1 Statements of Learning for Civics and Citizenship
2 ISBN-13: ISBN-10: X SCIS order number: Full bibliographic details are available from Curriculum Corporation. Published by Curriculum Corporation PO Box 177 Carlton South Vic 3053 Australia Tel: (03) Fax: (03) Website: Curriculum Corporation, 2006 on behalf of its members All rights reserved. The were managed by Australian Education Systems Officials Committee (AESOC) on behalf of the Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA), and developed by Curriculum Corporation. Acknowledgements National Consistency in Curriculum Outcomes Steering Committee Ken Smith (Chair) Director General Queensland Department of Education, Training and the Arts Gary Barnes (Executive Officer) Assistant Director General Queensland Department of Education, Training and the Arts John McIntyre Acting Manager of Curriculum Renewal Australian Capital Territory Department of Education and Training Lesley Lobel Deputy Director General New South Wales Department of Education and Training Debbie Efthymiades Director, Curriculum Northern Territory Department of Employment, Education and Training Terry Woolley Director, Learning Outcomes and Curriculum South Australian Department of Education and Children s Services David Hanlon Deputy Secretary, School Education Tasmanian Department of Education John Firth Chief Executive Officer Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority John Gougoulis Manager Curriculum Improvement Program/Professional Learning Western Australian Department of Education and Training Project management Joan Holt, Project Director Di Kerr, Project Manager Yvana Jones, Writer Manager Daniela Giorgi, Writer Nigel Brown, Writer Copying for educational purposes The Australian Copyright Act 1968 allows a maximum of one chapter or 10 per cent of this book, whichever is greater, to be copied by any educational institution for its educational purposes, provided that the educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) under the Act. For details of the CAL licence for educational institutions, contact CAL, 19/157 Liverpool St, Sydney NSW 2000, tel: (02) , fax: (02) , Copying for other purposes Except as permitted under the Act, for example fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review, no part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the publisher.
3 Contents Foreword... ii Introduction...1 Year Year Year Year Year 3 Professional Elaborations Civics and Citizenship...12 Year 5 Professional Elaborations Civics and Citizenship...14 Year 7 Professional Elaborations Civics and Citizenship...16 Year 9 Professional Elaborations Civics and Citizenship...18
4 Foreword At the July 2003 MCEETYA meeting, Ministers agreed to the development of Statements of Learning for Civics and Citizenship that define and deliver common curriculum outcomes to be used by jurisdictions to inform their own curriculum development. The development of the Statements is a response to concerns about the lack of consistency that exists in curriculums across the nation and the impact this is having on an increasingly mobile student population. The have been developed collaboratively by State, Territory and Australian education authorities. They provide a description of knowledge, skills, understandings and capacities that all students in Australia should have the opportunity to learn. The development of the Statements has involved identification of what is common amongst State and Territory curriculums as well as what is essential for all students to learn. For the many students and their families who move school within or across jurisdictions, greater consistency in learning opportunities for children at particular stages of schooling will assist in alleviating the educational and emotional impacts associated with such moves. In line with impacts being felt across all areas of Australian society, our students are increasingly operating in a national and global society and economy. It makes sense that education jurisdictions across Australia have worked collaboratively to identify the body of knowledge, skills, understanding and capacities which are essential for that context. Jurisdictions will need to consider how they integrate these elements into their own curriculums in a manner which suits the diversity of students needs and schools across the country. These statements represent significant collaboration between education authorities at a State, Territory and National level, and will inform future decisions by Education Ministers on the further work to be undertaken on English, Mathematics, Science, Civics and Citizenship, and Information and Communication Technologies. Ken Smith Chair, National Consistency of Curriculum Outcomes Steering Committee Australian Education Systems Officials Committee ii
