1 Neoliberalism A social philosophy A political project A programme - a set of government policies An ideology
2 Neoliberalism stresses the value of individual competition and private enterprise as the main engines of economic and social creativity, and believes that market mechanisms are the best means to allocate resources in most situations, so it pursues a policy agenda informed by these assumptions: privatising public assets, including public services Cutting taxes, especially progressive redistributive taxes Restricting trade union activities and discouraging trade-union membership Deregulating labour markets: removing protections from workers while making easier for employers to hire and fire at will. Deregulating financial markets: reducing government oversight and legal restrictions on all forms of financial speculation Reducing public spending encouraging competitive and entrepreneurial attitudes amongst the public deliberately encouraging commercial attitudes and behaviours in the public sector
3 This basic neoliberal economic programme can be linked to a range of different social policies. In the UK and the US, the New Right led by Reagan and Thatcher combined neoliberal economics with conservative social policies which promised to restore traditional family values, build up the military state, crack down hard on crime, limit the development of multiculturalism, and shore up traditional sources of social authority. In the 1990s and 2000s in the same countries, the Blair and Clinton governments combined a neoliberal economic agenda with socially liberal policies such as promoting equality for gay people and supporting women s participation in the labour market. Today neoliberalism is without serious question the governing ideology of contemporary capitalism, tending to promote a culture characterised by individualism, competition, consumerism, and tolerance for very high levels of inequality. It s worth reflecting on the multiple ways in which these values are promoted and normalised through the media, popular culture, the education system, etc.
4 What s the difference between liberalism and neoliberalism? Foucault makes a persuasive argument that the key difference is neoliberalism s stronger emphasis on the value of competition, and its belief that it may be necessary and legitimate to use the state to achieve its objectives by compelling people to behave in particular ways. Whereas classical liberalism (eg Adam Smith) had promoted commercial values and behaviour as encouraging a civilised attitude, and believed that enlightened self-interest would lead to benefits for all, this tradition had not tended to see ruthless competition as necessarily good in itself. Adam Smith seems to have imagine a world in which we would all find our specialised economic niche, rather than one in which we would be constantly competing with each other. More fundamentally, classical liberalism tends to assume that if the state leaves people alone, then they will spontaneously develop the entrepreneurial habits which it values. By contrast, neoliberalism uses the state to force people to behave like competitive entrepreneurs, whether they want to or not.
5 The term neoliberalism was first used in 1938 by Arthur Rüstow, at the Colloque Walter Lippmann a conference in Paris organised by liberal thinkers horrified by what they saw as the victory of various forms of collectivism (socialism, communism fascism, social democracy). The most lastingly influential attendee of that conference was the Austrian economist and political philosopher, Friedrich Hayek After World War II, Hayek would set up an international society dedicated to the spread of neoliberal ideas: The Mont Pelerin Society. In 1944 Hayek had published the work that would become the greatest political influence on Margaret Thatcher, his anti-collectivist diatribe The Road to Serfdom. He taught at the London School of Economics in the 1940s and moved to the University of Chicago in 1950, from where his ideas would spread gradually through the network of right-wing intellectuals, journalists and politicians, think-tanks, journals and lobbying groups fostered by the Mont Perelin society and its allies.
6 Although they found early favour with some politicians, such as Enoch Powell, neoliberal ideas were considered the preserve of the lunatic rightwing fringe in the 1950s and 1960s. Even if they were sympathetic to them, mainstream politicians of the Right thought that it would be impossible to implement them without provoking social revolution. Even most rightwingers were uncomfortable with Hayek s cold-hearted individualism, and had accepted that the state had a duty to maintain a certain level of social cohesion. On the Left, figure such as Hayek were regarded as of no real consequence - deluded, probably evil, but longing for a Victorian model of capitalism that would never return. But with the breakdown of the post-war consensus at the end of the 1960s, neoliberal ideas became increasingly appealing to certain sections of the capitalist class and their political representatives
7 In the early 1970s, one of the most advanced socialist governments in the world was arguably the government of Chile, who had been elected democratically in 1970 President Salvador Allende was the first avowed Marxist to be elected head of a Latin American government in free elections
8 The Chilean government experimented with the use of early computer network technologies to assist in national economic planning and decision-making, developing the ground-breaking CyberSyn network for this purpose.
