Fourth Grade Social Studies Curriculum Essentials Document

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1 Fourth Grade Social Studies Curriculum Essentials

2 Boulder Valley School District Social Studies Background Social Studies curriculum council began meeting in the Fall of This curriculum is a result of their focused attention and ability to examine and incorporate research about best practices in education. The work that follows incorporates the ideas of many researchers including Robert Marzano, Joseph Kahne, Virginia Gay, Christine Sleeter, and Randall Lindsey. Each of whom addressed one or more of our goals: Viability Culturally Proficiency Currency Incorporates New Century Graduate Characteristics Addresses the Democracy Divide Viability In order to create a curriculum that can be taught using the teaching learning cycle, each content area was trimmed, in order to emphasize depth in our instruction. Creating a viable curriculum will help us in our efforts to close the achievement gap. Cultural Proficiency Just as the goals of BVSD embrace increasing the cultural proficiency of the district, this curriculum is designed to do so for the learner. Lindsey identifies 5 strategies for moving toward cultural proficiency: Know your differences, value difference, manage conflict, adapt to diversity and teach about culture. These skills are built into every grade level curricula. By introducing cultures not previously emphasized in our curriculum, allowing for cultural relevancy by bringing the students culture into the classroom, and by incorporating a variety of perspectives on essential issues, this curriculum will be a step in moving our system forward in embracing difference, and narrowing our achievement gap. Currency What does a current curriculum look like? Our current students will face a world very unlike our own. We addressed five issues to bring currency into the curriculum: 1. Change In the fast paced world our students encounter there is one theme that they will need the skills to address in their lives: Change. The theme of change: observing change, predicting change, adapting to change and creating change are imbedded ideas at every level. 2. Regional Focus Additionally, the content focus has shifted to increase attention on Asia. 3. Current Events Each grade level will be responsible for bringing in grade appropriate discussion of current events. 4. Technology An up to date social studies curriculum will embrace the technological tools that not only enhance the social studies but make new learning possible. The US department of Labor states that careers involving the use of Geospatial technologies are one of the top 14 careers of the future. These careers will be as diverse as remote sensing, data collection, environment and urban planning, and digital cartography. The opening of Geospatial technologies to students as young as kindergarten will open new avenues to understanding and analyzing our world. 5. Economics As a final update, we have increased the amount and frequency of economic content at every level. As our students enter a world of complex economics, we responded to the needs shown in our society. 2

3 Boulder Valley School District Social Studies Background New Century Graduate The New Century Graduate characteristics that involve the social studies incorporate 10 of the categories designated in this document. These include Life Competency: Money Management, Communication with diverse audiences, Multicultural Perspectives, Literacy, Mathematics and Spatial understanding, Thinking and Reasoning, applied Technology, Interpersonal Competency, Government and Civics, and History. The essential understandings of each grade level are a reflection of these goals. Democracy Divide Finally, the curriculum focuses on what Joseph Kahne has labeled the Democracy Divide. The Democracy Divide is created after high school, but is reflected in the achievement gap and the types of activities that are encountered as part of a civics education. This research shows that the patterns created in school create a divide in the participation of adults in democratic institutions. Our curriculum incorporated the notion that our students should be involved in simulating and participating in government from the earliest ages. References Bennett, Linda, ed. Digital Age: Technology Based k12 Lesson Plans. Silver Spring, MD: NCSS, Blankstein, Alan M., Paul D. Houston, and Robert W. Cole, eds. Engaging Every Learner. New York: Corwin P, "Creating Culturally Responsive Curriculum." Creating Culturally Responsive Curriculum. CRUE Center, Denver, Colorado Gay, Geneva. Culturally Responsive Teaching : Theory, Research and Practice. New York: Teachers College P, Teachers College, Columbia University, Kahne, Joseph, and Ellen Middaugh. "Democracy for Some: The Civic Opportunity Gap in High School." Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning < democracy_some_circle.pdf>. Lindsey, Randall B., Kikanza Nuri Robins, and Raymond D. Terrell. Cultural Proficiency : A Manual for School Leaders. New York: Corwin P, Marzano, Robert J., Debra Pickering, and Jane E. Pollock. Classroom Instruction That Works : Research Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development, National Personal Finance Standards JumpStart. 11 Nov < Sleeter, Christine E. Un Standardizing Curriculum : Multicultural Teaching in the Standards Based Classroom. New York: Teachers College P, Teachers College, Columbia University,

4 Boulder Valley School District Social Studies Content Standards History Standard 1 Students understand the chronological organization of history and know how to organize events and people into major eras to identify and explain historical relationships. History Standard 2 Students know how to use the processes and resources of historical inquiry. History Standard 3 Students understand that societies are diverse and have changed over time. History Standard 4 Students understand the impact of economic activity and scientific and technological developments on individuals and societies. History Standard 5 Students understand political institutions and theories that have developed and changed over time. History Standard 6 Students know that religious and philosophical ideas have been powerful forces throughout history. 4

