1 Public Demonstrations Lesson Plan Student Objectives Understand the fundamental importance of public demonstrations in guaranteeing freedom of expression, particularly by disfavored or marginal groups. Learn the issues raised by public demonstrations within the conflict between free expression and public order. Appreciate the enduring difficulties posed by balancing police powers and free expression during public demonstrations. Analyze the reasons supporting and opposing the government having the power to prohibit unauthorized public demonstrations. Identify areas of agreement and disagreement with other students. Decide, individually and as a group, whether the government should have the power to prohibit unauthorized public demonstrations; support decisions based on evidence and sound reasoning. Reflect on the value of deliberation when deciding issues in a democracy. Question for Deliberation Should our democracy have the power to prohibit unauthorized public demonstrations? Materials Lesson Procedures Handout 1 Deliberation Guide Handout 2 Deliberation Worksheet Handout 3 Student Reflection on Deliberation Reading Selected Resources Deliberation Question with Arguments (optional use if students have difficulty extracting the arguments or time is limited) 2005, 2006 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. All Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago materials and publications are protected by copyright. However, we hereby grant to all recipients a license to reproduce all material contained herein for distribution to students, other school site personnel, and district administrators.
2 Public Demonstrations Reading In November 2004, the sitting Prime Minister of Ukraine was declared the victor in elections widely considered in the country and by international observers as fraudulent. In protest, thousands of demonstrators assembled without government permission in Independence Square in the frozen, snow-covered capital city of Kiev. They refused to go home until new elections were called. They stayed, sang songs, and nonviolently assembled to protest the electoral process. After days of protest, the Supreme Court annulled the November results and ordered another election. The Orange Revolution, named after the color adopted by the protesters, led to a fairer election in December 2004; this time, the opposition candidate won. When citizens disagree with their government, one of the most powerful ways to express that dissent is to demonstrate publicly with other citizens. Sometimes in Ukraine in 2004, Romania in 1991, Azerbaijan in 1988, and the Philippines in 1986 these demonstrations have not been stopped, and they have led directly to a change of government. At other times, such as in Tiananmen Square in 1991 and Chicago in 1968, governments have determined such demonstrations were a threat to public safety and suppressed them by police and military forces. Distinguishing between the rights of citizens to assemble and the responsibility of government to maintain safety is one of the most troublesome questions of free expression in any society. It is a particularly difficult question in a democracy, where government must listen and respond to the voices of its citizens. 2005, 2006 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. All Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago materials and publications are protected by copyright. However, we hereby grant to all recipients a license to reproduce all material contained herein for distribution to students, other school site personnel, and district administrators.
3 An Ancient and Fundamental Freedom The gathering of people to discuss problems and voice their disapproval of the authorities is perhaps as old as government itself. Using such assemblies to protest government actions also has a long legal history, and these gatherings are crucial to other freedoms, such as speech and belief. For example, the American labor movement, the modern Civil Rights movement, and the Pro-Life movement have all used public assembly to promote their cause. Public demonstrations are a uniquely dynamic form of expression. They enable face-to-face contact between speaker and audience, promote solidarity and mutual support among demonstrators, and let demonstrators show their dedication and support to outsiders. Because demonstrations do not require the money necessary for television shows, media campaigns, or newspaper advertising, they are favored by those with little or no economic or political power. Article 20 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948 by the General Assembly of the United Nations, includes the protection that everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. In the United States, the First Amendment to the Constitution states that Congress shall make no law prohibiting the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. To varying degrees, this right has been exercised by citizens and honored by governments around the world An Inherently Difficult Balance Of course, every society needs order to function. People need and expect the basic right to live and work without fear of assaults on themselves, their property, or their conscience. Police provide these protections. Without these powers, the free expression of public demonstrations can quickly become the rule of the mob. By their nature, the enforcers of the laws the police Deliberating in a Democracy 2005, 2006 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. 2