9 It was all too much for the Americans. In 1973 the CIA backed and largely instigated a military coup against the democratically-elected Allende government, installing General Pinochet as the head of a regime that would become infamous for its dictatorial human-rights violations.
10 They installed a team of economists from the University of Chicago to run Chile s economic policy. The Chicago Boys were led by Hayek s chief student, Milton Friedman. Pinochet s regime, which lasted until 1990, is now widely recognised as the first neoliberal government. It did succeed in promoting economic growth, but at the expense of social equality, political liberty and any semblance of democracy.
11 David Harvey in A Brief History of Neoliberalism cites the 1975 budget crisis in New York (when the City government almost went bankrupt, leading to enormous cuts in public spending), and the adoption of liberalising economic reforms in China after 1978, as two key instances. In both cases, albeit in very different scales, very similar policies have led to huge growths in social inequality. The International Monetary Fund had adopted neoliberal policies as dogma by the mid 1970s, and imposed these on every government it assisted, both in the first and third worlds, including imposing huge cuts on public spending on the UK s Labour government in 1976/ The case of China obliges us to think carefully about the concept of neoliberalism. Although the Chinese government has remained nominally Communist and Marxist to this day, its pursuit of an aggressive growth strategy has led it to adopt policies of privatisation, of reducing taxes, of slashing public spending, etc. etc. To all intents and purposes these have been identical to the policies pursued by ideological neoliberals in the West and in Latin America. But there is little evidence that Chinese policy-makers have even often been aware of the work of figures such as Hayek and Friedman. For Harvey, neoliberalism is not best understood simply as a collection of ideas and policy prescriptions, but as a project to restore to the capitalist class the power that it lost in the middle decades of the twentieth century, when it was forced to accept major social reforms and when the Communist world was really anti-capitalist.
12 Arguably, neoliberalism can be seen as having been implemented in the US and the UK in two main phases The New Right combined neoliberalism with socially conservative rhetoric, in a way which often seems quite contradictory in retrospect (for example, advocating traditional family values, but pursuing labour market politics which were obviously going to disrupt established patterns of family life. This lasted until the election of Bill Clinton in 1994 and Tony Blair and The so-called Third Way of Clinton and Blair combined neoliberal policies with socially liberal ones, while offering some attempts to mitigate the worst effects of poverty. In fact arguably this has remained the typical agenda of governments of whatever party since the 1990s. Arguably the third way was in fact more rigorously and consistently neoliberal than the new right. For example, New Labour were genuinely committed to reducing child poverty. But reducing child poverty is a perfectly acceptable policy goal for neoliberals, because they believe that everyone should get a fair chance to compete with everyone else in the labour market. Neoliberals tend to advocate equality of opportunity and social mobility. What they oppose is the idea that governments should do anything to make social outcomes more equal.
13 The situation since 2008 and the great recession has made two facts about neoliberalism increasingly clear Neoliberalism remains hegemonic. It defines the common-sense parameters of both widelycirculated cultural assumptions, and of elite world-views. Governments and established political parties seem incapable of making any real critique of it. Harvey is right to see it as essentially a class project. Governments such as ours came close to bankrupting themselves in order to shore up the power and wealth of they very financial institutions who had caused the crash! Neoliberalism is supposed to be against government intervention in the economy but exactly the same governments and agencies who have taken a consistently neoliberal position for decades colluded in forcing government to give huge amounts of assistance to the banks. Isn t this all contradictory? Philosophically yes - it is totally contradictory. But not if you think about it in terms of class interests. Both neoliberalism as a general programme, and the willingness of governments to abandon its most basic principles, have in common one thing: they help the rich get richer and stay richer at everyone else s expense.
14 Propagating a sympathetic common sense is not the only way for hegemonic groups to secure consent however. Often such groups have to make real concessions to the demands of the subaltern. On the other hand, when the subaltern are thoroughly disorganised and disunited, or when social conditions leave them with very little power to threaten their rulers / leaders with sanctions, then they can often be simply ignored Normally, it is necessary to win over some key sections of the subaltern groups in order to secure hegemony, while the rest can be ignored. Consent for neoliberalism in countries like the UK has essentially been secured by a combination of these mechanisms. In particular: majority populations have been offered the opportunity to participate in certain forms of consumption on a massive scale key groups - managers, some media professionals, politicians - have been persuaded really to accept that neoliberalism represents the only way to do things. young people, especially women, have benefitted from a radical liberalisation of social values those social groups who have the least chance of benefitting from the massive rise in consumption, the least chance of becoming managers, and the who see the least immediate benefit from social liberalisation have been largely ignored (hence the rise in BNP support).
