Unit 7 Station 2: Conflict, Human Rights Issues, and Peace Efforts. Name: Per:

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1 Name: Per: Station 2: Conflicts, Human Rights Issues, and Peace Efforts Part 1: Vocab Directions: Use the reading below to locate the following vocab words and their definitions. Write their definitions on the right hand column below. (Note: It will make sense to complete Part 1 and Part 2 at the same time.) Vocab Word Definition United Declaration of Human Rights Ethnic Terrorism Ethnic cleansing Taliban Station 2 Conflict: Human Rights Issues and Peace Efforts Part 2: Reading Directions: Read the following handout and answer the accompanying questions. (Remember: It makes sense to read the questions first!) Source: Goldberg/DuPre. Prentice Hall Brief Review: Global History and Geography. Prentice Hall; New Jersey, The United Nations The United Nations, or UN, was established in 1945, at the end of World War II. Its goals are to promote global peace and security as well as economic and social well being. There are more than 170 nations throughout the world who are members of the UN. These nations will vote on whether or not the UN should take action against forces that threaten world peace. Often the UN tries to advise and monitor democratic elections in places where human rights violations have occurred as a result of political leaders having absolute control. Social and Economic Programs Human Rights: The United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in The document says that human beings are born free and equal, with dignity and rights, and goes on to list basic rights and freedoms that all people should have. The UN attempts to ensure that these rights are protected, but unfortunately, human rights are violated in many parts of the world.

2 Disaster Relief: Another way the UN attempts to maintain global peace and security is by responding to famine and natural disasters. For example, the UN provided help in Indonesia in 2004 after a massive tsunami and in Pakistan after both a 2005 earthquake and 2011 floods. The UN also provided help in Haiti in 2010 after the destructive earthquake. Despite millions of dollars of aid, Haiti still has 60,000 living in displacement camps, agriculture is not improving, and there is a cholera (a deadly sickness) epidemic. Peacekeeping Operations The UN often takes action to maintain peace or restore order in places all over the world. However, the UN has had mixed success in keeping the peace, and is often unsuccessful. The sovereignty (power) of individual nations makes it hard for the UN to enforce its wishes. For example, the UN has attempted to bring peace to Iraq, Haiti, and the Sudan, but peace is still problematic in all three areas. Ethnic and Religious Tensions Ethnic: a group with a common national or cultural tradition Religious beliefs and ethnic loyalties have united groups and sometimes led to the growth of nations (think of successful nationalist movements in our last unit). However, these forces can also divide people and lead to persecution and violence. In every conflict, each group involved has its own point of view. Below are examples of some areas of the world where such tensions have led to violence: Northern Ireland Ireland won independence from Britain in However, Britain kept control of the northern part of Ireland, where people were mostly Protestant (a branch of Christianity). The southern part of Ireland was mostly Roman Catholic (a separate branch of Christianity). Beginning in the 1970s, this led to conflict between both religious groups. In particular, the Irish Republic Army (IRA), used violence against the British and Protestant Irish. The goal of the IRA was to drive the British out of North Ireland and join with the rest of Ireland. Protestant groups fought back, and there was extensive violence in Northern Ireland until 2005 when the IRA agreed to end its call for violence. In 2007, a government that includes representatives from both North and South Ireland was created, taking Ireland out of British control. The Balkans Yugoslavia was a state with many different nations (called multinational), created after World War I. It contained ethnicities such as Orthodox Christian Serbs, Roman Catholic Croats, Muslim Albanians, as well as others. Some regions of Yugoslavia contained just one ethnic group, while other regions were more mixed. By 1991, some regions had declared independence. In regions that were not very mixed, like Slovenia, there was little fighting. But in regions where people of different ethnicities lived, there was violence. For example, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbs practiced ethnic cleansing, which is the act of removing or killing people of a certain ethnic group. In 1992, Slobodan Milosevic, the Serbian leader of the Yugoslavian government, ordered ethnic cleansings against non Serbians, leading to the brutal killings of ethnic Albanians in Kosovo where the Albanians were trying to create an independent state. The UN took military action, arresting Milosevic. In 2003, Yugoslavia changed its name to Serbia and Montenegro and by 2008 both Montenegro and Kosovo gained their independence. The Kurds Most Kurds are Sunni Muslims (a religion) but are not Arabs (an ethnicity). Millions of Kurds live in Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Armenia, and Syria. Kurds have experienced harsh treatment and repression, especially in Turkey