5 Introduction This document,, is the result of collaborative work by Australian education jurisdictions to achieve greater consistency in curriculum. It sets out the knowledge, skills, understandings and capacities that students in Australia should have the opportunity to learn and develop in the Civics and Citizenship domain. is not a curriculum in itself. Instead, it contains a series of statements about essential opportunities to learn in this particular domain which education jurisdictions have agreed to implement in their own curriculum documents. As such, this document is primarily intended for curriculum developers. It is not the express intent that the document is promoted directly with teachers or the general community. is not a list of all possible opportunities to learn within the Civics and Citizenship domain. It contains only those opportunities which all education jurisdictions agree should be consistent across Australia. Jurisdictions own individual curriculum documents will likely include additional aspects of Civics and Citizenship. contains two critical elements: the Statements themselves and their professional elaborations, which work together as a package, with the Statements also represented in expanded form in the professional elaborations. The Statements are written in a plain English form which allows them to be engaged with by a broad audience if required. As the name suggests, the professional elaborations use the professional language of the Civics and Citizenship curriculum domain. Underpinning the Statements and professional elaborations package within the Statements of Learning for Civics and Citizenship is the idea of an opportunity to learn. The opportunities to learn set out in this document are those opportunities seen as reasonable, challenging and appropriate. Reasonable means it is realistic to expect that most students will have actually achieved the learning within a reasonable period of their first having the opportunity to learn. Up to two years can be considered reasonable for students. Challenging means that the opportunities will be a stretch and thus they represent somewhat more than a proficient student could be expected to learn initially. Appropriate means that the opportunities are suitable for the majority of young Australians to experience. The opportunities to learn in the Statements and professional elaborations sections have been developed for four year junctures the end of years 3, 5, 7 and 9. Most of the curriculum documents of Australian education jurisdictions are organised in bands, levels or stages rather than in year junctures and so the opportunities to learn in this document will most likely be included in jurisdictions curriculum documents in the band, level or stage where the year juncture falls.
6 Introduction The opportunities to learn in the Statements and professional elaborations sections are also structured around broadly defined aspects of Civics and Citizenship, known as conceptual organisers. They provide coherence and structure for this document. In implementing the opportunities to learn, jurisdictions will use whatever organisers suit their curriculum documents best Civics and Citizenship curriculums in Australia Civics and Citizenship is concerned with the development of students as informed and active citizens of Australia. The Statements of Learning and the professional elaborations have been written in the context of the following aims that guide the Civics and Citizenship aspects of curriculums in Australia, and seek to provide students with the opportunity to develop: an understanding of, and commitment to, Australia s democratic system of government, law and civic life the capacity to clarify and critically examine values and principles that underpin Australia s democracy and the ways in which these contribute to a fair and just society and a sustainable future the knowledge, skills and values that support active citizenship and the capacity to act as informed and responsible citizens an appreciation of the local, state, national, regional and global rights and responsibilities of citizenship and civic life an appreciation of the experiences and heritage of Australia s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and their influence on Australian civic identity and society an appreciation of the uniqueness and diversity of Australia as a multicultural society and a commitment to supporting intercultural understandings within the context of Australian democracy an understanding of the ways in which citizens and governments contribute to environmental sustainability in local to global contexts and a commitment to adopting values, behaviour and lifestyles required for a sustainable future an appreciation of the influence of media and information and communication technologies on the views and actions of citizens and governments an understanding of historical perspectives on Australia s development as a democratic nation an understanding of the ways in which governance structures from other countries are similar to or differ from democracy in Australia. Features of and the professional elaborations The describe the knowledge, skills, understandings and capacities that all young Australians should have the opportunity to learn and develop. The professional elaborations build on the Statements of Learning by providing more specific detail and by making use of the professional language related to Civics and Citizenship. As systems over time will integrate the into their curriculum documents, teachers application of them will be through their own State or Territory curriculums.