15 So we can see neoliberalism as a strategy adopted by certain sections of capital (essentially, the banks: finance capital ) as a way of taking advantage of the collapse of the Fordist consensus at the end of the 60s, in order to reestablish the hegemony which they lost in the early-mid 20th century. Obviously a big part of the context here is the general shift from a society based on mass manufacturing to one in which manufacturing mainly happens in other parts of the world, and other economic sectors become much more important.
16 The 1970s saw global capitalism undergo major restructuring, beginning to exhibit all of the main Features of post-fordism In manufacturing industry there is a general move towards more flexible, demand-sensitive production Just-in-time ordering and production improves sensitivity to changes in consumer denamd Move away from assembly-line production characterises manufacturing To allow for such flexibility, companies increasingly depend upn short-term relationships with specialists to provide services that used to be generated within the company (e.g. marketing, research & design, manufacture of specialist parts, etc.) i.e. Outsourcing Disaggregation of vertically-integrated firms Move towards flexible and short-term contract working
17 This had various social effects Women re-entered the labour market The traditional manufacturing jobs which had been the basis for the labour movement began to disappear Globalisation as we know it began Post-Fordism was to become the organisational model for a range of public institutions which would be encouraged to be flexible, commercial and customerfocussed in outlook.
18 In 1979, Margaret Thatcher was elected Prime Minister of the UK Her government embarked on a long-term programme to weaken trade unions, privatise large sections of the economy, and prepare Britain for a post-industrial future. While reassuring conservative voters with appeals to traditional values, her promotion of classic individualist values of enterprise and self-reliance was to prove a far more enduring element of her programme Ronald Reagan was elected President in 1980 with a very similar agenda
19 These policies hit working communities very hard, provoking major unrest in British cities
20 As time went by, Thatcherite appeals to traditional values had less and less relevance to most of the public, and this came to make Thatcherism seem increasingly outdated But Thatcher, along with the broad trends in the world economy and a host of major technological changes, has successfully undermined most of the bases for any kind of resistance from workers to the implementation of post-fordist programmes So when Tony Blair s New Labour government was elected in 1997, while they rejected much of Thatcher s social conservatism, they embraced the principles of post-fordism even more enthusiastically than she had done.
21 Neoliberalism What all of these governments pursued was a consistently neoliberal agenda, characterised by Low Tax rates Reduced Public spending (compared to the post-war era) Massive privatisations of publicly-owned assets Measures to encourage the adoption of commercial methods and practices in public institutions which were not privatised Efforts to encourage an entrepreneurial, aspirational, acquisitive and consumerist set of attitudes and behaviours amongst the public at large Support for institutions which attempted to force this agenda onto developing countries This all tends to lead to a general weakening of social bonds and the spread of competitive individualist values, higher rates of long-term unemployment, and greater levels of social inequality..
22 One of the main sources of opposition to this spread of individualism and to neoliberalism generally has been the rise of forms of politicised religion
23 In particular, the collapse of Eastern European communism in 1989 left an ideological vacuum which only religion could fill for many groups of poor people who were systematically disadvantaged by neoliberalism, as well as leaving the US government free to puruse a global neoliberal agenda unchallenged.