4 and the military tend to support the existing order. Therefore, they often oppose demonstrators who challenge the status quo and whose actions may result in disorder. To maintain order and often to restrict unwanted expressions of dissent governments have used different methods to control public demonstrations. These include requiring permits; determining the time, place, and manner of assemblies; and assigning a specific role to the police in maintaining order. Where to draw the line between free expression and reasonable limits has been argued in the United States for almost a century, with no firm conclusions. As U.S. Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter once wrote, the conflict between free speech and other interests is a problem as persistent as it is perplexing [Niemotko v. Maryland (1951)]. Nevertheless, the U.S. Supreme Court has developed several working principles. For example, the Court has recognized the government s right to regulate public spaces and to maintain public order; demonstrators cannot simply take over a busy street. On the other hand, the government cannot prohibit speech simply because it does not like what is being said. If, for example, the government permits pro-government groups to rally in a public park, then it cannot deny the same rights to groups that protest the government s actions. Other countries also face these questions. In the spring of 1989, thousands of Chinese students gathered at Tiananmen Square in the capitol Beijing to demonstrate for democratic reform. The students were joined by factory workers, government workers, and intellectual leaders, until almost a million people were gathered there. The government of China at first tolerated and then condemned the protests, declaring martial law in late May. The demonstrators called on the government leadership to resign, but during a night in early June, government tanks crushed thousands of demonstrators, disbanded the rest, and arrested the student leaders. The Chinese government had acted to put down what it called a counterrevolutionary rebellion. Deliberating in a Democracy 2005, 2006 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. 3
5 Governments can also restrict the use of a right through administrative rules and procedures. Article 49 of the Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic says that every person has the right to assemble, conduct meetings, assemblies, demonstrations, street procession, pickets in amicable way and without weapons, by notifying the relevant state authorities in advance. However, in 1998 the National Assembly (Parliament of the Azerbaijan Republic) adopted a law on freedom of assembly that says anyone who is organizing any assembly must notify the relevant body of executive authority in writing at least five days prior to the planned assembly. The law also restricts freedom of assembly in cases of coup d'etat or threats against national security of the state. According to many experts, this law contradicts the freedom in the Azerbaijani Constitution. In Russia, leaders hope structures that give citizens an opportunity for input will make demonstrations unnecessary. In 2005, Dmitri Medvedev, Chief of Staff for President Vladimir Putin, reflected on recent demonstrations: The demonstrations on the streets were the normal reaction of angry people... Of course, it is better for discussions on necessary measures to take place through socially effective procedures rather than on the streets, and for this to happen we need to have working mechanisms for communication between the public and the authorities Limits on Public Demonstrations: Supporters and Opponents Should democratic governments have the power to prohibit unauthorized public demonstrations? People who support prohibitions on unauthorized demonstrations say that getting a permit from the government strikes a reasonable balance between order and liberty. Requiring a permit does not mean that the government has arbitrary power to allow or prohibit a demonstration. Deliberating in a Democracy 2005, 2006 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. 4
6 Rather, it enables government to fulfill its duty to uphold the law impartially: everyone follows the same rules. Supporters also argue that a law, in order to be effective, must be able to work. If the police cannot move or regulate people from a public place, then society is at risk. Because crowds are unstable, a peaceful demonstration can turn quickly into a violent mob. Requiring authorization creates a workable framework in which both government and demonstrators can make decisions. Opponents of requiring pre-authorization argue that people gathered peacefully to discuss or protest an issue do not need permission from the very government against which they may have a grievance. Any law that requires a license to demonstrate in public places represents an unfair limit on a fundamental liberty of a democratic society. The decision to grant or deny a permit is inherently political: such a fundamental freedom should not be left in the hands of a clerk. Opponents also argue that, while newspapers and television are the media of the wealthy and the powerful, public demonstrations are the media of the poor, the radical, and the marginal. Such people can hardly expect to receive the same authorizations as those who support the established order. In order to make their voices heard, they need to be able to picket, parade, and demonstrate in public places when and where necessary. The use of public places for these purposes, as long as peace and order are maintained, cannot be denied. Supporters of government power to stop unauthorized public demonstrations counter by saying that public space does not mean lawless space. Just as every city rightfully exercises control over traffic, so too a demonstration permit is a reasonable way for the government to maintain order. The privilege of some citizens to assemble publicly to share their views must be regulated in the interest of all citizens because this is a relative, not absolute, privilege. Deliberating in a Democracy 2005, 2006 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. 5