5 Boulder Valley School District Social Studies Content Standards Geography Standard 1 Students know how to use and construct maps, globes, and other geographic tools to locate and derive information about people, places, and environments. Geography Standard 2 Students know the physical and human characteristics of places, and use this knowledge to define and study regions and interpret their patterns of change. Geography Standard 3 Students understand how physical processes shape Earth s surface patterns and systems. Geography Standard 4 Students understand how economic, political, cultural, and social processes interact to shape diverse patterns of human populations, movement, and interdependence, cooperation, and conflict. Geography Standard 5 Students understand the effects of interactions between human and physical systems and the changes in meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources. Geography Standard 6 Students apply knowledge of people, places, and environments to understand and interpret the past and present and to plan for the future. Civics Standard 1 Students understand the purposes of government and the basic constitutional principles of the United States republican form of government. Civics Standard 2 Students know the structure and function of local, state, and national government and how citizen involvement shapes public policy. 5

6 Boulder Valley School District Social Studies Content Standards Civics Standard 3 Students know the political relationship of the United States and its citizens to other nations and to world affairs. Civics Standard 4 Students understand how citizens exercise the roles, rights and responsibilities of participation in civic life at all levels local, state and national. Economics Standard 1 Students understand that because of the condition of scarcity, decisions must be made about the use of scarce resources. Economics Standard 2 Students understand how different economic systems impact decisions about the use of resources and the production and distribution of goods and services. Economics Standard 3 Students understand the results of trade, exchange, and interdependence among individuals, households, businesses, governments, and societies. 6

7 Social Studies Overarching Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions Overarching Enduring Understandings Regional differences in culture can be traced to the origins of our nation. Exchange, Interdependence, Conflict and Cooperation were all a part of the process of Colonization. The abundant natural resources discovered in North America led to a self sufficient, diverse economic system. Our civic ideals and responsibilities were established by the experiences and ideas of the revolutionaries. The economy of the US is based on ideals established during the American Revolution. Overarching Essential Questions How is society diverse and how has it changed over time? What are the results when people with different religious and philosophical ideas and beliefs interact? What affect has scientific or technological development and natural resources had on the economic activity of United States? How did citizens of the colonies participate in civic life? How does that affect our own participation? How does the existence of trade, exchange, and interdependence affect individuals, households, businesses, governments, and societies? 7

8 Boulder Valley School District Social Studies Content Standards and Fourth Grade Essential Learnings History Standard 1: Students understand the chronological organization of history and know how to organize events and people into major eras to identify and explain historical relationships. History Standard 3: Students understand that societies are diverse and have changed over time. Geography Standard 4: Students understand how economic, political, cultural, and social processes interact to shape diverse patterns of human populations, movement, interdependence, cooperation, and conflict. To meet this standard, a Fourth Grade student: Compares regional settlement patterns of the colonies and the diverse cultures that developed using historical inquiry and geographic tools. Explains the major political, economic, and ideological reasons for the American Revolution and its consequences. Uses reading and writing skills to inquire, think critically, and apply social studies concepts in new situations. Geography Standard 1: Students know how to use and construct maps, globes, and other geographic tools to locate and derive information about people, places, and environments. Geography Standard 2: Students know the physical and human characteristics of places, and use this knowledge to define and study regions and interpret their patterns of change. History Standard 6: Students know that religious and philosophical ideas have been powerful forces throughout history. To meet this standard, a Fourth Grade student: Describes the cultural and economic interactions between Europeans and native peoples. Distinguishes among and explains the reasons for regional differences in colonial America. Geography Standard 5: Students understand the effects of interactions between human and physical systems and the changes in meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources. History Standard 4: Students understand the impact of economic activity and scientific and technological developments on individuals and societies. Economics Standard 2: Students understand how different economic systems impact decisions about the use of resources and the production and distribution of goods and services. To meet this standard, a Fourth Grade student: Explains the relationship of maritime exchange and the abundance of natural resources in the success of European colonization. Economics Standard 1: Students understand that because of the condition of scarcity, decisions must be made about the use of scarce resources. Economics Standard 2: Students understand how different economic systems impact decisions about the use of resources and the production and distribution of goods and services. Economics Standard 3: Students understand the results of trade, exchange, and interdependence among individuals, households, businesses, governments, and societies. To meet this standard, a Fourth Grade student: Explains how trade and exchange created interdependence within and between the colonies as well as with other countries. Describes the distinctive characteristics of the market economy. Continued on next page 8

