Social capital and social cohesion in a perspective of social progress: the case of active citizenship

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1 Busan, Korea October rd OECD World Forum 1 Social capital and social cohesion in a perspective of social progress: the case of active citizenship Anders Hingels *, Andrea Saltelli **, Anna Rita Manca **, Massimiliano Mascherini **, Bryony Hoskins *** *European Commission- DG Education and Culture **European Commission -DG Joint Research Centre ***Centre Institute of Education University of London Busan, Korea 27-30/10/2009

2 Outline JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd rd Name OECD World Forum 2 To propose a composite indicator to measure Active Citizenship in Europe. To explore the relationship between Active Citizenship and other socio-economic indicators. To provide a characterization of Active- Citizenship in Europe through a multilevel model.

3 JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 3 Definition of Active Citizenship

4 Monitoring active citizenship in Europe JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 4 Why? Should not judge society on economic performance alone - A Warmer Europe Decreasing trends in levels of participation -voting -volunteering -community participation

5 JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 5 EXTREMISM FEAR OF GLOBALISATION SOCIAL EXCLUSION MIGRATION/ RACISM APATHY/ RESENTMENT

6 Active citizenship for democracy JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 6 The Network European Commission Council of Europe 20+ key experts from several European Universities International surveys key experts

7 Working definition JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 7 Active Citizenship is a term used within European policy makers to denote particulars form of participation which should be promoted within Europe in order to ensure. the continuation of participatory and representative democracy to reduce the gap between citizens and governing institutions to enhance social cohesion

8 JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 8 The Measurement Problem

9 How to measure Active Citizenship? JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 9 A composite indicator measures multidimensional concepts (e.g. competitiveness, wellbeing, environmental sustainability, etc.) which cannot be captured by a single indicator. Technical definition: Composite indicators are mathematical combinations (or aggregations) of a set of indicators. A composite indicator is similar to a Food Guide that helps individuals identify the right quantity and combination of various food groups recommended for healthy living.

10 JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 10 Composite indicators are increasingly recognized as a useful tool for policy making and public communications in conveying information on countries performance in fields such as environment, economy, society, or technological development Searching composite indicators on Scholar Google Scholar Google hits October June ,440 May ,900 October ,030 February ,300 October ,310

11 JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 11 The debate around composite indicators is always heated. Stiglitz report, page 65: [ ] general criticism that is frequently addressed at composite indicators, i.e. the arbitrary character of the procedures used to weight their various components. [ ] The problem is not that these weighting procedures are hidden, non-transparent or non-replicable they are often very explicitly presented by the authors of the indices, and this is one of the strengths of this literature. The problem is rather that their normative implications are seldom made explicit or justified. Following the literature, a Composite Indicator can be used for policy making if it is build above three pillars: Sounds and transparent methodological assumptions Strong theoretical framework Exhaustive robust and sensitivity analysis

12 JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 12 The construction of an index is not straightforward, but involves both theoretical and methodological assumptions which need to be assessed carefully to avoid results of dubious analytic rigour. The Construction check list Step 1. Developing a theoretical framework Step 2. Selecting indicators Step 3. Multivariate analysis Step 4. Imputation of missing data Step 5. Normalisation of data Step 6. Weighting and aggregation Step 7. Robustness and sensitivity Step 8. Links to other indicators Step 9. Back to the details Step 10. Presentation and dissemination

13 The structure of Active Citizenship composite indicator JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 13 ACTIVE CITIZENSHIP Representative Democracy Protest and Social Change Community Life Democratic Values 9 basic indicators Protest HR org. Trade Union Environmental Org. Org. 19 basic indicators Unorganized Help Religious Org. Business Org. Sport Org. Cultural Org. Social Org. Teacher Org. 25 basic indicators Democracy Intercultural Understandings Human Rights

14 Methodological assumptions JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 14 ACTIVE CITIZENSHIP Representative Democracy Protest and Social Change Community Life Democratic Value 9 basic indicators Standardization: Zscore Protest HR org. Trade Union Environmental Org. Org. 19 basic indicators Unorganized Help Religious Org. Business Org. Sport Org. Cultural Org. Social Org. Teacher Org. 25 basic indicators Democracy Intercultural Understandings Human Righ Weighting Scheme: Weights computed through the elicitation of expert judgment. 11 basic indicators Budget Allocation Technique based on questionnaires (face-to-face and esurvey) Aggregation Rule: Linear Y c 4 i * w i w j k i 1 j 1 h 1 s ij ij w # h I ijhc The impact on the robustness of the composite indicator of all the assumptions have been tested via sensitivity and uncertainty analysis which proved the robustness of the Active Citizenship Composite Indicator.