3 and Iraq. Since 1920, their goal has been to create their own independent state, with land from the countries listed above. In 2005, the Kurds were given a role in the Iraqi government, but this has led to tension with neighboring Turkey. International Hot Spots As we saw with India and Pakistan, there are areas throughout the world where deep tensions exist today, leading to the potential of both local and global violence. We often call these hot spots. Here are a couple: North Korea and South Korea As you learned, North Korea and South Korea were divided during the Cold War. North Korea is still ruled by a communist dictatorship and suffers from isolation (not trading with or communicating with other countries) as well as a very weak economy. On the other hand, South Korea has a strong global economy. North Korea wants to control all of Korea and spends a lot of money on its military. In 2006, it became a nuclear power and conducted another nuclear test in Tension between the nations grew when a South Korean warship was sunk and a South Korean island was shelled. In 2012, Kim Jong Il, North Korea s longtime dictator died. His son, Kim Jong Un, came to power and immediately made military threats at South Korea, increasing the fear that it will someday take military, and possibly, nuclear action against South Korea. The Iraq War The Iraq War was one of the longest wars the U.S. was involved in, and according to reports, nearly 4,500 American soldiers died fighting in it and 32,000 more were injured. Over 100,000 Iraqis died. The war began because then U.S. President George W. Bush concluded that Iraq's leader, Saddam Hussein, was developing dangerous weapons that could be used against the U.S. and that he may have been involved in the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on New York City. Both conclusions proved incorrect, but the goal to remove him from power remained. Saddam Hussein was captured in 2006, he was convicted of terrible crimes against Iraqis, and was later put to death by Iraqis for his crimes. But even though he was gone from power, there was still great unrest and violence in Iraq. And meanwhile America's involvement in Iraq remained controversial. Both President Bush and President Obama promised to end the war while trying to ensure enough stability for the Iraqi people to govern themselves. In 2005, Iraq created a new constitution and elected Jawad al Maliki as Prime Minister. The U.S. officially ended its mission in Iraq in December A limited number of soldiers, security forces, and other personnel are staying in Iraq in an effort to help with Iraq's transition to democracy. However, violence against Iraqi citizens and its military continues as does political instability and power struggles between the Sunni and Shiite (two Muslim groups). Terrorist groups, such as Al Qaeda, have claimed responsibility for the killing of many Iraqi citizens. Source: war over Pakistan and Afghanistan In the mid 1990 s, the Taliban, an Islamic fundamentalist group, began to control the country of Afghanistan, requiring an extreme form of Islam. They also protected the terrorist group al Qaeda, which claimed responsibility for the 9/11 terrorist attacks in In response to the 9/11 attacks, the United States launched an attack on Afghanistan that drove the Taliban from power as the U.S. attempted to find the leaders of al Qaeda, including its leader, Osama bin Laden. With the Taliban gone, a new Afghan

4 government came to power. This government has been weak and corrupt and has dealt with issues of modernization, land mines, drug trafficking (there are many poppy fields in Afghanistan and poppy is used to create opium), and a renewed presence of the Taliban and al Qaeda. Another huge issue in Afghanistan is its relationship with Pakistan. Pakistan and Afghanistan share a border that is in the mountains, and there has been a lot of violence around this border. Pakistan has also struggled with the presence of the Taliban and al Qaeda and in 2007, political instability increased when Prime MInister Benazir Bhutto was assassinated (likely with help of al Qaeda). The government s instability increased again in 2010 when it failed to help its citizens deal with massive floods. In 2011, Osama bin Laden was located in Pakistan, where he was killed by U.S. troops. However, the Pakistani government was not informed of this military operation and this increased the tension between the U.S. and Pakistan. Continued attacks on al Qaeda and Taliban camps in Pakistan and Pakistan s reluctance to fight terrorists has also contributed to bad relations between the U.S. and Pakistan. Many Pakistani civilians have been killed by attacks by both terrorists and Americans. Questions: 1. What is the UN and what is its goal? 2.) What is one example of how the UN has provided disaster relief? 3.) What was the goal of the IRA? 4.) What did Slobodan Milosevic do in 1992? 5.) What has been the goal of the Kurds since 1920? 6.) Why is there tension between North and South Korea? 7.) Why did the Iraq War begin? 8.) Is there currently peace in Iraq? Why or why not? 9.) What are challenges that Afghanistan has faced since 2001? 10.) What are challenges that Pakistan currently faces?

5 Station 2: Conflict Part 3: Thematic Prompt Short Answer Directions: Read the following Thematic Prompt and answer the prompt with evidence in 2 paragraphs total (each paragraph should be 3 5 sentences) (hint: look through the handout for this station). N ote: you are not writing an essay, just a short response to the question! Theme: Global Problems Task: Differences among groups have often led to conflict. Identify two ethnic, religious, political, and/or cultural conflicts and for each : Discuss the historical circumstances that led to the conflict Analyze the effect of this conflict on the groups involved

6 Station 2: Conflict, Human Rights Issues and Peace Efforts Part 4: Multiple Choice Practice Directions: Read the following multiple choice questions and choose the best answer. (You may use your notes) 1.) Bombings, kidnappings, and hijackings are tactics most often used by 1. imperialists 2. terrorists 3. nationalists 4. absolutists 2.) Which is the major reason that the United Nations has often been unsuccessful in solving international disputes? 1. The United Nations does not have sufficient funds to act. 2. The disputing nations are usually not members of the United Nations. 3. National sovereignty stands in the way of international cooperation. 4. The United Nations charter does not provide a means to settle disputes. 3.) Since 1990, people in Timor, Kosovo, and Kurdish Iraq have all protested their lack of 1. membership in the European Union 2. economic stability 3. independent homelands 4. representation in the Arab League 4.) One reason North Korea has been the focus of worldwide attention in the mid 1990 s is because of its 1. nuclear weapons development programs 2. commitment to increasing political freedoms 3. development of a strong and expanding economy 4. efforts to revive communism in Eastern Europe 5.) Today, human rights violations most often occur in nations in which 1. freedom of the press exists 2. government is limited by law 3. leaders have absolute control 4. government has a multiparty system United States Adopts Economic Sanctions Against South Africa? Chinese Dissidents Imprisoned After Student Protest? Kurds Forced To Flee Northern Iraq? 6.) These headlines (above) are similar in that each refers to the issue of 1. imperialist expansion 2. peasant revolts 3. human rights violation 4. isolationist policies

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