11. Globalization and Sustainability

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1 11. Globalization and Sustainability UNIT 1 SOCIAL STUDIES 3211 SEPTEMBER 2017 ANALYZING ISSUES In this outcome we will 11.1 explain the characteristics of an issue 11.2 identify and analyze issues of local, national and global significance 11.3 propose responses to issues of local, national and global significance 11.4 communicate to raise awareness of significant local, national and global issues 1

2 WHAT IS AN ISSUE? Issue an important subject open to discussion and debate. This means that there are often many perspectives and opinions about the same issue. In groups, make a list of as many issues as you can that affect the world today. Can you classify each issue into the following categories? Local National Global Now classify these into the following: Economic Government Health and Population Environment ISSUES CAN BE COMPLEX As you ve probably discovered from discussion so far, issues cover a wide range of subjects can be local, national, or global in scope can be viewed from a range of perspectives. Often a consensus must be reached in order for groups to begin working on solutions to issues. A consensus refers to people agreeing to support a decision or course of action, even though it may not be completely what they want. Complete Copenhagen Consensus activity and include it in your portfolio. 2

3 PERSPECTIVES ON ISSUES A perspective is an individual s or group s point of view. Perspectives can vary depending on how a person is affected by an event or interaction. For example: A diamond mine opens in Northern Canada: a person living in the area may view the event positively (available work and greater income); an environmentalist may be concerned about the effects mining will have on the physical area and wildlife. A Matter of Perspective What do YOU see? 3

4 A Matter of Perspective What do YOU see? A Matter of Perspective What do YOU see? 4

5 A Matter of Perspective What do YOU see? A Matter of Perspective What do YOU see? 5

6 A Matter of Perspective What do YOU see? A Matter of Perspective What do YOU see? 6

7 OPINION VERSUS FACT Opinion judgments or beliefs that are not necessarily based on certainty or proof. Opinions are subjective they come from your personal perspective and feelings. Values principles and morals central to a person s behaviour. Fact knowledge that is certain and can be verified by experience or observation. Facts are objective they cannot be distorted by personal feelings or bias HOW CAN FACTS BE USED? 1. To support a position on an issue. 2. As a starting point to respond to an issue. Facts can be interpreted differently based on a person s experience with an issue. For example: Fact - the world s population is about 7.5 billion. Environmentalist there will not be enough food to feed the world s future population. Why? Most of the arable land is already in use. 7

8 HOW CAN FACTS BE USED? Perspectives on the population growth example could include: Environmentalist there will not be enough food to feed the world s future population. Why? Most of the arable land is already in use. Agricultural scientist there will be enough food for billions of more people. Why? Advances in science will allow us to produce more food. The fact is the same, but the two opinions are subjective and based on the person s experience WHAT IS BIAS? Information gained from any source may contain bias a prejudice or preference for or against a particular point of view. This can lead to information we receive being less accurate and one-sided. For example, there are no checks on blogs and many web sites to ensure information accuracy because there is no accountability for the authors. The author may have a particular opinion that he or she is trying to encourage others to accept, whether or not it is factually accurate. A general rule to follow is to question the purpose of the information and which organization published it. 8

9 DETECTING BIAS Things to consider when detecting bias in a source of information: Who wrote the information, and why was it written? Was the author or organization close to the event? Do arguments and evidence provide only one side of the issue? Do solutions appear too simple? Is there a strong appeal to emotions? Why? Are stereotypes used? Is equal weight given to arguments and counter arguments? BIAS IN THE MEDIA September 1, 1983: A Soviet interceptor plane blows up a Korean passenger jet. The New York Times Editorial, Murder in the Air : There is no conceivable excuse for any nation shooting down a harmless airliner no circumstance whatever justifies attacking an innocent plane. July 3, 1988: US forces blow up an Iranian passenger get. The New York Times Editorial? While horrifying, it was nonetheless an accident the onus for avoiding such accidents in the future rests on civilian aircraft: avoid combat zones, fly high, acknowledge warnings. 9

10 THINKING ABOUT ISSUES 1. With scarce resources available to tackle the problems of the world, prioritization of the problems is necessary. Explain why you agree or disagree with this statement. 2. Choose an issue you feel is very important. Use a graphic organizer to summarize the perspectives of five stakeholders on the issue GLOBALIZATION In this outcome we will 12.1 explain the concept of globalization 12.2 explain the challenges of sustainability in a globalized world 10

