The United States and East Asia. Jodilyn Bulten

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1 The United States and East Asia Jodilyn Bulten

2 East Asia

3 Relationship with Japan and East Asia President Roosevelt helped to end the Russo-Japanese War and convinced Japan to drop its demand for war compensations. Months later- the U.S. recognizes the Japanese control of Korea in exchange for Japan s promise not to get involved in the Phillippines. Japan and America fought on the Allies side together during WW1. After this WW1 both the U.S. and Japan emerged as large world power. Japan had expanded it s influence in Asia and had territorial holdings in the Pacific Ocean At teh conference at Versailles in 1919, Japan was recognized as one of the Big Five of the new international order. In WW2, America tried so hard to stay out of the conflict, they allowed Japan to take over some nations in Southeast Asia without any military defense.

4 Relationship Continued In 1931 (in reaction to Japan s invasion of Manchuria four months before) the Secretary of State, Henry Stimson, announced that the U.S. would refuse to recognize any territorial investments that violate American treaty rights. At this point, most of the attention was focused on tensions in Europe, while at the same time tensions were rising in Asia. Japan was in denial that they were at war with China allowed President Roosevelt to not remain neutral and provide arms to China. In December, 1937 Japan bombed the U.S. gunboat Panay on the Yangtze River as it was rescuing war-stranded Americans. Japan continued to take control, and warnings from U.S. were ignored. December 7, 1941 Japanese aircraft carrier-based planes attacked the U.S. Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor in a surprise attack. President Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan. This means, through the Tripartite Pact, Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S.

5 The Atomic Bombs The United States dropped two bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and August 9 of This was in response to Japan s resistance to surrender with the defeat of Germany.

6 Occupation and Reconstruction The groundwork for the Allied occupation in Japan was determined through many wartime conferences IIn which the Allied powers of Great Britian, the Soviet Union, the Republic of China, and the United States discussed how to: disarm Japan, deal with its colonies (especially Korea and Taiwan), stabilize the Japanese economy, and prevent the remilitarization of the state in the future.

7 Rebuilding Japan September General Douglas MacArthur (an American) took charge of the Supreme Command of Allied Powers (SCAP) and began to rebuild Japan. He had the final authority to make all the decisions even though Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the Republic of China had advisory roles. The Reconstruction of Japan can be split into three phases: the initial effort to punish and reform Japan the work to revive the Japanese economy the conclusion of a formal peace treaty and alliance

8 Phase 1 (Roughly from the end of the war in 1945 to 1947) It involved the most fundamental changes for the Japanese Government and society. The Allies punished Japan for its past militarism and expansion by conducting war crimes trials for military leaders. SCAP dismantled the Japanese army and banned former military officers from taking political leadership in the new government. SCAP introduced land reforms designed to benefit the majority of tenant workers and reduce the power of the rich landowners MacArthur tried to break up large Japan business corporations, or zaibatsu, as a part of the effort to transform the economy into a free market capitalist system.

9 Phase 1 cont The Allied advisors dictated a new constitution to Japan s leaders. Some of the greatest changes were: downgrading the emperor s status to that of a figurehead without political control and placing more control in the parliamentary system promoting greater rights for women rtaking away the right to wage war eliminating any armed forces that were not specifically for defense. General MacArthur and Japanese Emperor Hirohito

10 Phase 2 ( ) During late 1947 to 1948 Japan experienced a large economic crisis. There was also concerns about the spread of communism which sparked a reconsideration of occupation policies. Rehabilitation of Japan was now the center focus. SCAP was concerned that a weak economy would increase the influence of the domestic communist movement. The likelihood of communist influence from China was imminent. Occupation Policies tax reforms measures aimed at controlling inflation

11 Phase 2 cont. The most serious problem was the shortage of raw materials required to feed Japanese industries and markets for finished goods. The Korean War in 1950 provided SSCAP with an opportunity. Once the UN entered the Korean War, Japan became the principal supply source for the UN forces. The conflict also placed Japan firmly within the borders of the U.S. defense perimeter in Asia, assuring Japan leadership that whatever state of its military no real threat could be made on Japanese land.

12 Phase 3 (Beginning of 1950) After the political and economic future of Japan was stabilized, SCAP set out to create a formal peace treaty to end both the war and the occupation. From 1945 the United States perceived international events differently and the idea of a re-armed and militant Japan was not as alarming. Instead the more prominent threat was communism in Asia The final agreement allowed the U.S. to keep its military bases in Japan and offered Japan a bilateral security pact. A promise made by one party in exchange for some performance from the opposite party. In September 1951, fifty-two nations met in San Fransisco to discuss the treaty and forty-nine of them signed it.