24 Other sources of opposition have been The resurgence of socialism in Latin America The defenders of residual social democracy in the developed world The new anti-capitalist movement The green movement
25 From David Harvey s classically Marxist perspective, the main thing we have to understand about neoliberalism is that it is a project to re-assert and consolidated the class power of capitalists, although by no means all forms of resistance to neoliberalism have been class-based, and I have argued that neoliberalism is opposed to ALL forms of collective organisation, not only class forms. For Foucault, neoliberalism must also be understood in terms of its specific techniques of government, and in particular in its drive to encourage or to impose a competitive model of social relations wherever possible A very good example of this is the UK government s reforms of the National Health Service, which places a strong emphasis on the putative value of competition between health-care providers, even within a non-profit public healthcare system, and which have been carried out under Conservative, Labour and Coalition governments. These are not contradictory perspectives, and we can perhaps best see how they fit together by understanding neoliberalism as a hegemonic project, promoting a particular set of class interests through the deployment of particular techniques of government and the normalisation of certain common sense assumption
Mark Scheme (Results) Summer 2015 Pearson Edexcel GCE Government & Politics (6GP03/3B) Paper 3B: Introducing Political Ideologies Edexcel and BTEC Qualifications Edexcel and BTEC qualifications are awarded
Latin American and North Carolina World View and The Consortium in L. American and Caribbean Studies (UNC-CH and Duke University) Concurrent Session (Chile) - March 27, 2007 Inés Valdez - PhD Student Department
Understanding social change A theme and variations The wider context for NOREL Three presentations: The economic, cultural, political and social context the moderately long term changes that lie behind
CHAPTER 19 MARKET SYSTEMS AND NORMATIVE CLAIMS Microeconomics in Context (Goodwin, et al.), 2 nd Edition Chapter Summary This final chapter brings together many of the themes previous chapters have explored
A Brief History of Neoliberalism by David Harvey, Oxford University Press, 2005, 256. pp. Michael J. Thompson David Harvey has established himself as one of the most insightful and politically relevant
Globalization and Shifting World Power Which statement to you agree with most? Globalization is generally positive: it increases efficiency, global growth, and therefore global welfare Globalization is
Remarks on the Political Economy of Inequality Bank of England Tim Besley LSE December 19th 2014 TB (LSE) Political Economy of Inequality December 19th 2014 1 / 35 Background Research in political economy
Which statement to you agree with most? Globalization is generally positive: it increases efficiency, global growth, and therefore global welfare Globalization is generally negative: it destroys indigenous
International Gramsci Journal Volume 1 Issue 1 International Gramsci Journal Article 6 January 2008 Hegemony and Education. Gramsci, Post-Marxism and Radical Democracy Revisited (Review) Mike Donaldson
1 Social Science 1000: Study Questions Part A: 50% - 50 Minutes Six of the following items will appear on the exam. You will be asked to define and explain the significance for the course of five of them.
Conservatism Roger Scruton In English- speaking countries parties calling themselves conservative can win elections. Elsewhere the term conservative is largely a term of abuse. Considerable efforts have
Unit One CB * Economies and Values Four different economic systems have developed to address the key economic questions. Each system reflects the different prioritization of economic goals. It also reflects
A-Level POLITICS PAPER 3 Political ideas Mark scheme Version 1.0 Mark schemes are prepared by the Lead Assessment Writer and considered, together with the relevant questions, by a panel of subject teachers.
Chantal Mouffe On the Political Chantal Mouffe French political philosopher 1989-1995 Programme Director the College International de Philosophie in Paris Professorship at the Department of Politics and
Question 2: Is growing interconnectedness creating a more peaceful world? Final exam - Political Science Tutorial Class XC - Louise Thorn Bøttkjær BSc. International Business and Politics Copenhagen Business
Ideologies of Individualism & Collectivism Chapter 2 & 3 Cloze Notes and Workbook When we examine ideologies, we can see that each of them is based on either or, or a mixture of the two. What is the relationship
POLITICAL SCIENCE (POLI) This is a list of the Political Science (POLI) courses available at KPU. For information about transfer of credit amongst institutions in B.C. and to see how individual courses
The Three Great Thinkers Who Changed Economics By Daniel Adler, Big History Project, adapted by Newsela staff on 07.30.16 Word Count 2,310 The New York stock exchange traders' floor (1963). Courtesy of
The Inequalities of Wealth Distribution: its Economic and Political Consequences Dr David Rees Wealth Distribution Exercise Your opinion on wealth distribution is based on what you think is 'fair' or 'unfair'
Teaching guidance: Paper 3 Political ideas This teaching guidance provides advice for teachers, to help with the delivery of Political ideas content. More information on our Politics specifications can
Economic Perspective Macroeconomics I ECON 309 S. Cunningham Methodological Individualism Classical liberalism, classical economics and neoclassical economics are based on the conception that society is
Liberalism vs Socialism Compare the core features Core features of Liberalism The Individual Following the enlightenment individuals started to be seen as ends in themselves. People have the opportunity
The Enlightenment and the scientific revolution changed people s concepts of the universe and their place within it Enlightenment ideas affected politics, music, art, architecture, and literature of Europe
Theories of International Political Economy II: Marxism and Constructivism Min Shu Waseda University 17 April 2017 International Political Economy 1 An outline of the lecture The basics of Marxism Marxist
END OF UNIVERSALISM WHAT ABOUT THE NORDIC SUCCESS STORY JORMA SIPILÄ INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED SOCIAL RESEARCH UNIVERSITY OF TAMPERE, FINLAND OCTOBER 18, 2016 2 Right to daycare 3 WHY THIS TOPIC? Universalism
E&F/Raffel Chapter #4: John Maynard Keynes v. Friedrich Hayek Part I: The Battle of Ideas (Commanding Heights) 1. What impacts did Germany s hyperinflation have on the middle class? What lesson did Friedrich
Time period for the paper: World War I through the end of the Cold War Paper length: 5-7 Pages Due date: April 24-25 Treaty of Versailles & the Aftermath of World War I Describe the provisions of the Versailles
The EU without the UK: does it matter? Distinguished guests, Ladies and gentlemen, First of all, I would like to thank the CityUK for having given me the honour of addressing this distinguished audience
Radhika Desai Geopolitical Economy: After US Hegemony, Globalization and Empire. The Future of World Capitalism 2013. London: Pluto Press, and Halifax: Fernwood Publishing. Pages: 313. ISBN 978-0745329925.