7 Introduction The Statements of Learning and professional elaborations have been informed by the following: curriculum documentation from all jurisdictions the National Framework for Values Education in Australian Schools Key Performance Measures in Civics and Citizenship Education Whereas the People: Civics and Citizenship Education, Report of the Civics Expert Group Discovering Democracy program National Statement for Engaging Young Australians with Asia in Australian Schools Statement on Global Education International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Citizenship and Democracy Students Knowledge and Beliefs the Future of the Past Final Report of the National Inquiry into School History Educating for a Sustainable Future: A National Environmental Education Statement for Australian Schools National Consumer and Financial Literacy Framework. The are organised in four year junctures and are structured around three broadly defined aspects of Civics and Citizenship curriculums that are considered essential and common. Government and Law explores institutions, principles and values underpinning Australia s representative democracy including the key features of the Australian Constitution; the role of democracy in building a socially cohesive and civil society; ways in which individuals, groups and governments make decisions; how governments and parliaments are elected and formed; levels and roles of government; concepts of power, leadership and community service; the purpose of laws; and the ways in which Australia s legal system contributes to democratic principles, rights and freedoms. Citizenship in a Democracy explores the rights and responsibilities of citizens in a democratic society and the civic knowledge, skills and values required to participate as informed and active citizens in local, state, national, regional and global contexts. Australia s cultural diversity and place in the Asia Pacific region and in the world are explored. Issues of environmental sustainability are examined as well as opportunities to learn to make decisions that build a capacity for futures-oriented thinking. The ways in which the media and information and communication technologies (ICT) are used by individuals and governments to exert influence and the influence that media and ICT have on civic debate and citizen engagement are examined. Opportunities to practise democratic values and processes in classrooms, schools and communities are included. Historical Perspectives explores the impact of the past on Australian civil society. The impact of British colonisation on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and their pursuit of citizenship rights are examined. The ways in which individuals, events and popular movements have influenced the development of democracy in Australia and the influence of past societies on Australian democracy are explored. The influence of local, state, national, regional and global events, issues and perspectives on Australia s changing national identities and the impact of government policy on the development of Australia as a culturally diverse nation are examined.
8 Introduction Reading the Statements of Learning and the professional elaborations The have been designed to describe progressions of learning that are accessible and challenging at four year junctures of years 3, 5, 7 and 9. Each Statement of Learning and professional elaboration subsumes the knowledge, skills, understanding and capacities of the Statements and professional elaborations that precede it. It is important for curriculum writers to consider the Statements of Learning and the professional elaborations as a whole, in conjunction with the Introduction. As noted above, the professional elaborations expand upon and provide more specific detail that clarifies the intent of the Statements of Learning by making use of the professional language of Civics and Citizenship. The do not attempt to address pedagogical issues. Learning experiences may include a variety of strategies to support the learners. In a number of instances, examples have been incorporated to assist curriculum writers to clearly identify the intended depth and breadth. Whenever examples are included they are for the purpose of clarification only and should not be taken as prescriptive. The knowledge, skills, understandings and capacities described in the Statements of Learning and professional elaborations are intended to be embedded within the rich contexts and perspectives of the curriculum documentation of the States and Territories of Australia. They are not intended to be restrictive, rather to be used in the range of contexts appropriate to the needs of individual jurisdictions. The make some reference to the use of ICT. It is envisaged that States and Territories will encourage significant use of a wide range of technologies to support Civics and Citizenship education in ways that are suited to local contexts and priorities.
9 Year 3 Statements of Learning for Civics and Citizenship Year 3 Government and law Students explore how and why people make decisions. They identify significant places where people come together to discuss issues and make decisions and understand that there are situations where people make decisions for themselves and situations where decisions are made on their behalf. They know that voting is a key method for group decision making in a democracy. They investigate why we have leaders, what leaders do and consider the qualities of an effective leader. They identify examples of people working together to provide government services within familiar contexts. Students understand that rules have a key purpose in protecting people s rights and ensuring they fulfil their responsibilities in supporting the values that help communities live and work together. They consider the concept of fair and unfair rules, identify consequences when people break rules and explore ways in which people can make amends. Year 3 Citizenship in a democracy Students develop an understanding of personal rights and responsibilities in familiar contexts. They explore reasons why people cooperate in groups and consider values that communities share to help them live and work together. They develop skills to make decisions in groups to achieve common goals. They explore the use of narratives, such as Dreaming stories, to teach community values and appropriate behaviours. They appreciate the contributions of diverse groups of people to their community and contribute to intercultural understandings through participation in appropriate events. Students explore ways in which Australians, including young people, are connected to other people and places. They understand why it is important to conserve resources and protect the environment and participate in positive civic or environmental action. Students explore how and why people s views and ideas are communicated through media and information and communication technologies. They investigate the ways in which the media conveys messages to influence people s opinions. Year 3 Historical perspectives Students explore perspectives on Australia s civic past through symbols, events and personal and group stories. They understand that Australia s history pre-dates British colonisation and can recognise Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander influences on the valuing and naming of Australian places. They explore Australia s cultural diversity through personal and local histories and discuss stories of significant events and individuals that have helped shape Australia s democracy. They identify and consider the values reflected in Australian national symbols. They examine the influence of different types of rule on people s lives.
