Participation. Voting Campaign Activity. Contacting officials Group Activity Protest. Volunteer Contribute money (corporations are people)

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1 Participation Voting Campaign Activity Volunteer Contribute money (corporations are people) Contacting officials Group Activity Protest

2 Voter Participation What trends? How does US compare? Which mode has greatest effect?

3 Voter Participation Trends Voting is way down in most nations But in US, we elect lots Campaign activity is flat 3% volunteer Donating flat in US (about 10%) Activity of the wealthiest But trying to persuade others is way

4 % who tried to influence how others vote

5 Voter Participation Trends Contacting officials up (?) People say they will, but do they When? How? ( ?) Group activity (30%) Dalton says it s up, Putman it s down Does Internet act as social group?

6 Other Participation Trends Protesting up? Most sign petitions, up most places Boycott up US, GB Demonstrate, way up in FR & Germany 17% in US Occupy down/flat 2-4% in US Strike down/flat

7 Participation Again, what has most consequences for what government does? Which is easiest? What differences between how wealthy and others participate?

8 Voter Turnout Who votes, who doesn t? Why? Why a decline? Is there a decline? What proposals to increase turnout?

9 Voter Turnout in US Is there a turnout problem? In US about 50-55% vote in presidential elections up in 2004 & 2008 (+60%), down in 12 about 30-35% vote in congressional elections Washington state above the national average

10 US Turnout Compared US turnout low compared to other est. democracies Other democracies also show decline

11 US Turnout Compared 1950s vs. 1990s / 2000 Few est. democracies have turnout increasing

12 Voter Turnout In the US there was a steady decline turnout 10% lower 2000 than 1960 up in 2008 turnout much lower now than 1900 why?? today, a lower % of eligible voters participate far more eligible voters now

13 Turnout Trend through 2008 Large change in VAP vs. VEP turnout Since 1980 Pool of eligible voters smaller vs. voting age population M. McDonald data

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15 Voter Turnout % drop to 62% in 1904 voter registration laws Jim Crow laws % drop to 42% in 1920 suffrage to women size of eligible electorate doubled % drop to 51% in 1948 WWII % drop to 52% 1972 suffrage granted to 18 y/olds

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17 Voter Turnout in US Why a decline since 1890s? Old numbers from a different context high mobilization labor intensive parties limited pool of eligible voters fraud more mobilization then vs. now?

18 Voter Turnout in US 1960 = 63% in pres (47% in 1962) 1964 = 62% in pres (48% in 1966) 1968 = 61% in pres (47% in 1970) 1984 = 54% in pres (36% in 1986) 1988 = 50% in pres (36% in 1990) 1996 = 49% in pres (36% in 1998) 2012 = 57% in pres (41% in 2010)

19 Voter Turnout in US Why a decline since 1960s? Demise of parties campaigns now capital intensive (ads) less direct contacts w/ voters candidate centered politics party building efforts (soft money) for GOTV had little effect

20 Voter Turnout in US Why a decline? Demise of competition Fewer US House races competitive vs. 1960s even with demise of one-party south Fewer state legislative seats competitive Campaign activity concentrated in rare, competitive districts (and states)

21 Voter Turnout in US Why a decline? Demise of Competition Effects of competition 10% more competitive presidential race in state = 1% more turnout ie: Ohio (2%) vs (22%) = 2% more 2 initiatives = 1% more Senate race, Gov race...

22 Voter Turnout in US Why increase in 2004 & 2008 Were the stakes higher? 2000 election result? some new issue? candidate effects?

23 Voter Turnout in US Why low in US? Regulatory barriers 30 day advance registration vote only on day of election must vote at specific location limits on use of mail, absentee ballots Prohibition on felons voting

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25 Barriers to voting Lowest ND, OR, UT, IA, ME, VT, NH, CA Highest MS, AL, KY, VA, MD, FL, TX, LA

26 Voter Turnout in US Why a decline Regulator barriers What effects of Election Day Registration (EDR)? Seven states 4.5% increase in presidential elections 2.0% increase in midterm

27 Voter Turnout in US Election Day Registration Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Wisconsin, Wyoming (ND doesn t require registration) In WA proposal to have shorter pre-reg. period but not EDR