CHAPTER 22 Section 1: Capitalism Section 2: Socialism Section 3: Communism Section 1: Capitalism Objectives: What are the four factors of production? In what way is a free-market economy an essential aspect
Page 1 of 15 On freedom and free markets INTERVIEWER: Why are free markets and freedom inseparable? MILTON FRIEDMAN: Freedom requires individuals to be free to use their own resources in their own way,
NEMO 22 nd Annual Conference Living Together in a Sustainable Europe. Museums Working for Social Cohesion The Political Dimension Panel Introduction The aim of this panel is to discuss how the cohesive,
Noam Chomsky Institute Professor, MIT HISTORY > An Attack on Classical Liberalism The courts accorded corporations the rights of persons. That s a very sharp attack on classical liberalism in which rights
SCHOOLS OF ECONOMICS Classical, Keynesian, & Monetary CLASSICAL THEORY Also known as Neo- Classical Supply Side Trickle Down Free Trade FIVE CLASSICAL ECONOMIC BASICS In the long run, competition forces
MRS. OSBORN S APWH CRAM PACKET: Period 5 Industrialization & Global Integration, 1750-1900, chapters 23-29 (20% of APWH Exam) (NOTE: Some material overlaps into Period 6, 1900-1914) Questions of periodization:
Michael P. Federici Mercyhurst College The Road to Mass Democracy: Original Intent and the Seventeenth Amendment, by C.H. Hoebeke. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1995. 211 pp. $29.95. The Populist
CONSENSUS DECISION-MAKING by The Catalyst Centre, October 2006 Consensus decision-making is a democratic and rigorous process that radically respects individuals right to speak and demands a high degree
A Comparison of the Theories of Joseph Alois Schumpeter and John Maynard Keynes Aubrey Poon Joseph Alois Schumpeter and John Maynard Keynes were the two greatest economists in the 21 st century. They were
Hungarian Studies Review, Vol. IX, No. 2 (Fall 1982 A Conversation with a Communist Economic Reformer John Komlos interviews Rezso Nyers In 1968, when Hungary diverged from the main road of Socialism to
Lesson Plan: Looking at Human Rights Abuses Around the World OVERVIEW This lesson plan is designed to be used with the film, The Judge and the General, the story of the criminal investigation of General
Citation: 84 Foreign Aff. 18 2005 Content downloaded/printed from HeinOnline (http://heinonline.org) Thu Nov 22 07:18:28 2012 -- Your use of this HeinOnline PDF indicates your acceptance of HeinOnline's
V. UNION REVITALIZATION IN COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE Union Revitalization through Political Action? Evidence from Five Countries Kerstin Hamann University of Central Florida John Kelly London School of Economics
The UK Citizenship Test Process: Exploring Migrants Experiences Executive summary Authors: Leah Bassel, Pierre Monforte, David Bartram, Kamran Khan, Barbara Misztal School of Media, Communication and Sociology
Alain Touraine Sociology without Societies Sociological analysis, whether we realize it or not, is set in a context of an overall view of society. This is true for the sociology which deals with describing
Page 1 of 5 LIMA, PERU, 7-11 SEPTEMBER 1997 THE LIMA DECLARATION AGAINST CORRUPTION WE, over 1000 citizens drawn from 93 countries, coming from all the continents and from countries large and small, in
1 International regimes Jean-François Vidal As an institutionalist macroeconomics, the concepts and formulations of régulation theory often privilege the nation state, so that most of the research that
Together, building a just and fraternal world Within the Caritas Internationalis network, each Caritas group adopts a strategic framework. Together, the mission statement and the 2016-2025 national plan
Is party politics broken? An essay on the changing state of party politics. Written by Julian Chillingworth, Chief Investment Officer At home The Conservative party s attempts to tear itself apart over
Introduction: Ordering the world? Liberal i nternationalism in theory and practice G. JOHN IKENBERRY, INDERJEET PARMAR AND DOUG STOKES The Trump presidency appears to personify, along with Britain s vote
EDUCATIONAL FUTURES: RETHINKING THEORY AND PRACTICE Neoliberalism, Higher Education and Research Peter Roberts and Michael A. Peters SensePublishers Neoliberalism, Higher Education and Research EDUCATIONAL