13 Social Changes in Japan The old family system was denied legality through the Civil Code of The traditional system of patriarchal rights and exclusive inheritance of the oldest son was abolished and the basis for familial inheritance was designated for all children. All children had to support their old parents, not just the eldest. Marriage should be based on the mutual agreement of the two people involved. The way of life changed as well. Consumption Revolution Traditional ethics which stressed the importance of labor and work changed and evolved into a mentality that encouraged the enjoyment of consumption.

14 Social Changes in Japan Obtained from the 1950 National Census. The medium sized family became the norm. Four to Nine members The family size had grown since WWII. Extremely high rate of marriages after war. Extreme poverty, inflation, and food shortages drove people back to their families.

15 Political changes hierarchical order and careerism along with paternalism and authoritarianism were destined to disappear. Many people lost their sense of patriotic identity.

16 The Chinese Civil War ( ) Before WWII: The Chinese Communist Party existed within the confines of the FIrst United Front with the Nationalist Party. They joined the Nationalist Army in the Northern Expedition of to rid the nation of the warlords that prevented the formation of a strong central government White Terror The Nationalists turned on the Communists, killing or purging them from the party Japan invaded Manchuria China was facing the triple threat Japanese invasion, Communist uprising, and warlord insurrections. The Communists thought the Nationalists leader was focussing too much on internal threats instead of Japan They abducted Chiang Kai-shek.

17 Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong Nationalists Leader Communist Leader

18 The Chinese Civil War ( ) During WWII: Popular support for the Communists increased. The work the Republic of China Government had success with its early attempts to stop Japan but received little credit. The Japanese surrender led to the resurgence of the civil war Chiang Kai-shek received the U.S. support (both as its former war ally and solely to prevent Communist control in China) The leaders met to talk about the formation of a post-war government. They agreed on democracy, unified military, and equality for all Chinese parties. The truce was shaky both sides were fighting in a all out civil war.

19 The Chinese Civil War ( ) After WWII: Communist victory seemed more likely, even though they did not hold any major cities after WWII. They had strong grassroots support, superior military organization and moral, and large stocks of weapons seized from Japanese supplies in Manchuria. Popular support was down since the war. They began looking at the island Taiwan as a potential place to retreat in Truman Administration did not see the importance of maintaining relations with Nationalist China, but they did not want to be responsible for the loss of China to communism.

20 The Chinese Civil War ( ) Ended on October 1, 1949 A week after Truman s announcement of the Soviet atomic bomb Mao Zedong proclaimed the formation of the People s Republic of China (communist) The celebration at Beijing s Tiananmen Square marked the end of the conflict between the Chinese Nationalists and the Chinese communists. This surprised Truman and Stalin as they thought the nationalists, under their leader Chiang Kai-shek, would continue to run China after WWII Neither had thought that Japanese people,after their surrender, would flee to the island of Taiwan, and the communists would be governing the most populous notion in the world. The fall of China to communism, led U.S. to suspend diplomatic ties with the PRC for decades.

21 The PRC and the U.S. They could not find common ground because of domestic policies and global tensions. In August 1949, the Truman Administration published the China White Paper which explained its past policy toward China based upon the principle that only Chinese forces could determine the outcome of their civil war. Truman was blamed for losing China to communism. The fact that the Nationalists resided on Taiwan, many thought this struggle could be reversed. Led to the Korean War where the PRC and the U.S. were on different sides of an international conflict. Until the 1970 s the U.S. recognized the Republic of China, on Taiwan, as China s true government and supported that government s holding of the Chinese seat in the United Nations.

22 National Security Council Paper #68 National Security Council Paper #68 was entitled United States Objectives and Programs for National Security and frequently referred to as the NSC68. April 7, 1950 the U.S. Department of State s Policy Planning Staff completed the top secret 58 page report. It is among the most influential documents composed by the U.S. Government during the Cold War. It was not declassified till It was written from the argument of one the most pressing issues for the United States, the Hostile design of the Soviet Union. They concluded that the Soviet threat would increase with the addition of more weapons, including nuclear weapons. They argued the best course was to respond with a massive build-up of the U.S. military and its weaponry.

23 President Truman meeting with the NSC Staff

24 NSC- 68 The communists had just taken over and the Soviets had successfully exploded an atomic weapon So Secretary of State, Dean Acheson, asked the policy planning staff, lead by Paul Nitze, to review the U.S. national security strategy. They made their conclusions assuming the decline of the Western European powers and Japan following WWII left the Soviet Union and the United States the two dominant powers.