10 Year 5 Statements of Learning for Civics and Citizenship Year 5 Government and law Students understand that Australia is a democracy based on a constitution, shared values and specific civic features. They reflect on and engage with values that are fundamental to a healthy democracy including freedom of speech. They understand the role and purpose of elections, parliament, government, political parties and civic participation in Australia s democratic system. They know that there are three levels of government. They understand the role of elected representatives and explore concepts of power, leadership and community service. Students consider the purpose of laws within a democracy. They recognise some rules and laws that relate to young people and consider whether laws and likely sanctions are fair and appropriate for all people in all situations. They know that the legal process plays an important role in protecting people s rights and can identify key personnel within the legal system. They understand that when Australians travel overseas the laws of other countries apply to them. Year 5 Citizenship in a democracy Students develop an understanding of their rights and responsibilities and engage with these within their school and community. They investigate the range of ways in which people work together to contribute to civil society and discuss values that can help people resolve differences and achieve consensus. They appreciate the right of others to be different, within the rule of law, and participate in activities that celebrate diversity and support social cohesion. They develop skills to contribute effectively to representative groups in familiar contexts. Students understand ways in which Australian citizens are influenced by and can influence local, state, national, regional and global decisions, events and movements, including issues of sustainability. They investigate the social and political links between Australia and other countries in the Asia Pacific region and explore global developments and their potential impact on Australia. They understand that protecting the environment requires that people work together as citizens and consumers and participate in appropriate actions as environmental stewards or in other civic action to effect positive change. Students explore different ways in which media and information and communication technologies can portray an event or story and how these can influence citizens beliefs and actions. They evaluate the range of media and information and communication technologies that active and informed citizens can access.
11 Year 5 Year 5 Historical perspectives Students explore ways in which Australian identities have changed over time. They explore the social organisation of Australia s Aboriginal peoples prior to They investigate why Australia was colonised by Britain and how Australia was governed from colonisation to federation. They understand that some important concepts and civic terms in Australian democracy are legacies of past societies. They investigate the influence of significant individuals and events on the development of democracy in Australia. They examine the histories of cultural groups within their community and investigate ways in which cultural diversity has influenced Australian identity over time.
12 Year 7 Statements of Learning for Civics and Citizenship Year 7 Government and law Students investigate principles and institutions that underpin Australia s representative democracy such as free and fair elections and political parties. They explore the purpose of a democratic civil society and discuss ways in which such a society can be achieved. They understand the purpose of the Australian Constitution and recognise the roles of each level of government. They are familiar with the general process of elections and how governments are formed and consider ways in which elected representatives serve their constituents. They understand the difference between parliaments and governments, explore how governments make decisions and consider how these decisions impact on people. They compare non-democratic systems of government with democracies such as Australia. Students understand ways in which laws and courts protect democratic rights and freedoms. They consider how laws impact on people and can change to reflect community values. They recognise the role of courts in Australian democracy. They consider the influence of international agreements on Australian law. Year 7 Citizenship in a democracy Students explore the civic values and rights and responsibilities of citizens in a democratic society. They discuss and engage with the rights and responsibilities of Australian citizens. They investigate ways in which individuals and non-government organisations can contribute to a civil society and influence representative bodies including government. They explore values that underpin a diverse and cohesive society and examine these within the local community. They recognise the ways in which people s attitudes and actions influence the social cohesion of a community. They develop skills to become involved in or influence representative groups in the school or community. Students examine the ways in which Australians are connected to other people in the Asia Pacific region and around the world. They explore the responsibilities of global citizenship for individuals, organisations and governments and the roles and responsibilities of companies, producers and consumers in relation to sustainability. They explore ways in which countries work together to protect the environment. They participate in raising awareness about environmental issues. Students explore how media and information and communication technologies can influence public opinion. They analyse media portrayal of issues to identify viewpoints, bias and stereotypes and investigate ways in which the media and ICT are used to influence citizens views.