9 Boulder Valley School District Social Studies Content Standards and Fourth Grade Essential Learnings Economics Standard 1: Students understand that because of the condition of scarcity, decisions must be made about the use of scarce resources. Economics Standard 2: Students understand how different economic systems impact decisions about the use of resources and the production and distribution of goods and services. Economics Standard 3: Students understand the results of trade, exchange, and interdependence among individuals, households, businesses, governments, and societies. To meet this standard, a Fourth Grade student: Explains how trade and exchange created interdependence within and between the colonies as well as with other countries. Describes the distinctive characteristics of the market economy. 9

10 BVSD Fourth Grade Social Studies Overview Course Description In fourth grade, students continue their study of social studies using the origin of the United States as a point of comparison to investigate change. The context for investigation is reflected in the inquiry cycle: discover difference, manage difference, examine the impact of science and technology, explore spatially, economically and through civic engagement. Students will examine colonization of the U.S., the Revolutionary War and the economic system of the United States. Effective Components of a Fourth Grade Social Studies Program Relies on inquiry as the basis of study Listens to and reads historical narratives Utilizes multiple perspectives Compares and contrasts different versions of the same story Encourages empathy Involves the imagination Allows students to practice making judgments Creates a classroom of civic action Creates original histories through biography and interview Introduces current events Colonization of the South & East Colonial Government American Revolution Assessment Pre assessments Checks for understanding Observations/Anecdotal records Student questions/comments Personal reflections Teacher questions and prompts Performance tasks (planning, in progress, final assignments) Peer assessments Essential Questions How is society diverse and how has it changed over time? What are the results when people with different religious and philosophical ideas and beliefs interact? What affect has scientific or technological development and natural resources had on the economic activity of the United States? How did citizens of the colonies participate in civic life? How does that affect our own participation? How does the existence of trade, exchange, and interdependence affect individuals, households, businesses, governments, and societies? Colonization of the West Fourth Grade Social Studies Entrepreneurship Market Economy Interdependence Technology Integration & Information Literacy Recognizes that ideas and information are influenced by culture and history Reads and recognizes value of information representing diverse points of view Uses electronic databases Understands various roles and responsibilities when working in a group Solves information problems in collaboration with others Shows respect for diverse ideas, backgrounds and learning styles

11 Essential Learnings Essential Knowledge, Skills, Topics, Processes, and Concepts History Standard 1 Students understand the chronological organization of history and know how to organize events and people into major eras to identify and explain historical relationships. History Standard 3 Students understand that societies are diverse and have changed over time. Geography Standard 1 Students know how to use and construct maps, globes, and other geographic tools to locate and derive information about people, places, and environments. Geography Standard 4 Students understand how economic, political, cultural, and social processes interact to shape diverse patterns of human populations, movement, interdependence, cooperation, and conflict. Enduring Understanding Regional differences in culture can be traced to the origins of our nation. Essential Question How is society diverse and how has it changed over time? Essential Knowledge, Skills, Topics, Processes, and Concepts 4SS1 Compares regional settlement patterns of the colonies and the diverse cultures that developed using historical inquiry and geographic tools a b c d e f g h i Essential Learnings Describes the regions and cultures that occupied those regions Infers why regional/cultural differences exist today Uses and constructs a variety of geographic tools (maps, globes, historical and other thematic maps) to understand change over time Writes using specific geographical terms to describe location (peninsula, island, strait, isthmus, source of river, mouth of river, tributaries, up stream, down stream, delta, gulf, bay, harbor, seas Uses maps to describe elevation, climate, and patterns of population density Understands how regions are created from common physical and human characteristics Identifies problems confronting people in the colonies, identify alternative choices for addressing the problem with possible consequences, and describes the course of action taken Recognizes the symbols to identify source, mouth and direction of rivers Orients a map to the north and determines directions on a map Continued on next page

12 Essential Learnings Essential Knowledge, Skills, Topics, Processes, and Concepts History Standard 1 (continued) Students understand the chronological organization of history and know how to organize events and people into major eras to identify and explain historical relationships. History Standard 3 (continued) Students understand that societies are diverse and have changed over time. Geography Standard 1 (continued) Students know how to use and construct maps, globes, and other geographic tools to locate and derive information about people, places, and environments. Geography Standard 4 (continued) Students understand how economic, political, cultural, and social processes interact to shape diverse patterns of human populations, movement, interdependence, cooperation, and conflict. Essential Knowledge, Skills, Topics, Processes, and Concepts 4SS2 Explains the major political, economic, and ideological reasons for the American Revolution and its consequences a b c d e f g h Describes the role of the French and Indian War, British policy toward the colonies, and colonial dissatisfaction with the British Explains how British and colonial views of authority and the use of power without authority differed Describes the role of the First and Second Continental Congress in unifying the colonies Uses the Declaration of Independence to explain why the colonists wanted to separate from Great Britain and why they believed they had the right to do so Identifies the role key individuals play in leading the colonists to revolution, including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, John Adams, and Thomas Paine Describes the advantages and disadvantages of each side with respect to military leadership, geography, types of resources, and incentive Describes the importance of key battles of the Revolutionary War, including Valley Forge, Battle of Saratoga, and Battle of Yorktown Compares the perspectives of different groups (women, African Americans, Native Americans, French, British, American soldiers) in shaping the outcome of the war Continued on next page