7 Supporters also note that in the age of the instant communication, rarely will events happen so quickly that government cannot respond in time. A permit can be reviewed and approved fast enough to meet the legitimate free expression needs of citizens. Opponents agree that, as in Kiev in 2004, the timing of demonstrations has never been more important. They fear that government authorization procedures, like those in Azerbaijan, create delays that effectively become government denials for popular assemblies. In short, how governments regulate public demonstrations will remain controversial wherever democracies thrive. Deliberating in a Democracy 2005, 2006 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. 6
8 Public Demonstrations Selected Resources Azerbaijan Constitution, International Constitutional Law Project, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union: Article 12, Freedom of Assembly and of Association, Official Journal of the European Communities (2000), Chicago v. Morales et al., 527 U.S. 41 (1999), Congressional Research Service, First Amendment: Annotations, in The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1992; updated 2000 by FindLaw.com), available at (see pp. 6, 7, 10, 12, 18, 20, and 21). Emerson, Thomas I., Internal Order: Meetings, Demonstrations, Canvassing, in The System of Freedom of Expression (New York: Vintage Books, a Division of Random House, 1970), pp (especially and ). European Convention on Human Rights: Article 11, Freedom of Assembly and Association (Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 1950), European Social Charter: Part II, Article 5, The Right to Organize (Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe, 1961), Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association, (Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe), bly.asp. Hague v. Committee for Industrial Organization, 307 U.S. 496 (1939), Medvedev, Dmitri, We Really Do Need to Preserve This Vast State, Expert Magazine vol. 13, no. 13 (April 4, 2005), Niemotko v. Maryland, 340 U.S. 268 (1951), Redish, Martin H. Unlawful Advocacy and Free Speech, in The Logic of Persecution: Free Expression and the McCarthy Era. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press (2005), pp (especially ). Shuttlesworth v. Birmingham, 394 U.S. 147 (1969), Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Article 20 (right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association; freedom from compelled association) (New York: United Nations, 1948), , 2006 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. All Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago materials and publications are protected by copyright. However, we hereby grant to all recipients a license to reproduce all material contained herein for distribution to students, other school site personnel, and district administrators.
9 Public Demonstrations Deliberation Question with Arguments Deliberation Question Should our democracy have the power to prohibit unauthorized public demonstrations? YES Arguments to Support the Deliberation Question 1. People cannot exercise their rights without an ordered society in which to express them. Without government, the public square is ruled not by law but by the loudest or the strongest. Requiring government authorization for public demonstrations strikes a reasonable balance between the needs for both order and liberty in a democratic society. 2. Prior authorization does not give the government arbitrary power over who can or cannot hold a demonstration. Instead, it enables government to uphold the law impartially and without favoritism. With an authorization process, everyone has to follow the same rules. 3. Laws must be workable in order to be effective. By their nature, crowds are unstable, and a peaceful demonstration can turn quickly into a violent mob. Requiring authorization provides police with a useful tool for regulating a public place. It also creates a reasonable framework within which both the government and the demonstrators can make decisions. 4. No person s free expression rights are absolute. The privilege of some citizens to use public places to assemble or to communicate their views must be regulated in the interest of all citizens. Requiring authorization for public demonstrations enables government to maintain the general comfort and convenience of the citizenry. 5. Public space does not mean lawless space. The streets belong to the people, but every city is expected to control traffic in the interests of public safety: those who fail to stop at stoplights or insist on walking in busy city streets should be stopped. Requiring authorization for public demonstrations is a similar exercise of the government s power to protect public safety. 6. Although events happen quickly in today s world, government also can respond quickly to meet the legitimate free expression needs of citizens. Under extraordinary circumstances, the government can function extraordinarily: courts and offices stay open, and the police are always available. In the age of the Internet and 24-hour news, government authorization can be obtained in sufficient time to allow for public meetings and demonstrations. 2005, 2006 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. All Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago materials and publications are protected by copyright. However, we hereby grant to all recipients a license to reproduce all material contained herein for distribution to students, other school site personnel, and district administrators.