13 Year 7 Year 7 Historical perspectives Students explore the impact of people, events and movements of the past on Australian identities and democracy. They consider the importance of country to Australia s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and investigate how their lives were affected by British colonisation. They investigate key events and ideas in the development of Australian self-government and democracy. They consider the changing values reflected in national celebrations and examine what these have meant to Australians over time. They investigate the contributions of people who have helped achieve civil and political rights in Australia and around the world. They compare the governance of some ancient societies to that of Australia today.
14 Year 9 Statements of Learning for Civics and Citizenship Year 9 Government and law Students develop an understanding of principles and features of democracy in Australia including the common good, separation of powers, government accountability and parliamentary elections. They understand that the Australian Constitution is the legal framework for Australia s system of law and government. They explore the role of government in developing policy and formulating legislation. They understand the role of political parties in Australian democracy and explore concepts of power, responsibility and influence in relation to political leaders and elected representatives. They compare Australia s democracy with other democracies. Students explore concepts of justice and law including independence of the judiciary, equality before the law, presumption of innocence, the right of appeal and restorative justice. They recognise that there are different types of law such as statute and common law that protect people s rights. They evaluate the role that international organisations play in protecting human rights Year 9 Citizenship in a democracy Students engage with and reflect on the rights and responsibilities associated with being a young adult in Australia and consider ways in which people can contribute to the common good. They assess how majority rule is balanced with respect for minorities in the exercise of democratic power and civic decision making. They investigate and participate in ways to prevent and counter acts of racism, prejudice and discrimination. They develop skills in making collective decisions and take opportunities for informed civic action on important issues. Students understand the regional, global and environmental implications of being a citizen in a democracy. They explore Australia s relationship with other nations and examine the influence of global events and issues on these relationships. They examine how people s views on the environment influence government policy and non-government organisations and the ways in which governments attempt to address issues of development and sustainability. They investigate ways in which citizens can influence government and consider opportunities to take civic action on issues, including the environment. Students explore the ways in which media and information and communication technologies are used by individuals, groups and governments to exert influence, shape opinion and manage controversy. 10
15 Year 9 Year 9 Historical perspectives Students explore how and why civic and political rights, government policies and national identity have changed over time in Australia. They develop an understanding of Aboriginal and Torres Islander people s pursuit of citizenship rights and examine the effects of government policies on Australia s Aboriginal people. They investigate the development of multiculturalism in Australia and evaluate changes in government policies on issues, including immigration. They consider the development of Australian citizenship over time and reasons why people choose to become Australian citizens. They have an understanding of Australia s development as a self-governing nation from colonisation to the present and the achievement of civil and political rights in Australia. They reflect on the influence of past international events on governments in Australia. 11
16 Year 3 Professional Elaborations Civics and Citizenship Year 3 Government and law Students explore how and why people make community decisions. understand that there are special places where people come together to discuss issues and make decisions discuss why there are situations where people have a direct say and situations where others make decisions on their behalf recognise that voting is a way that groups make decisions consider some of the responsibilities and qualities of leadership and the role of leaders within a community explore familiar examples of government services. Students understand that rules have a key purpose in supporting community values, protecting people s rights and outlining their responsibilities. discuss the purpose of rules in a variety of contexts explore the concept of fair and unfair rules from a range of perspectives identify consequences when people break rules and consider how people can make amends. Year 3 Citizenship in a democracy Students explore rights, responsibilities and participation in a democracy. define and exercise personal rights and responsibilities within a variety of contexts explore reasons why people form groups and cooperate and identify shared community values that help people live and work together explore how people use narratives, including Dreaming stories, to shape community values and behaviour recognise the contributions of diverse groups in the local community develop skills to make decisions in groups to achieve common goals participate in events that support intercultural understandings. Students explore ways in which Australians are connected to other people and environments. explore ways in which Australians are connected to other regional and global communities examine reasons why people care for the local environment and consider how people can sustain use of local resources participate in positive, local environmental or other civic action. 12
