THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT

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1 THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT MEANING OF THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT According to Pandit Nehru, the Prime Minister of India, "The term was coined and used with the meaning of non-alignment with great power blocs of the world." Non-Alignment stood for Positive, active and constructive policy in support of peace, security, freedom of action and co-operation. It definitely did not stand for neutrality, negative approach or sitting on the fence. It allowed the newly independent states to judge each issue on merit, not on the basis of aligning with one bloc or the other. It stated that newly independent countries would not join any military bloc, but fight against colonialism and promote world peace. CAUSES OF CIRCUMSTANCES LEADING TO THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT (NAM) The Asian Relations Conference, at Delhi, The beginning. It was held to show the world that Asian Nations would not be a pawn in imperialist powers hands. The military alliances and division into two power blocs were considered a danger by the newly independent states. Race for Armaments : The race between the two super powers was considered dangerous for the peace of the world. The newly independent countries wanted to stop this race. The independent countries of Asia, Africa and Latin Amci i. a were lookin g for a common organisation to their common problems and help each, kept their identity, without becoming subservient to any power bloc. The Panchsheel or the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence : Pt. Nehru of India and Chinese P.M. Chou-En-Li, proclaimed the five principles of peace and they led to the formation of NAM.

2 PRINCIPLES OF PACHSHEEL Respect for each other's sovereignity and territorial integrity. No armed struggle among nations. Differences to be sorted out peacefully. Non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries. Establish mutual co-operation and mutual gains. Following the policy of peaceful co-existence among different nations. Bandung Conference 1955 : Led to the foundation of the Non-Aligned Movement in Twenty three Asian and six African countries took part in it. Leaders who attended the conference were Pt Nehru of India, Chou-En-Lai of China and President Sukarno of Indonesia attended it. It was decided to keep apart from international complications and settle every, dispute in the true spirit of 'Panchsheel'. The ideas proposed at the Bandung Conference were given a practical shape at Belgrade in July 1956, by Nehru (India), Nasser (Egypt) and Marshal Tito (Yugoslavia). The first summit meeting of non-aligned countries (25 in number) was held at Belgrade in September 1961.

3 Major Objectives and Principles of NAM Not to join any blocs to preserve their independence. They were militarily weak. Not to get involved in foreign wars where they have no interest. To strive to end colonialisation and imperialism and stop exploitation. Full faith in equality, co-operation and peace among nations. Condemn racial discrimination. Avoid tensions and prevent war. Against manufacture of dangerous weapons. Non-aligned nations supported human rights fully. Were ready to accept economic and technical assistance from both the blocs, based on equality. ROLE OF THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT IN THE WORLD AFFAIRS Name came formally into existence in September Since then it has grown and has 116 members. It has become the third force in the world and held 14 summit meetings. It has begun as political movement against imperialism and racism, but it has now included many more issues in its agenda. So far 14 NAM summits have held in various capitals of the world and it has raised its voice against economic oppression; stressed disarmament; opposed apartheid in South Africa; Raised its voice on The Palestinian issue; Iraq-Iran conflict and problems faced by Central America. It has also taken a strong stand against terrorism and spoken many times against nuclear tests. It believes in a New World Order based on justice and peace.

4 Relevance of Future of the Non-Aligned Movement : With the end of cold war and end of. Russia as a super power, doubts have been expressed by many about the relevance and future of NAM. But there are still many points in favour of the Non-Aligned Movement. IMPORTANCE OF NAM IN THE PRESENT TIMES The UN is ruled by the 5 powers with the Veto. They look after their own interests. Only NAM, where every member is equal can achieve something. NAM represents the third world. It has helped many nations to achieve independence and give them help. With USA as the only super power, she can dictate terms to other countries. She has a nuclear Arsenal too. Under such circumstances only NAM can stand upto it. It is only NAM which can try to save world from war, poverty, intolerance and injustice. It can only create a world based on principles of peaceful coexistence.

5 ROLE OF JAWAHARLAL NEHRU IN THE NON ALIGNED MOVEMENT Pandit Nehru was the Founder Member of NAM (Non-Aligned Movement) at Belgrade in He attended only two meetings of the NAM. Belgrade in 1961 and Cairo in But he strengthened the hands of NAM and laid a firm foundation before we died. It was he who made NAM as sting force in world policies. He gave shape to the idea of NAM, even at the Asian Relations Conference, held in Delhi in March He told the delegates attending it that they should continue their struggle for independence, without becoming powers in the hands of the imperialists. (Most of the countries, including India were not independent yet.) His inspiration was the main factor in the foundation of NAM. Pt. Nehru prompted the independent countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America to safeguard their interests by not joining any power bloc. They were urged to keep their independent identity. This could be alone only if they formed NAM and gave it its full support. Nehru's `Panchsheel' helped newly independent countries to maintain peace, safeguard their integrity and live in peaceful co-existence. It was the five principles which helped countries to refrain from war, and save their territorial integrity. Nehru's `Panchsheel' was a great contribution to the development of NAM. At the Bandung Conference of 1955, it was Nehru, who along with President Sukarno of Indonesia, and Chou-en-Lai of China, who convinced the other members to adopt `Panchsheel' and not join any power blocs. At the Belgrade (1961) and Cairo (1964) Confer ences, Nehru laid emphasis on (i) Negotiations for peace; (ii) negotiations for complete disarmament and (iii) ending imperialism in any form. He refused India to be drawn into military blocs. In 1950 he strongly condemned the North Korean government for aggression against South Korea. For its non-aligned stand India was made Chairman of the International Control Commission, sponsored by the United Nations in Indo-china. Nehru condemned Soviet Russia for its military action in Hungary and condemned the Anglo-French attack on Egypt and the Suez Canal. Even when Pakistan joined SEATO Alliance Nehru did not rush to join any military alliance. Till his death, Nehru wrote and spoke strongly in favour of disarmament and end to nuclear weapons. His efforts made NAM a force to reckon with in the world politics.

6 INDIA'S ROLE IN NAM Inspired by Nehru, India continued to play a positive role in NAM and world politics. India played a major role in getting independence for many Asian and African countries. Stood against apartheid and succeeded in isolating the white minority government of South Africa. Forced it to give up racial discrimination in 1994.Gave 5 principles of co-existence to all the member nations. Condemned Terrorism strongly. Now even UN has joined in this condemnation. Under India's insistence, NAM countries adopted India's proposal for an international conference in 1999 to work for complete elimination of weapons of mass destruction. India started the North South dialogue in which the rich countries of the north were to give economic aid to the underdeveloped south. No third party mediation in the internal affairs of the member countries.

7 IMPORTANT DECISIONS TAKEN AT VARIOUS NAM SUMMITS 1960's : Attacked colonialism and called for disarmament. It favoured freedom for Algeria, Tunisia, Congo, Mongolia, etc. Pleaded for ban on underground nuclear tests. 1970's : Stressed New International Economic Order. Adopted a declaration "Non-Alignment and Economic Progress". Condemned activities of multinationals. 1980's : Condemned foreign intervention and racial discrimination. Voted against apartheid in South Africa. Need for Global Co-operation to protect environment. In the 9th Summit at Belgrade in 1989 established Group 15 (G-15) of 15 developing nations. A powerful action group formed to press developed to north to help the developing countries of the South. A north-south dialogue for economic help started. 1990's : Condemned terrorism, called for an expanded security council and appealed for economic co-operation. 10th Summit 1992 : Stressed shunning state sponsored terrorism. 11th Summit 1995 Called for reform of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. (IMF). 12th Summit : Called for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). NAM expressed hope that developed nations would contribute 0.7% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to the poor countries.

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