13 Essential Learnings Essential Knowledge, Skills, Topics, Processes, and Concepts History Standard 1 (continued) Students understand the chronological organization of history and know how to organize events and people into major eras to identify and explain historical relationships. History Standard 3 (continued) Students understand that societies are diverse and have changed over time. Geography Standard 1 (continued) Students know how to use and construct maps, globes, and other geographic tools to locate and derive information about people, places, and environments. Geography Standard 4 (continued) Students understand how economic, political, cultural, and social processes interact to shape diverse patterns of human populations, movement, interdependence, cooperation, and conflict. Essential Knowledge, Skills, Topics, Processes, and Concepts 4SS3 Uses reading and writing skills to inquire, think critically, and apply social studies concepts to new situations a b c d e f g h Discriminates between relevant and irrelevant information in social studies text Selects specific vocabulary to write persuasively about topics Uses the features of informational text to construct meaning Explains in writing personal opinions by citing examples from a work read, viewed or heard Writes to convey information or express ideas using questions, data, prediction, conclusions, and reflections Reflects on own work as a social scientist Evaluates and interprets historical fiction and other media Interprets and evaluates primary and secondary sources of information Key Academic Vocabulary: resources, peninsula, island, strait, isthmus, source of river, mouth of river, tributaries, up stream, down stream, delta, gulf, bay, harbor, seas, region, culture

14 Unit Design Template Essential Learning: Assessment: Essential Questions Teaching for Understanding Acquire Knowledge Make Meaning Transfer Learning Activities Materials Accommodations

15 Essential Learnings Essential Knowledge, Skills, Topics, Processes, and Concepts Geography Standard 1 Students understand how economic, political, cultural, and social processes interact to shape diverse patterns of human populations, movement, interdependence, cooperation, and conflict. Geography Standard 2 Students know the physical and human characteristics of places, and use this knowledge to define and study regions and interpret their patterns of change. History Standard 6 Students know that religious and philosophical ideas have been powerful forces throughout history. Enduring Understanding Exchange, Interdependence, Conflict and Cooperation were all a part of the process of Colonization. Essential Question What are the results when people with different religious and philosophical ideas and beliefs interact? Essential Knowledge, Skills, Topics, Processes, and Concepts 4SS4 Describes the cultural and economic interactions between Europeans and native peoples a b c d Essential Learnings Compares the cultures and beliefs of the Spanish Missionaries, Pilgrims, Puritans, Quakers, slaves, and native peoples and understands the unique ideas and beliefs of these cultures and how they contributed to American society Evaluates historical events from the native peoples and European perspective Reflects upon the results of cooperation or conflict between the Europeans and native peoples Examines the myths of colonial and native peoples life that have been presented in the media Continued on next page

16 Essential Learnings Essential Knowledge, Skills, Topics, Processes, and Concepts Geography Standard 1 (continued) Students understand how economic, political, cultural, and social processes interact to shape diverse patterns of human populations, movement, interdependence, cooperation, and conflict. Geography Standard 2 (continued) Students know the physical and human characteristics of places, and use this knowledge to define and study regions and interpret their patterns of change. History Standard 6 (continued) Students know that religious and philosophical ideas have been powerful forces throughout history. Essential Knowledge, Skills, Topics, Processes, and Concepts 4SS5 Distinguishes among and explains the reasons for regional differences in colonial America a b c Describes the daily life of people living in the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies Describes colonial life in North America from the perspectives of at least three different groups of people (wealthy landowners, farmers, merchants, indentured servants, laborers, the poor, women, enslaved people, free Africans, and American Indians) Reflects upon the results of cooperation or conflict between the Europeans and native peoples d Compares the colonies of the Spanish Missionaries, French Merchants and English Settlers of the east. (i.e. New Mexico, Florida, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Virginia) Key Academic Vocabulary: cultural identity, assimilation, cultural exchange, emigration, El Camino Real, trade, exchange, interdependence, compact, Mission, Missionary, St. Augustine, Juan Maria de Rivera, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Los Angeles, Junipera Serra, Iroquois, Osceola, Catholic, Protestant, Quaker, Pilgrim, Puritan town meeting, presidio, Parliament borderlands, Jamestown, John Smith, Pocahontas