15 ACTIVE CITIZENSHIP COMPOSITE INDICATORS Score JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 15 Rank Country Score 5%-95% percentiles 1 Sweden (0.967 ; 1.074) 2 Norway (0.6 ; 0.894) 3 Denmark 0.6 (0.537 ; 0.673) 4 Belgium (0.393 ; 0.81) 5 Austria (0.353 ; 0.527) 6 Luxembourg (0.209 ; 0.476) 7 Netherlands (0.214 ; 0.415) 8 Germany (0.23 ; 0.363) 9 Ireland ( ; 0.206) 10 Finland ( ; 0.131) 11 United Kingdom ( ; 0.156) 12 France ( ; ) 13 Spain ( ; ) 14 Italy ( ; ) 15 Slovenia ( ; ) 16 Portugal ( ; ) 17 Greece ( ; ) 18 Poland ( ; ) 19 Hungary ( ; ) SWE NOR DNK BEL Active Citzenship Composite indicator AUT LUX NLD DEU IRL FIN GBR FRA ESP ITA SVN PRT GRC POL HUN Country Ranking

16 JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 16 The Multilevel model

17 JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 17 Countries differences influence individual behaviors

18 The Multilevel Model JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 18 In order to provide a full characterization of the active citizen and to find the main drivers of Active Citizenship in Europe we deepen the analysis at the individual level through the application of a multilevel model. Individual Active Citizenship Country Level Variables Individual Level Variables

19 Individual Specific Variables: JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 19 Socio-demographic variables Behavioral variables - Age, - Gender - Education - Domicile - Income - Main Activity -Time Spent in Watching TV and reading Newspapers - Religiosity and attendance of religious services - Adult Lifelong Learning

20 Country level Variables: JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 20 Economic dimension - Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP) Social dimension -Gini Index -Religious Heterogeneity index Human Capital dimension -Years of Education (country average)

21 Country Level Individual Level Dependent: Individual Active Citizenship model 0 model 1 model 2 model 3 Fixed effect Coef. P> z Coef. P> z Coef. P> z Coef. P> z age JRC Busan, age Place Korea (quadratic) on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum gender:male years of education years of education (quadratic) LifeLongLearning Attendance Relig. Service Religious Feeling Religious Feeling (quadratic Citizenship Watching Tv Watching TV (quadratic) Listening to the Radio reading Newspaper Domicile:Rural Self Reported income Main Activity: unemployed Main Activity: retired Main Activity: other GDP pro capita Gini index Years of Education (country mean) Religious heterogeneity Constant Random-effects Parameters Estimate Std. Err. Estimate Std. Err. Estimate Std. Err. Estimate Std. Err. Level two random effect var(_cons) Level one variance

22 Results: Country Specific Variables JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 22 Characteristics of the countries with an higher level of Active Citizenship GDP pro Capita GINI Index Religious Heterogeneity Years of Education (country average) At the country level, the level of active citizenship increases in countries with: - An higher level of GDP per capita - A more equal distribution of income - A more heterogeneous religious climate - The country average of Years of Education is not significant

23 Results: Individual level JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 23 Who is the active citizen? -An individual years old, with an high income and living in the countryside. -He/She has a high educational attainment but still engaged in Lifelong learning activities. - This person considers religion as very important for his/her life and usually attends religious services. - He/She does not watch too much TV and is eager in reading newspapers

24 Who is the NON-active citizen? JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 24 -He/she is a year old who lives in a big city. -He/She has low educational attainment and does not engage in any Lifelong learning activities. - He/she is part of the job market but has a low income. -This person does not attend any religious services apart from on special occasions and does not have a clear idea about the role of religion in his/her life. -He/She usually spends many hours watching TV everyday but does not read any newspapers.

25 Conclusions JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 25 Young people, with a low educational attainment and low income, who spend hours watching TV, with any clear idea about the role of religion in their life are the non active citizens in Europe. Middle-aged people, with high educational attainment, who live mostly in the countryside, with a clear idea of the importance of religion in their life and who still engage in lifelong learning, are the European active citizens.

26 Conclusions JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 26 Richer countries which are more equal in terms of income distribution and more open in terms of religious heterogeneity also have higher level of active citizenship. The meaning of the country specific variables clearly explains and characterizes the polarization on the north-south axis of the active citizenship phenomenon.

27 Further directions and new challenges JRC Busan, Place Korea on dd Month October YYYY 2009 Event 3 rd Name OECD World Forum 27 Fostering active citizenship implies reduced inequalities, both at individual level through educational attainment and lifelong learning and at country level by improving wealth, employment and secure conditions of living. Can the progress of society be measured by looking at social cohesion and inequalities?

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