17 Year 3 Professional Elaborations Civics and Citizenship Students explore ways in which media and information and communication technologies can help people share ideas and information. consider why and how views and ideas are communicated through the media and ICT explore the ways in which the media communicates messages to influence people. Year 3 Historical perspectives Students explore perspectives on the past through symbols, events and personal and group stories and reflect on how people were governed in the past. understand that Australia had a long Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history before the arrival of Europeans recognise Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander influences on the valuing and naming of places in Australia and the local community identify some of the cultural groups which comprise the Australian nation through exploring their own and others family histories within their local community identify and reflect on what key Australian symbols represent (eg flags, emblems, national anthem) explore the stories of some key events and individuals in their national history reflect on ways in which people s lives can be different under different types of rule (eg absolute rule, democracy). 13
18 Year 5 Professional Elaborations Civics and Citizenship Year 5 Government and law Students understand that Australia is a democracy based on a constitution, shared values and specific civic features. engage with values that are important to Australian democracy explore concepts of power, leadership and community service understand that Australia is a democracy with key civic features including elections, parliaments, political parties, a constitution, freedom of speech and citizen participation recognise that a constitution is an agreed set of rules or guidelines for an organisation understand that there are three levels of government explore the role of government in making decisions, collecting revenue and providing community services understand that the role of parliament is to represent people, make laws and publicly debate issues understand the purpose of elections and the role of elected representatives. Students consider the purpose of laws within a democracy. explore why society has laws and examine what happens when people break laws discuss rules and laws that affect young people and assess these according to fairness and appropriateness explore whether punishment is always the most appropriate consequence when a rule or law is broken and consider other ways in which people can make amends identify key personnel within the legal system who help to protect people s rights recognise that the laws of other countries apply to Australians when they travel overseas. Year 5 Citizenship in a democracy Students understand and practise personal rights and responsibilities within their school and community. define and exercise personal and shared rights and responsibilities within local contexts identify ways that people can work together in communities and explore how shared values can help resolve conflict or achieve consensus between diverse views recognise that citizens can individually and collectively influence decision making promote social cohesion and celebrate diversity by recognising the right of others to be different within the rule of law develop skills to contribute effectively to representative groups in familiar contexts. 14
19 Year 5 Professional Elaborations Civics and Citizenship Students understand that Australian citizens are influenced by and can influence regional and global events including issues of environmental sustainability. explore links between Australia and other countries in the Asia Pacific region including social and political connections recognise ways in which current and future global issues may impact on Australians and other people in the Asia Pacific region explore ways in which groups of people work together to protect the environment and examine how consumers can take responsibility for environmental sustainability participate in civic or environmental action to effect positive change. Students explore ways in which the media and information and communication technologies are used to influence citizens views. compare the ways that an issue or event can be portrayed in the media and how this can influence peoples views and actions investigate the range of ICT and media that citizens can use to communicate viewpoints on civic issues and consider their effectiveness. Year 5 Historical perspectives Students explore how Australian identities and civil society have changed over time. They have the opportunity to: explore the influence of cultural diversity, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures, on national identity and community life in Australia and examine how this has changed over time explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples social organisation prior to 1788 investigate why Australia was colonised by Great Britain and consider changes in the ways in which Australia has been governed from colonisation to federation investigate the role of significant people and events in the development of democracy in Australia understand that key civic terms used in Australia (eg democracy, citizen, government and parliament) have been inherited from other times and places reflect on the histories of cultural groups within their school and communities. 15
20 Year 7 Professional Elaborations Civics and Citizenship Year 7 Government and law Students explore the principles underpinning democracy and civil society in Australia, the purpose of the Australian Constitution and the roles of each level of government. consider the purpose of a democratic civil society and discuss how it can be achieved examine the role of key institutions and principles of Australian representative democracy (eg parliament, head of state, political parties, free and fair elections, secret ballot, universal adult suffrage) understand that Australia has a constitution that describes the key features of the federal system of government and can be amended by referendum describe the general processes involved in elections and how governments are formed explore functions of and services provided by each of the three levels of government identify how governments make decisions and explore ways in which these decisions impact on people compare democracies such as Australia s to countries with other forms of government. Students understand that the law exists to protect rights and freedoms in a democracy. reflect on ways in which changing values can influence the law recognise the role of courts in upholding the law and democratic rights recognise that Australia