17 Unit Design Template Essential Learning: Assessment: Essential Questions Teaching for Understanding Acquire Knowledge Make Meaning Transfer Learning Activities Materials Accommodations

18 Essential Learnings Essential Knowledge, Skills, Topics, Processes, and Concepts Geography Standard 5 Students understand the effects of interactions between human and physical systems and the changes in meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources. History Standard 4 Students understand the impact of economic activity and scientific and technological developments on individuals and societies. Economics Standard 2 Students understand how different economic systems impact decisions about the use of resources and the production and distribution of goods and services. Enduring Understanding The abundant natural resources discovered in North America led to a self sufficient, diverse economic system. Essential Question What effect has scientific or technological development and natural resources had on the economic activity of United States? Essential Knowledge, Skills, Topics, Processes, and Concepts 4SS6 Explains the relationship of maritime exchange and the abundance of natural resources in the success of European colonization a b c Essential Learnings Shows the importance of the natural resources available to a developing country Maps the colonial Americas (South, East and West) Identifies the improvements in maritime technology

19 Unit Design Template Essential Learning: Assessment: Essential Questions Teaching for Understanding Acquire Knowledge Make Meaning Transfer Learning Activities Materials Accommodations

20 Essential Learnings Essential Knowledge, Skills, Topics, Processes, and Concepts Civics Standard 2 Students know the structure and function of local, state, and national government and how citizen involvement shapes public policy. Enduring Understanding Our civic ideals and responsibilities were established by the experiences and ideas of the revolutionaries. Essential Question How did citizens of the colonies participate in civic life? How does that affect our own participation? Essential Knowledge, Skills, Topics, Processes, and Concepts 4SS7 Compares colonial governments and their impact on current American government a b c d Essential Learnings Describes why colonies established independent governments with unique characteristics Describes how colonial experiences with self government (Mayflower Compact, House of Burgesses, town meetings) and ideas about government (protecting individual rights, promoting the common good, natural rights, representative government) influenced the decision to declare independence Recognizes how British rule and colonial ideas were adopted into our own government (e.g. Freedom of Religion, Rule of Law) Uses the questions political scientists ask in examining the development of US government: What does government do? What are the basic values and principles of American democracy? What is the relationship of the US to other nations? What are the roles of the citizen in American democracy? Continued on next page

21 Essential Learnings Essential Knowledge, Skills, Topics, Processes, and Concepts Civics Standard 2 (continued) Students know the structure and function of local, state, and national government and how citizen involvement shapes public policy. Essential Knowledge, Skills, Topics, Processes, and Concepts 4SS8 Explains how citizens, past and present, participate in, monitor, and bring about change in government a b c d e Explains responsibilities of citizenship (e.g. initiating changes in laws or policy, holding public office, respecting the laws, being informed and attentive to public issues, paying taxes, registering to vote and voting knowledgably, serving as a juror) Reflects on the importance of individual action to maintaining our democracy Describes the impact individuals had on the process of independence (e.g. Washington, Jefferson, Adams, Madison, Dolly Madison, Adam Smith, Benjamin Franklin, Abigail Adams, Anne Hutcheson) Describes ways citizens can work together to promote values and principals of American democracy Gives examples of how conflicts over core democratic values are resolved today f g Uses primary and secondary sources to analyze information about a public issue in the United States and evaluate alternative resolutions Identifies current public issues in the United States that influence the daily lives of its citizens Key Academic Vocabulary: Committees of Correspondence, self government, national resources, compact, action, allies, colonist, colony, common, conflict, Congress, Continental Congress, cooperation, democracy, export goods, immigrant, import legislature, liberty, Loyalist, massacre, militia, Minuteman, neutral, patriot, petition, plantation, repeal, representation, resources, revolution, scarce, treason

22 Unit Design Template Essential Learning: Assessment: Essential Questions Teaching for Understanding Acquire Knowledge Make Meaning Transfer Learning Activities Materials Accommodations

23 Essential Learnings Essential Knowledge, Skills, Topics, Processes, and Concepts Economics Standard 1 Students understand that because of the condition of scarcity, decisions must be made about the use of scarce resources. Economics Standard 2 Students understand how different economic systems impact decisions about the use of resources and the production and distribution of goods and services. Economics Standard 3 Students understand the results of trade, exchange, and interdependence among individuals, households, businesses, governments, and societies. Enduring Understanding The economy of the US is based on ideals established during the American Revolution. Essential Question How does the existence of trade, exchange, and interdependence affect individuals, households, businesses, governments, and societies? Essential Knowledge, Skills, Topics, Processes, and Concepts 4SS9 Explains how trade and exchange created interdependence within and between the colonies as well as with other countries a b c Essential Learnings Discusses how the colonies had barriers to economic success based on mercantilism Describes how the English, Spanish and French government paid for public services in the colonies Transfers knowledge of colonial trade and exchange to consider today s global economy Continued on next page Key Academic Vocabulary: blockade, boycott, cash crop, indigo, tobacco, sugar, plantation, tariff, tax, treaty, triangle trade, slave, indentured servant, apprentice, charter