10 Public Demonstrations Deliberation Question with Arguments Deliberation Question Should our democracy have the power to prohibit unauthorized public demonstrations? NO Arguments to Oppose the Deliberation Question 1. A law that prohibits unauthorized public demonstrations denies a fundamental liberty of a democratic society. People who gather peacefully to discuss or protest an issue do not need permission from the very government against which they may have a grievance. 2. The decision of whether to authorize or prohibit a public demonstration is inherently political. People who hold unconventional views or live outside the mainstream of society can hardly expect the same access to public space as those who support the established order. The decision to grant or deny a fundamental freedom should not be left to a clerk. 3. Free expression is everyone s right in a democratic society, but not every forum is free. While the wealthy and the comfortable use and can afford newspapers and television, public demonstrations are the news and advertising media of the poor, the radical, and the marginal. Public demonstrations permit unpopular demonstrators to support each other and to bring their views directly to the larger community. 4. By their nature, marching and picketing require public places in order to draw attention to their cause. To require government authorization for these activities in public places, even when peace and order are maintained, is an unreasonable restriction of a fundamental right. 5. Parks and public places have always been used by citizens to assemble, communicate and share ideas, and discuss public questions of the day. This use has been and must be considered part of the rights and privileges of citizens. This right should not, for want of official authorization, be abridged or denied. 6. Timing is everything in political life, and citizens cannot predict the future. When something happens, people often need to be seen and heard promptly if they are to be considered at all. Requiring advance authorization for unanticipated events effectively prevents such demonstrations from happening at the very time they are most needed. 2005, 2006 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. All Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago materials and publications are protected by copyright. However, we hereby grant to all recipients a license to reproduce all material contained herein for distribution to students, other school site personnel, and district administrators.
11 Step One: Introduction Lesson Procedures Introduce the lesson and the Student Objectives on the Lesson Plan. Distribute and discuss Handout 1 Deliberation Guide. Review the Rules of Deliberation and post them in a prominent position in the classroom. Emphasize that the class will deliberate and then debrief the experience. Step Two: Reading Distribute a copy of the Reading to each student. Have students read the article carefully and underline facts and ideas they think are important and/or interesting (ideally for homework). Step Three: Grouping and Reading Discussion Divide the class into groups of four or five students. Group members should share important facts and interesting ideas with each other to develop a common understanding of the article. They can record these facts and ideas on Handout 2 Deliberation Activities (Review the Reading). Step Four: Introducing the Deliberation Question Each Reading addresses a Deliberation Question. Read aloud and/or post the Deliberation Question and ask students to write the Deliberation Question in the space provided on Handout 2. Remind students of the Rules for Deliberation on Handout 1. Step Five: Learning the Reasons Divide each group into two teams, Team A and Team B. Explain that each team is responsible for selecting the most compelling reasons for its position, which you will assign. Both teams should reread the Reading. Team A will find the most compelling reasons to support the Deliberation Question. Team B will find the most compelling reasons to oppose the Deliberation Question. To ensure maximum participation, ask everyone on the team to prepare to present at least one reason. Note: Team A and Team B do not communicate while learning the reasons. If students need help identifying the arguments or time is limited, use the Deliberation Question with Arguments handouts. Ask students to identify the most compelling arguments and add any additional ones they may remember from the reading. Step Six: Presenting the Most Compelling Reasons Tell students that each team will present the most compelling reasons to support or oppose the Deliberation Question. In preparation for the next step, Reversing Positions, have each team listen carefully for the most compelling reasons. 2005, 2006, 2007 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. All Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago materials and publications are protected by copyright. However, we hereby grant to all recipients a license to reproduce all material contained herein for distribution to students, other school site personnel, and district administrators.