28 Voter Turnout in US Election Day Registration Why bother? makes voting more convenient Who will take advantage???????

29 Voter Turnout in US Election Day Registration Proponents: Democratic Party Opponents: County Auditors Bureaucratic nightmare requires more staff vote provisional ballot? check if registered/voted in other county

30 Voter Turnout Felon disenfranchisement Two states do not ban from voting (Maine and Vermont) Some states restore after release / probation (ex Felons) Some states make ban permanent (unless govt. approves individual s restoration)

31 Voter Turnout Felon Laws Adoption corresponds with extension of rights to Black Americans Before 1860, 12 of 21 states w/ laws By 1890s, 38 of 45 had laws type of crimes covered changed

32 Voter Turnout Effects of Felon bans There might not be a decline in turnout Levels of criminal punishment in US way, way up More felons than ever (Why??) 1.4% of Voting age pop by 2000 was.5% before 1982 More non citizens 6% of US Voting age population by 2000 up from 2% in 1966

33 Voter Turnout in the US Why a decline Regulatory Barriers Not a factor growing over time Easier to register now, easier to vote by mail EDR explains variation in an election, not since 1960.

34 Voter Turnout in US ecline mostly outside of south Low turnout rate of young (post 1972) accounts for 1/4 of decline VAP vs. VEP...

35 Turnout 2004, 2008 Change VEP» White 66.1% 63.8% -1.1 Black 65.2% 60.3% +4.9 Hispanic 49.9% 47.2% +2.7 Asian 47.0% 44.7% +2.4 All 63.6% 63.8% -0.2

36 Turnout by Age Not quite linear Young voters lowest turnout Youth vote up in 2004 (red line) & 2008 charles franklin data

37 Turnout by Age Youngest cohort largest segment of the electorate Greatest underrepresentation in voting

38 Turnout by Age Under-representation? Youth vote by party % Dem % Dem % Dem % Dem

39 Decline or not... Many, most don t vote In many nations, clear decline Where are the voters going? Cohort vs. lifecycle effects

40 Voter Turnout So why don t young people vote? efficacy life experiences re: politics campaigns don t care about them? Rock to Vote, Vote or Die? youth vote way up in place where competitive races (stakes are higher) youth vote 17% nationally in 2004; 19% 2012

41 Vote or Die? Campaign spending, ads, targeting youth vote vs... Generic, contextfree youth campaigns

42 Voter Turnout So, who votes? Education Age (old people rule) Cohort and life cycle effects Partisans (not independents) Income Efficacy OK, so what drives efficacy

43 Voter Turnout When & Why do they vote? Regular voters older people and well educated Peripheral voters younger people and less-educated

44 Voter turnout Competitive elections mobilize larger effect on young & less educated Presidential race 2004 person living in uncompetitive state w/ 10th grade ed. had.46 prob. of voting person in Ohio w/ 10th grade ed.55 prob.

45 Voter Turnout Midterm election (2002) 33 y/o person in state w/ no US Senate race =.37 prob. of voting 33 y/o in state w/ most competitive Senate race.77 prob. of voting for 62 y.o., high prob. of voting anyway

46 Voter Turnout in US What difference would it make if turnout was higher? Composition of electorate change? EDR, Vote by Mail, etc. seem to increase turnout but not change electorate Competitive elections seem to increase turnout of everyone greater effect on young, less educated

47 Voter Turnout in US What happens if higher turnout and low participating groups show up? Young people Less affluent Ex-felons

48 Voter Turnout Uggen & Manza Because felons are drawn from ranks of poor and racial minorities, laws take votes from Dems. Estimate that 2000 Pres. election would have been reversed Estimate that Dems would have controlled US Senate after 1984 if not for these laws Thus changed composition of US Courts

49 Young voters nominated Obama 2008 Primaries Ds NH % Obama, 22% HRC Ds NH over 65 32% Obama, 48% HRC Ds FL % Obama, 39% HRC Ds FL over 65 24% Obama, 59% HRC Ds IA % Obama, 11% HRC Ds IA over 65 18% Obama, 45% HRC

50 Voter Turnout Dem primaries: Obama won where youth turnout reduced age gap 28% over 65 in FL, 5 % under 25 13% over 65 in NH, 11% under 25 25% over 65 in IA, 22% under 27 26% over 60 in MI, 8% under 25

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