24 Essential Learnings Essential Knowledge, Skills, Topics, Processes, and Concepts Economics Standard 1 (continued) Students understand that because of the condition of scarcity, decisions must be made about the use of scarce resources. Economics Standard 2 (continued) Students understand how different economic systems impact decisions about the use of resources and the production and distribution of goods and services. Economics Standard 3 (continued) Students understand the results of trade, exchange, and interdependence among individuals, households, businesses, governments, and societies. 4SS10 Describes the distinctive characteristics of a market economy Essential Knowledge, Skills, Topics, Processes, and Concepts a b c d e f Models a market economy through the production of simulated goods and services Uses the questions that economists ask to exam the nation s economy: What s produced? Why is it produced? Who gets what produced? What role does the government play? Describes the basis of a free market economy Distinguishes between private goods and services and public goods and services Exhibits how the prices of goods and services is determined and how it affects decisions about purchasing goods and services Recognizes the differences between using a barter system, monetary system, and other forms of currency Key Academic Vocabulary: barter, competition, consumer, cost of production, demand, economic wants, entrepreneurship exchange, income, interest, market economy, producers, profit, scarcity, services, supply, surplus, cost, price

25 Unit Design Template Essential Learning: Assessment: Essential Questions Teaching for Understanding Acquire Knowledge Make Meaning Transfer Learning Activities Materials Accommodations

26 Suggested Timelines Topic Colonization of the South and West Colonization of the East American Revolution Entrepreneurship Suggested Timeframe 15 Days or 3 weeks 20 Days or 4 weeks 25 Days or 5 Weeks (includes community time and bully proofing) 20 Days or 4 Weeks

27 Social Studies Scope & Sequence K 5 History K Cultural Identity Families Community Community Holidays Native Peoples Explorers and Encounters Colonization Revolution Sovereignty Civil War Immigration State Holidays Civics My School and Classroom Neighborhood Community Government Colorado Government Democratic Ideas Federal Government Bill of Rights Constitution Economics Needs and Wants Producers and Consumers Goods and Services Scarcity Entrepreneurship Mercantilism International Trade Industrialization Free market economy Barter system Monetary system Currency Geography Maps and Globes Map Features Continents, Communities Mexico Japan Culture India Alaska China Natural Resources Population Thematic Maps Colorado Map Topography Indigenous Lands Exploration Routes Natural Resource maps Map the colonial Americans South, East and Western Colonies 13 Colonies Interdependence Region Resource Distribution Expansion Human Population Movement Regional Development Satellite imagery

28 Social Studies Scope & Sequence Middle Level 6 Western Hemisphere 7 Eastern Hemisphere 8 US History History Aztec, Inca, Maya Ancient Greece and Rome U.S. History to 1890 Origin of World Religions Geography Map Skills Physical Processes Regions and Change Cooperation and Conflict Resource Distributions Geographic Problem Solving Regions and Change Cooperation and Conflict Resource Distributions Geographic Problem Solving Regional Development of the United States Economics Interdependence Resource Distribution Development of Market Economy Civics US Foreign Policy Origin of Democratic Ideas US Constitution Issues analysis and decision making Issues analysis and decision making Changes to the Constitution

29 Social Studies Scope & Sequence High School Topic History Geography Human Systems Geographic Tools Human Environmental Interaction Current Events World History 1450 to the Present US History 1890 to the Present Economics (elective) Macro Economic Concepts Financial Literacy Current Economic Events Civic Engagement Civics Origin of US Government Structure and Function of Government Parties, Interest Groups and Lobbyists State and Local Government Current Events

30 Social Studies Glossary of Terms Aerial (air) photograph Boundary Cartographic Climate Connections Culture Earth Environment Geographic Information System (GIS) Geographic model Geographic tool Geography Human characteristics Human features GEOGRAPHY a photograph of part of Earth's surface usually taken from an airplane. the limit or extent within which a system exists or functions, including a social group, a state, or physical feature. pertaining to the design and creation of maps and other geographic representations. long term trends in weather elements and atmospheric conditions. linkages between places. learned behavior of people, which includes their belief systems and languages, their social relationships, their institutions and organizations, and their material goods Ð food, clothing, buildings, tools, and machines. when capitalized, this refers to the planet named Earth. everything in and on Earth's surface and its atmosphere within which organisms, communities, or objects exist. The natural or physical environment refers to those aspects of the environment produced by natural or physical processes; the human or cultural environment refers to those aspects of the environment produced by human or cultural processes. a geographic database that contains information about the distribution of physical and human characteristics of places or areas. In order to test hypotheses, maps of one characteristic or combination can be produced from the database to analyze the data relationships. an idealized, simplified representation that seeks to portray or explain a particular geographic reality. a device used to compile, organize, manipulate, store, report, or display geographic information, including maps, globes, graphs, diagrams, aerial and other photographs, satellite produced images, geographic information systems, and computer databases as well as other software. the scientific study of the Earth's surface. Geography describes and analyzes the spatial variations in physical, biological, and human phenomena that occur on the surface of the globe and treats their interrelationships and their significant regional patterns. features and patterns of features on Earth's surface created by humans. features and patterns of features on Earth's surface created by humans, including dwellings, crops, roads, machines, places of worship, and other cultural elements; synonymous with human characteristics and cultural landscapes.

