s Magazine Oil trusts unfair practices - increased public pressure Upton Sinclair - The Jungle (1906) Horrors of Chicago meatpacking industry Meat Inspection Act and Food and How did the Muckrakers contribute to the Progressive Movement?

8 Oregon System and 17th Amendment Voters could place an issue on the ballot in a state election Accept or reject measurers that the state legislature enacted with the referendum (a general vote) The recall allowed voters to remove incompetent elected officials The constitution gave state legislatures the responsibility to choose senators 1912 passed the 17th amend. Direct election of senators 1913 gave the people a voice in choosing their reps.

9 Women and Progressives

10 Women s Role changes Movement from country to city More children in school; men working away from home Lives are less centered around maintaining a home Higher education 40% of college students were women Teachers, nursing/medicine, 4 million to 1.5 million

11 The New Woman Educated, modern women who pursued interests outside the home Jane Addams - Hull House Mother Cabrini - Italian nun who came ti the US to work with the poor Writer, public speakers, fundraised, social and political reform

12 Suffragists Women who fought for the right to vote. Beatrice Forbes-Robertson Hale A little time ago I found myself in a great American city, where a Woman Suffrage Parade was to be held for the first time Some large stores had hung out the yellow suffrage flag and yellow daffodils were being worn by many in the crowd Presently came the beat of a drum, then the fifes...they were here! Line upon line of white-clad figures with yellow badges, short skirted booted and hatted in simple white. What types of issues are important to women today?

13 Suffrage 15th Amendment - gave voting rights to freedmen National American Woman Suffrage Association 2 million members by 1917 The whole aim of the [women s] movement has been to destroy the idea that obedience is necessary to women and to train men to such comprehension of equality they would not exact [demand it. -Carrie Chapman Catt

14 Leader of the Women s Christian s Temperance Union which tried to ban alcohol Leader of the National Consumer s League which tried to ban child labor First Congresswomen that voted against going to war in Europe Leader of the National Women s Party which used radical tactics to achieve women s suffrage

15 Opposition to Woman Suffrage Groups began to protest Middle class woman to vote to pass labor laws protecting women March on Washington D.C Wyoming led the nation Women to vote in some elections Alice Paul Jane Adams March 3, 1913 Both men and women White House Protest Arrested for blocking sidewalk Public Hunger Strike Quietly, peacefully, lawfully, and gloriously. - Alva Belmont

16 Woman Vote Nationally 1918 House of Representatives pass woman suffrage Start to the right to vote th Amendment Woman the right to vote In time for presidential election

17 Prohibition Led by the Woman s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) (1874) 18th Amendment Anti-Saloon League (20 years later) banned the manufacture, transportation and sale of intoxicating liquors

18 The illegal manufacturing and sale of liquor (known as bootlegging ) went on throughout the decade, along with the operation of Speakeasies (stores or nightclubs selling alcohol), the smuggling of alcohol across state lines The informal production of liquor ( moonshine or bathtub gin ) in private homes.

19 Al Capone Why is he known as Scarface What happened on Valentine s Day? Who took down Al Capone?

20 Prohibition comes to an End High price of bootleg liquor working class and poor were far more restricted during Prohibition than middle or upper class Americans Jails and prisons spiraled upward, Great Depression by 1932, creating jobs and revenue by legalizing the liquor industry had an undeniable appeal February 1933 Congress adopted a resolution proposing a 21st Amendment a few states continued to prohibit alcohol after Prohibition s end, all had abandoned the ban by 1966.

21

22 Excluded from Reform

23 Prejudice and Discrimination Anti-Catholicism Largely protestant population feared Threatened the American way of life American Protective Association (APA) 1887 Not to hire or vote for Catholics Catholics were to take over the world Anti-Semitism (Pg. 664) Jewish to US to escape discrimination form homelands Landlords, employers and schools Anti-Asian Policies In CA and other western states Worked for lower wages = Took our jobs Chinese Exclusion Act Prevent immigrants from entering Japanese Immigrants Not allowed to become citizens in CA Gentlemen s Agreement Teddy Roosevelt Restricted Japanese immigration to the US but did not bring an end to anti-japanese feeling

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