Milton Friedman 1 A protégé of the Chicago School and a leading monetarist, Milton Friedman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1976 and has served as advisor to Presidents Nixon and Reagan. This
NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES PERSUASION IN POLITICS Kevin Murphy Andrei Shleifer Working Paper 10248 http://www.nber.org/papers/w10248 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge,
Lesson 3 The Rise of Napoleon and the Napoleonic Wars ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS What causes revolution? How does revolution change society? Reading HELPDESK Academic Vocabulary capable having or showing ability
A Critique on Schumpeter s Competitive Elitism: By Examining the Case of Chinese Politics Abstract Schumpeter s democratic theory of competitive elitism distinguishes itself from what the classical democratic
NAME: GOVERNMENT & POLITICS UNIT 1 GLOSSARY TASK Over the summer holiday complete the definitions for the words for the FOUR topics AND more importantly learn these key words with their definitions! There
EUROPEAN HISTORY 5. The Enlightenment Form 3 Europe at the time of the Enlightenment and on the eve of the French Revolution 1 Unit 5.1 - The Origins of the Enlightenment Source A: Philosophers debating
ETH ZÜRICH / D-GESS GESCHICHTE DER MODERNEN WELT HS 2017 SEMINAR INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT Representation of the British Economy by George Cruikshank as 'The British Beehive,' 1867
1 Neoliberalism and the Emerging Precariat by Stephen C. Sanders Neoliberalism, although it is the socioculturally accepted economic system, has shown for many years to be the cause of increasing job and
The Three Great Thinkers Who Changed Economics By Daniel Adler, Big History Project, adapted by Newsela staff on 07.30.16 Word Count 1,789 The New York stock exchange traders' floor (1963). Courtesy of
The Common. Commonwealth, Hardt, M. and Negri, A. Harvard University Press, 448 pages, (2009) Has this notion of the common still got any mileage left in it, or is it perhaps capable of becoming a threshold
Planning Activity Theme 1 This document provides an example of a plan for one topic within Theme 1. This resource goes into much more detail than is required in the specification but it provides some background
AP Euro Free Response Questions Late Middle Ages to the Renaissance 2004 (#5): Analyze the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the Italian Renaissance. Use at least THREE specific works to support
Using the Index of Economic Freedom A Practical Guide for Citizens and Leaders The Center for International Trade and Economics at The Heritage Foundation Ryan Olson For two decades, the Index of Economic
The Failure to Transplant Democracy, Markets, and the Rule of Law into the Developing World Barry R. Weingast * 1. Introduction Why has it proven so difficult to promote democracy, markets, and the rule
Transition: Changes after Socialism (25 Years Transition from Socialism to a Market Economy) Summary of Conference of Professor Leszek Balcerowicz, Warsaw School of Economics at the EIB Institute, 24 November
INTERNAL INCONSISTENCIES: LINKING THE WASHINGTON CONSENSUS AND POVERTY IN LATIN AMERICA Rory Creedon LSE MPA (ID) GV444 In what way did the Washington Consensus affect poverty in Latin America? There is
Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory/Revue canadienne de Woriepolitique et sociale, Volume XII, Numbers 1-2 (1988). DEMOCRACY AND VISION Richard K. Matthews Philip Green, Retrieving Democracy:
How will the EU presidency play out during Poland's autumn parliamentary election? Aleks Szczerbiak DISCUSSION PAPERS On July 1 Poland took over the European Union (EU) rotating presidency for the first
Eliassen-3673-Introduction.qxd 12/21/2007 4:53 PM Page 1 Introduction: Liberalising and Modernising Public Services This book s central theme is that the provision of public services in liberal democracies
The State, the Market, And Development Joseph E. Stiglitz World Institute for Development Economics Research September 2015 Rethinking the role of the state Influenced by major successes and failures of
The Interwar Years 1919-1939 Essential Understanding: A period of uneven prosperity in the decade following World War I (the 1920s = the Roaring 20s ) was followed by worldwide depression in the 1930s.