31 Social Studies Glossary of Terms Human process Human system Interdependence Landform Latitude Legend Location Longitude Map key Movement Natural process Nonrenewable resources Perception Physical characteristics Places Region Resource a course or method of operation that produces, maintains, and alters human systems on Earth, such as migration or diffusion. a collection of human entities that are linked and interrelated, such as a city, an airport, or a transportation network. people relying on each other in different places or in the same place for ideas, goods, and services. the shape, form, or nature of a specific physical feature of Earth's surface (for example, plain, hill, plateau, mountain). assuming that the Earth is a sphere, the latitude of a point on the surface is the angle measured at the center of the Earth between a ray lying on the plane of the Equator and a line connecting the center with the point on the surface. synonymous with map key. the position of a point on Earth's surface expressed by means of a grid (absolute) or in relation (relative) to the position of other places. the position of a point on Earth's surface expressed as its angular distance, east or west, from the prime meridian to 180 degrees. an explanatory description or legend to features on a map or chart. in geography, the interaction across Earth space that connects places. This interaction occurs with flows of human phenomena, such as goods, people, and ideas, and with natural phenomena such as winds, rivers, and ocean currents. synonymous with physical process. a finite resource that cannot be replaced once it is used (for example, petroleum, minerals). the feelings, attitudes, and images people have of different places, peoples, and environments. The images people have in their heads of where places are located are called perceptual or mental maps. features and patterns of features on Earth's surface caused by physical or natural processes, such as landforms, vegetation, and atmospheric phenomena. locations having distinctive characteristics which give them meaning and character and distinguish them from other locations. an area with one or more common characteristics or features, which give it a measure of homogeneity and make it different from surrounding areas. an aspect of the physical environment that people value and use to meet a need for fuel, food, industrial product, or something else of value.

32 Social Studies Glossary of Terms Satellite Image Scale Social process Spatial Spatial distribution Spatial perspective Spatial organization System Technology Thematic map an image produced by a variety of sensors, such as radar, microwave detectors, and scanners, which measure and record electromagnetic radiation. The collected data are turned into digital form for transmission to ground receiving stations. The data can be reconverted into imagery in a form resembling a photograph. on maps, the relationship or ratio between a linear measurement on a map and the corresponding distance on Earth's surface. For example, the scale 1:1,000,000 means that one unit (inch or centimeter) on the map and represents 1,000,000 similar units on Earth's surface. The term small scale sometimes refers to the study of small areas. a course or method of operation that produces, maintains, or alters human systems on Earth, such as migration or diffusion. Synonymous with human process and cultural process. pertains to space on Earth's surface; refers to distances, directions, areas and other aspects of space. the location shown on a map of a set of human or physical features that represents an aspect of a specified phenomenon within an area, for example, the set of locations of all two story houses built between 1930 and 1940 in Denver. the point of view that emphasizes the essential issue of place embodied in specific questions such as Where is it? Why is it there? as a fundamental dimension of human experience. the mode in which Earth space is structured by or implicated in the operation of social and/or physical processes. a collection of entities that are linked and interrelated, such as hydrologic cycle, cities, and transportation modes. application of knowledge to meet the goals, goods, and services needed and desired by people. a map representing a specific spatial distribution, theme, or topic (for example, population density, cattle production, or climates of the world).