is a signatory to a range of international agreements that influence Australian law. Year 7 Citizenship in a democracy Students explore the civic values and rights and responsibilities of citizens in a democratic society. define and exercise rights and responsibilities associated with being a citizen in Australia identify values that support social cohesion and consider the ways in which this can be undermined or strengthened by individual and collective action investigate ways in which non-government organisations can contribute to communities and influence government decisions develop skills to become involved in or influence representative groups in the school or community. Students examine the ways in which Australians are connected to other people around the world and explore the responsibilities of global citizenship. consider the economic, social and cultural connections of Australian people to other people in the Asia Pacific region analyse how individuals, organisations and governments can be global citizens 16
21 Year 7 Professional Elaborations Civics and Citizenship investigate ways in which countries cooperate to protect the environment analyse the roles and responsibilities of companies, producers and consumers in relation to sustainability participate in a campaign to raise awareness about a significant issue. Students explore how media and information and communication technologies are used to present issues and influence opinion. analyse media portrayal of current issues to explore viewpoints, bias and stereotypes investigate ways in which the media and ICT are used to influence citizens views. Year 7 Historical perspectives Students explore the impact of people, events and movements of the past on Australian identities and democracy and consider ways in which people were governed in ancient times. recognise the centrality of country in shaping Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identities investigate how British colonisation of Australia affected the lives of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples investigate key events and ideas in the development of Australian self-government and democracy examine values reflected in national celebrations and commemorations, what these represent to diverse people and groups, and how these have changed over time investigate individuals who have campaigned for expanded human rights and democracy reflect on ways in which people in ancient societies were governed and compare these to Australia today. 17
22 Year 9 Professional Elaborations Civics and Citizenship Year 9 Government and law Students explore principles, features and practices that characterise democracy in Australia. explore significant features and principles of democracy in Australia including the common good, separation of powers, government accountability and parliamentary elections recognise that the Australian Constitution establishes the powers and responsibilities of the national parliament and the federal legal system including the High Court consider the role of government in developing policy and formulating legislation understand the role of political parties in Australian democracy evaluate the power, responsibilities and influence exercised by political leaders and elected representatives understand how Australia s system of government is similar to and different from other democracies. Students explore concepts of justice and law and the ways in which legal institutions and processes uphold people s rights in a democracy. recognise that there are different types of law explore principles of justice including independence of the judiciary, equality before the law, presumption of innocence, the right of appeal and restorative justice evaluate the effectiveness of international organisations in protecting human rights. Year 9 Citizenship in a democracy Students evaluate Australia s pluralist society and explore the responsibilities of young adults in contributing to a socially cohesive, democratic community. define, exercise and evaluate rights and responsibilities associated with being a young adult including the concept of working together for the common good evaluate Australian society s effectiveness in balancing majority rule and respect for minorities in civic decision making recognise that acts of racism and prejudice constitute discrimination and participate in appropriate ways to prevent or counter these develop skills in collective decision making and informed civic action. Students understand the regional, global and environmental implications of being a citizen in a democracy. explore ways in which international events and developments can affect Australia s relationships within the Asia Pacific and other regions 18
23 Year 9 Professional Elaborations Civics and Citizenship examine ways in which changing attitudes towards the environment influence politics, governments and non-government organisations evaluate ways in which Australian governments address issues of sustainability investigate how citizens influence governments on issues including the environment and consider opportunities to take appropriate civic action. Students analyse how media and information and communication technologies are used to exert influence. evaluate ways in which individuals, groups and governments use the media and ICT to shape opinion and manage controversy. Year 9 Historical perspectives Students explore how and why civic and political rights, government policies and national identity have changed over time in Australia. recognise Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples pursuit of citizenship rights including democratic representation examine the development of multiculturalism in Australia and explore ways in which government policies, including immigration and Aboriginal policies, have changed over time discuss changes in Australian citizenship and examine reasons why people become Australian citizens investigate people, movements and events that have enhanced civil and political rights for specific groups of Australians consider the influence of key events and ideas in Australia s development as an independent, selfgoverning democracy from colonisation to the present identify ways in which Australian governments have been influenced by and have responded to regional and global movements and events. 19
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