Appeasement 1. Define appeasement in your own words. 2. Give 4 specific examples of how Hitler was appeased. 3. What are the pros and cons of appeasement? Provide at least 3 of each. 4. Do you think appeasement
PROFESSIONAL ETHICS Topic 1: Moral Reasoning and ethical theory 1. Ethical problems in management are complex because of: a) Extended consequences b) Multiple Alternatives c) Mixed outcomes d) Uncertain
The Restoration of Welfare Economics By ANTHONY B ATKINSON* This paper argues that welfare economics should be restored to a prominent place on the agenda of economists, and should occupy a central role
Electoral Programme of the Communist Party of Aotearoa What Can We Expect from the Election? Parliamentary elections provide an opportunity for the capitalist class to test their ability to deceive the
Neoliberalism and the SSA Theory of Long-Run Capital Accumulation by David M. Kotz Economics Department and Political Economy Research Institute Thompson Hall University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003
The Economics of Globalization: A Labor View 1 Thomas Palley, Assistant Director of Public Policy, AFL-CIO Published in Teich, Nelsom, McEaney, and Lita (eds.), Science and Technology Policy Yearbook 2000,
Reagan s Freedom Worked by Steve Pejovich Issue 175 March 9, 2011 During his first two years in the White House, President Barack Obama s major economic policies included deficit spending, bailouts, government
Chapter 5: Political Parties Ms. Nguyen American Government Bell Ringer: 1. What is this chapter s EQ? 2. Interpret the quote below: No America without democracy, no democracy without politics, no politics
Balance of Power I INTRODUCTION Balance of Power, theory and policy of international relations that asserts that the most effective check on the power of a state is the power of other states. In international
Statement by Tony Blair on the euro (23 February 1999) Caption: On 23 February 1999, in London, Tony Blair, British Prime Minister, sets out the United Kingdom s position on the possible adoption of the
The End of Optimism:The Great Depression in Europe To what extent did economic crisis cause people in Europe to question the effectiveness and sustainability of democratic institutions, and how did these
Economists and the Welfare State The neoliberal Quest against Social Citizenship and the Prospect of the European Welfare State 1 Argument(s) State of art: influence of economists due to a) authority/prestige
Chapter 25 Review Section 1 Chapter Summary Section 1: The Conservative Movement Grows The modern conservative movement led by Ronald Reagan affected the nation s policies for decades. This movement, with
Rising Inequality and the Changing Structure of Political Conflict Thomas Piketty EHESS and Paris School of Economics Hamburg, May 3 2018 Key question: why hasn t democracy slowed rising inequality? We
Transatlantica Revue d'études américaines. American Studies Journal 2 2016 Ordinary Chronicles of the End of the World Conference Neoliberalism in the Anglophone World Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier
Main Idea The Enlightenment European thinkers developed new ideas about government and society during the Enlightenment. Content Statement 5 /Learning Goal Describe how the Scientific Revolution s impact
Book Discussion: Worlds Apart The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace September 28, 2005 The following summary was prepared by Kate Vyborny Junior Fellow, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Ecofeminism & Radical Green Thinking What is radical green thinking? Radical is often associated with Left politics & philosophies Inspired in some fashion by Marxist or Marxian approaches Focuses on the
Teacher Overview Objectives: Karl Marx: The Communist Manifesto NYS Social Studies Framework Alignment: Key Idea Conceptual Understanding Content Specification 10.3 CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL
CAPITAL IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY CRITICAL REVIEW FROM A HETERODOX PERSPECTIVE Dante A. Urbina Summary text of the lecture given at the Volkshochschule ( Community College") in Göttingen - Germany organized