33 Social Studies Glossary of Terms Culture Culture Region Diverse Ethnic Groups Groups Historical Inquiry Historical Narrative Primary Sources Secondary Sources Social Organization Society, Societies HISTORY Refers to learned behavior of people, which includes their belief systems and languages, their social relationships, their institutions and organization, and their material goods food, clothing, buildings, tools, and machines. Refers to an area with one or more common cultural characteristics which gives it a measure of homogeneity and that distinguishes it from surrounding areas. Refers to having a variety of forms or lands; various kinds of forms. Refers to a group of people of the same race or nationality who share a common and distinctive culture. Refers to any collection of persons considered together as being related in some way. This would include ethnic groups and occupational groups (for example, miners, ranchers, farmers). Refers to the process of studying history to find out what, who, why, when, etc., in a logical, problem solving manner. Refers to written histories that "tell the story," from the simple to the complex. Refers to historical documents such as reports, maps, photographs, letters, drawing, diaries, and court records and other legal documents, created by those who participated in or witnessed the events of the past. Refers to written accounts of events of the past that reflect the author's interpretation of these events based on the author's analysis of primary and/or secondary sources of information. Refers to the structure of social relations within a group. Refers to a group of human beings living as and/or viewed as members of a community; a structure system of human organization for large scale community living that furnishes protection, continuity, security, and identity for its members.

34 Social Studies Glossary of Terms barter competition consumers cost credit currency demand economic system economics goods human resources income interdependence interest market market economy monetary system money monopoly natural resources ECONOMICS the direct trading of goods and services between people without using money as an intermediate step. see "pure competition" people who buy and use goods and services; also called buyers. something expended to obtain a benefit or desired result (opportunity cost) an extension of money or promise by one party to pay another for money borrowed or for goods. coins and paper money the different quantities of a resource, good, or service that will be purchased at various possible prices during specific time period. a society's means of deciding what goods and services to produce, and how to produce and distribute them. Social science concerned chiefly with the way society chooses to employ its limited resources, which have alternative uses, to produce goods and services for present and future consumption. objects that can satisfy people's wants. workers or labor resources. payments (wages, rents, interest, profits) received for the provision of resources. a situation where people or nations are mutually dependent because of trade. the income paid to savers; also the cost for the use of credit. an institutional arrangement that helps bring about exchange between buyers and sellers. an economic system where most goods and services are exchanged through transactions between households and businesses. a system that organizes the production and distribution of money and near moneys. any medium of exchange that has a standard of value, and a store of value. control of the production and distribution of a product or service by one firm or a group of firms acting in concert; the absence of competition. things in a natural state that are used to produce goods and services. For example: land, minerals, and trees.

35 Social Studies Glossary of Terms opportunity cost price producers profit rent resources saving scarcity services supply tariff tax technology wages the highest valued alternative that must be given up when another option is chosen. the quantity of money paid for a good or service. people who combine natural, human, and/or capital resources to make goods or provide services. the amount of a firm's total revenues in excess of its total costs. a payment made for a natural resource, such as land. inputs or factors used in the production of goods and services. Resources are generally categorized as land (natural resources), labor, and capital (man made resources). disposable income not spent for consumer goods. the condition which exists because resources are in fixed or limited supply relative to demand. Thus a cost must be borne in order to obtain a resource when this condition exists. activities that can satisfy human wants; something that one person does for someone else, usually for a wage. the different quantities of a resource, good, or service that will be offered for sale at various possible prices during a specific time period. a tax or duty imposed on imported goods. a non voluntary payment to a government for which no good or service is directly received in turn. the application of scientific knowledge and activities to the production of goods and services. payment for human resources or labor; this payment is also known as salaries.

36 Social Studies Glossary of Terms bicameral legislature checks and balances civic life civic values civic virtue common good constitution democracy democratic republic executive branch federalism individual rights judicial branch justice legislative branch CIVICS A legislature which has two legislative chambers. Constitutional mechanisms that authorize each branch of government to share powers with the other branches and thereby check their activities. For example, the president may veto legislation passed by Congress, the Senate must confirm major executive appointments, and the courts may declare acts of Congress unconstitutional. Public life of the citizen concerned with the affairs of the community and nation as contrasted with private or personal life, which is devoted to the pursuit of private and personal interests. Individual rights including life, liberty, property, and the pursuit of happiness; the common or public good; self government; justice; equality; openness and free inquiry; truth; and patriotism. Dedication of citizens to the common welfare, even at the cost of their individual interests. Benefit or interest of a politically organized society as a whole. A written or unwritten plan for government. Form of government in which political control is exercised by all the people, either directly or through their elected representatives. A term used to reflect that the United States form of government combines the best principles of both a democracy and a republic to limit the power of the government and to protect the inalienable rights of all individual citizens. Branch of government that carries out the laws made by the legislative branch; and in the national government, makes treaties with foreign governments and conducts wars. The division of power between the state and federal government. The federal government's powers to make laws are listed in the Constitution and the remaining powers are reserved for the states. Rights possessed by individuals rather than those rights claimed by groups. Branch of government that interprets and applies the constitution and laws through a system of courts. Fair distribution of benefits and burdens, fair correction of wrongs and injuries, or use of fair procedures in gathering information and making decisions. Branch of government that makes the laws; in the federal government, this is Congress; in the Colorado state government, this is the General Assembly.

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