12 Team A will explain their reasons for supporting the Deliberation Question. If Team B does not understand something, they should ask questions but NOT argue. Team B will explain their reasons for opposing the Deliberation Question. If Team A does not understand something, they should ask questions, but NOT argue. Note: The teams may not believe in or agree with their reasons but should be as convincing as possible when presenting them to others. Step Seven: Reversing Positions Explain that, to demonstrate that each side understands the opposing arguments, each team will select the other team s most compelling reasons. Team B will explain to Team A what Team A s most compelling reasons were for supporting the Deliberation Question. Team A will explain to Team B what Team B s most compelling reasons were for opposing the Deliberation Question. Step Eight: Deliberating the Question Explain that students will now drop their roles and deliberate the question as a group. Remind the class of the question. In deliberating, students can (1) use what they have learned about the issue and (2) offer their personal experiences as they formulate opinions regarding the issue. After deliberating, have students find areas of agreement in their group. Then ask students, as individuals, to express to the group their personal position on the issue and write it down (see My Personal Position on Handout 2). Note: Individual students do NOT have to agree with the group. Step Nine: Debriefing the Deliberation Reconvene the entire class. Distribute Handout 3 Student Reflection on Deliberation as a guide. Ask students to discuss the following questions: What were the most compelling reasons for each side? What were the areas of agreement? What questions do you still have? Where can you get more information? What are some reasons why deliberating this issue is important in a democracy? What might you or your class do to address this problem? Options include teaching others about what they have learned; writing to elected officials, NGOs, or businesses; and conducting additional research. Consider having students prepare personal reflections on the Deliberation Question through written, visual, or audio essays. Personal opinions can be posted on the web. Step Ten: Student Poll/Student Reflection Ask students: Do you agree, disagree, or are you still undecided about the Deliberation Question? Record the responses and have a student post the results on under the partnerships and/or the polls. Have students complete Handout , 2006, 2007 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago.
13 Handout 1 Deliberation Guide What Is Deliberation? Deliberation (meaningful discussion) is the focused exchange of ideas and the analysis of arguments with the aim of making a decision. Why Are We Deliberating? Citizens must be able and willing to express and exchange ideas among themselves, with community leaders, and with their representatives in government. Citizens and public officials in a democracy need skills and opportunities to engage in civil public discussion of controversial issues in order to make informed policy decisions. Deliberation requires keeping an open mind, as this skill enables citizens to reconsider a decision based on new information or changing circumstances. What Are the Rules for Deliberation? Read the material carefully. Focus on the deliberation question. Listen carefully to what others are saying. Check for understanding. Analyze what others say. Speak and encourage others to speak. Refer to the reading to support your ideas. Use relevant background knowledge, including life experiences, in a logical way. Use your heart and mind to express ideas and opinions. Remain engaged and respectful when controversy arises. Focus on ideas, not personalities. 2005, 2006, 2007 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. All Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago materials and publications are protected by copyright. However, we hereby grant to all recipients a license to reproduce all material contained herein for distribution to students, other school site personnel, and district administrators.
14 Handout 2 Deliberation Activities Review the Reading Determine the most important facts and/or interesting ideas and write them below. 1) 2) 3) Deliberation Question Learning the Reasons Reasons to Support the Deliberation Question (Team A) Reasons to Oppose the Deliberation Question (Team B) My Personal Position On a separate sheet of paper, write down reasons to support your opinion. You may suggest another course of action than the policy proposed in the question or add your own ideas to address the underlying problem. 2005, 2006, 2007 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. All Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago materials and publications are protected by copyright. However, we hereby grant to all recipients a license to reproduce all material contained herein for distribution to students, other school site personnel, and district administrators.
15 Name: Date: Teacher: Handout 3 Student Reflection on Deliberation Large Group Discussion: What We Learned What were the most compelling reasons for each side? Side A: Side B: What were the areas of agreement? What questions do you still have? Where can you get more information? What are some reasons why deliberating this issue is important in a democracy? What might you and/or your class do to address this problem? Individual Reflection: What I Learned Which number best describes your understanding of the focus issue? [circle one] NO DEEPER MUCH DEEPER UNDERSTANDING UNDERSTANDING What new insights did you gain? What did you do well in the deliberation? What do you need to work on to improve your personal deliberation skills? What did someone else in your group do or say that was particularly helpful? Is there anything the group should work on to improve the group deliberation? 2005, 2006, 2007 Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago. All Constitutional Rights Foundation Chicago materials and publications are protected by copyright. However, we hereby grant to all recipients a license to reproduce all material contained herein for distribution to students, other school site personnel, and district administrators.
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