25 NSC-68 OPVL In pursuing these objectives, due care must be taken to avoid permanently impairing our economy and the fundamental values and institutions inherent in our way of life. We should endeavor to achieve our general objectives y methods short of war through the pursuit of the following aims: a. To encourage and promote the gradual retraction of undue Russian power and influence from the present perimeter areas around trditional Russian boundaries and the emergence of the satellite countries as entities independent of the USSR. b. To encourage the development among the Russian peoples of attitudes which may help to modify current Soviet behavior and permit a revival of the national life of groups evidencing the ability and determination to achieve and maintain national independence.

26 NSC- 68 OPVL cont. c. to eradicate the myth by which people remote from Soviet military influence are held in a position of subservient to Moscow and to cause the world at large to see and understand the true nature of the USSR and the SOviet- directed world communist party, and to adopt a logical and realistic attitude towards them. d. To create situations which will compel the Soviet Government to recognize the practical undesirability of action on the basis of its present concepts and the necessity of behaving in accordance with precepts of international conduct, as set forth in the purpose and principles of the UN Charter.

27 OPVL ORIGIN- A top secret report to the President. Sent on April 7, It addresses the imminent threat of the Soviet Union as they rapidly grow their weapon inventory. PURPOSE- to find the issues in America s security defense. To address them and find ways to solve this issue. VALUE- Written in the time It shows the pressing manner and how by keeping it a secret as to not alarm the people. It also shows how they thought through many situations and solutions. Not make a hasty decision. LIMITATION- Secret, so no one knows this is even happening Biased towards America and keeping our global power. No other countries present to contribute to something that could potentially affect them as well.

28 NSC-68 suggestions It outlined possible actions including: return to isolationism, war, continued diplomatic efforts to negotiate with the Soviets to build up the economic, political, and military strength of the rest of the world quickly to even out the control Russia possessed. This would allow the U.S. to attain sufficient strength to deter Soviet aggression. If an armed conflict with the Communist army arose, the U.S. would be able to defend its territory and its overseas interests. The authors rejected the return to isolationism It would give the USSR free reign of Eurasia and leave the U.S. stuck in the Western Hemisphere, cut off from all allies and resources.

29 NSC-68 Solutions They also ruled out declaring war because it would not destroy the entire Soviet military s provisions and weapons. But instead invite the Soviet to attack back as they would not need any more justification. The authors knew that public opinion would not support a preventive war. They did not rule out the prospect of negotiating with the Soviet Union. They argued that this approach would only work if the United States could create high enough political and economical conditions around the world to deter the Soviet Union from attacking anyone. They concluded the only solution was for President Truman to create a large supply of both conventional and nuclear arms. More specifically, a program to protect the U.S. and its allies from Soviet airstrikes, maintain communication lines, and enhance the technical superiority of the U.S.

30 Critics Many critics thought the U.S. already had enough military advantage over the Soviet Union. They argued that they could control the Soviet Union through economic and political measures instead of just purely militarily. The invasion of South Korea by Soviet and Chinese-backed North Korean forces in June 1950, and continuous critiques that the Administration was too soft on communism Both settled matters in favor of the reports suggestions. The recommendations became policy and the U.S. began a massive military build-up. The Truman Administration tripled defense spending between 1950 and 1953 (from 5 of 14.2% of the gross domestic product)

31 The Domino Theory The Domino Theory stated that if there was a communist victory in one nation it would quickly lead to a chain reaction of communist takeovers in surrounding states. The U.S. used this theory to justify its support of a non-communist regime in South Vietnam in the long-running Vietnam conflict.

32 The Domino Theory This theory was believed it would lead to the fall of Southeast Asia Including Indochina, Burma, Thailand, Peninsula, and Indonesia Eisenhower suggested that even Japan, which needed Southeast Asia for trade, would be in danger. This theory was used to justify actions for increased U.S. economic and military assistance to non-communist nations.

33 CITATIONS Lusignan, Bordelon, Megan, Morris, Catalina, Regan, Lindsey, Sorensen, Dana. Ethical Development in a Global Environment. Electronic. "The Chinese Revolution of Milestones Office of the Historian." U.S. Department of State- Office of Historian. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Apr History.com Staff. "Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - World War II."HISTORY.com. N.p., Web. 12 Apr Matsubara, Haruo. The Family and Japanese Society After WWII. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Apr "NSC 68: United States Objectives and Programs for National Security." National Security Council. N.p., n.d. Web. <fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsc-hst/nsc-68.htm>. "NSC-68, Milestones Office of the Historian." U.S. Department of State- Office of Historian. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Apr "Occupation and Reconstruction of Japan, Milestones Office of the Historian." U.S. Department of State- Office of Historian, Web. 12 Apr

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