11 12.1 WHAT IS GLOBALIZATION? Globalization is the trend toward greater interconnectedness in the world. How can people become more connected globally? Globalization (video) - ZE TYPES OF GLOBALIZATION There are five types of globalization on which we will focus: 1. Economic globalization easier movement of goods, production, capital, labour and resources. Can also relate to connections between global stock markets and currencies. 2. Technological globalization rapid spread of communications and computer technologies, as well as equipment and machinery. 3. Political globalization countries adopt more uniform policies and types of government. 11

12 12.1 TYPES OF GLOBALIZATION 4. Cultural globalization gradual harmonization of the world s culture at the expense of local cultures. Countries also adopt common attitudes and acceptable behaviours. 5. Environmental globalization the world s ecosystems are connected and all countries must protect the environment together AN EXAMPLE OF GLOBALIZATION Complete the activity Globalization: The Example of Dubai and include it in your portfolio. 12

13 12.1 BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF GLOBALIZATION Some people believe globalization is a positive trend in the world, while others believe it has significant negative consequences. How can globalization be both a positive and negative trend? Explain through use of a chart. Benefits of Globalization Challenges of Globalization greater wealth greater variety of goods and services spread of knowledge and use of technology commonalities between countries systems of government greater peace greater levels of healthcare and education less discrimination shared views of environmental priorities increased exploitation of weaker economies child labour unsafe working conditions loss of local culture as new ideas and customs spread loss of political power of exploited national governments increased terrorist activity outsourcing of jobs weaker environmental protection laws 12.2 GLOBALIZATION AND SUSTAINABILITY Sustainability refers to development that meets the needs of people today without jeopardizing the ability of future generations to meet their needs. E.g., using alternative energy sources (solar and wind power) to have less environmental impact. However, one person s need may seem an unnecessary luxury to someone else. What is our need for things doing to the planet? Do we buy just for the sake of buying? The Story of Stuff (a onesided explanation) atch?v=glbe5qayxp8 13

14 12.2 GLOBALIZATION AND SUSTAINABILITY To see an example of how globalization can make sustainability difficult to achieve, read: Sustainability in Dubai on p. 31 Closer to Home the Mountain Pine Beetle on p Is Dubai using water resources sustainably? 2. Is Dubai s production of electricity sustainable? 3. Briefly explain how the topics of globalization and sustainability connect Dubai and British Columbia GLOBALIZATION AND SUSTAINABILITY Historically, we have not always considered sustainability in human activity. For thousands of years humans used resources slower than the earth would replenish them, so sustainability was not a concern. With the Industrial Revolution in the 18 th century, humans began using resources at a much more accelerated rate. Though this was the case, people did not think resources could be used up (that they were infinite). This lead to increased exploitation of the environment to meet the demand for greater production of goods. This view of resource use is referred to as an expansionist world view. 14

15 12.2 GLOBALIZATION AND SUSTAINABILITY Rachel Carson was a biologist who studied the effects of DDT in agriculture on bird populations and eventually human food sources, showing the importance of an ecological world view. An ecological world view developed at the end of the 18 th century as a result of the destruction of the environment brought on by increased resource use. This world view placed emphasis on emotional and spiritual connections to the environment and the beneficial relationship between humans and the earth. In the 19 th, and 20 th centuries, this worldview would result in increased importance on environmental protection and preservation of wild places. Damage to the environment was seen as potentially damaging to humans GLOBALIZATION AND SUSTAINABILITY Comparing world views Expansionist World View Nature is a resource to be used, not preserved. Conservation must work together with the dominant values of the surrounding society, not against them. The primary value of natural areas lies in their value to modern society. Conservation should work against the wastefulness and environmentally disruptive excesses of a developing society. Conservation is equated with sustainable exploitation. Ecological World View The universe is a totality, with all parts interrelated and interlocked. The biotic community and its processes must be protected. Nature is intrinsically valuable animals, trees, rocks, etc., have value in themselves. Human activities must work within the limitations of the planet s ecosystem. Preservation works against the dominant societal values. Nature provides a forum to judge the state of human society. 15

16 12.2 GLOBALIZATION AND SUSTAINABILITY There are conceptual models that scientists use to explain our place in the world and our connection to earth s resources: Limits-to-growth thesis - if trends in population growth and resource use continue, the carrying capacity of the earth will soon be reached. Carrying capacity refers to the maximum number of people that can be sustained by the earth s resources. Cornucopian Thesis - as science and technology advance, new resources will be developed to replace depleted ones. Resources are not really finite because new technology will allow us to access new resources we cannot now reach GLOBALIZATION AND SUSTAINABILITY It is clear that challenges of sustainability in a globalized world can be quite complex. Examples include: Over-exploitation of renewable resources (e.g. deforestation, overfishing in Newfoundland) Overpopulation demands more material goods (e.g., Mexico City with 20 million people and growing) Need for increased food security places stress on the land (Desertification in the Sahel region of Africa) Balancing wealth accumulation with environmental protection (e.g. Muskrat Falls development and protests regarding environmental damage) Complete Sustainability Issue Analysis and place in your folder 16

17 13.1 GLOBALIZATION AND QUALITY OF LIFE In this outcome we will 13.1 explain how an indicator can be used to identify differences among regions 13.2 explain how indicators can be used to identify the level of globalization among countries 13.1 GLOBALIZATION AND QUALITY OF LIFE When we discuss globalization and the effects it has on places in the world, it is important to understand how regions are similar and different. One way to do this is by comparing regions based on indicators of development: An indicator is a specific criterion or characteristic that is used to describe a region and the quality of life humans experience there. There are three types of globalization indicators: Economic indicators show a region s material wealth and trade. Social indicators show a region s level of education and healthcare. Political maturity shows a region s access to political rights and justice. 17

18 13.1 GLOBALIZATION AND QUALITY OF LIFE There are a number of indicators that can be used to determine a region s level of globalization. The chart shows just three indicators commonly used for each category: Common Indicators of Globalization Economic Social Political GDP per capita percentage of GDP from agriculture oil consumption per capita infant-mortality rate internet users per 100,000 people Human Development Index Freedom House rating Corruption- Perception Index Type of political system (dictatorship, democracy, etc.) 13.1 GLOBALIZATION AND QUALITY OF LIFE Here is a comparison of select Canadian provinces/territories based on two indicators: Province / Territory GDP per capita (2015; US$) Alberta 78, Nova Scotia Yukon Territory 42, , Human Development Index (2014) How would you compare these three regions based on the data provided? GDP per capita is an economic indicator of wealth produced in the province as an average of the population (higher is better). Human Development Index (HDI) is a social indicator that considers levels of wealth, education, and health (a value closest to 1 is best) On average, Alberta produces more wealth per person than Nova Scotia or the Yukon, which may be taken as an indicator of the strength of the provincial economy. While all three provinces have high HDI values it can be seen that on average the quality of life of people in Alberta, in terms of wealth, education, and health outcomes, is marginally higher than the Nova Scotia and the Yukon. 18

19 Common indicators measures of global involvement (globalization) As you can see, some measures can show more than one type of indicator GLOBALIZATION AND QUALITY OF LIFE Canada has characteristics that make it more similar to Germany than to Bangladesh or Zambia in the example given. For this reason, it would be reasonable to group together countries that show similar levels of globalization when discussing global patterns. 19

20 13.2 WAYS OF GROUPING COUNTRIES Assignment - Grouping Countries By Level of Globalization. Complete and submit to your teacher for your assignment mark FOUR WORLD MODEL OF GLOBALIZATION Old Core countries that have been globalized for many years (E.g., western Europe, Canada, US, Japan, Australia and New Zealand) New Core countries that have only recently reached significant levels of globalization (e.g., Brazil, Russia, India, and China) Near-Core Periphery countries that are closest to joining the Core and have some level of globalization. (E.g., Iran and the Philippines) Far Periphery countries that are least globalized and furthest from joining the core. (E.g., Bangladesh and Zambia) 20

21 13.2 FOUR WORLD MODEL OF GLOBALIZATION Core countries can be thought of as those at the centre of global activity and development. Periphery countries can be thought of as those on the edge or farther away from the centre of global involvement. 21

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