United States History and Government Regents Review Booklet

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "United States History and Government Regents Review Booklet"

Transcription

1 United States History and Government Regents Review Booklet Created by Christopher Robson Topics Page Colonial America and Geography 2 Government 12 Early Republic 24 Manifest Destiny 35 Civil War and Reconstruction 39 Industrialization and the Western Frontier 45 Progressive Era 55 Imperialism and World War I s and Great Depression 69 World War II 80 Early Cold War ( ) 89 Early Cold War Domestic Issues 94 Cold War 1960 through End 98 Domestic Issues 1960 through Civil Rights 107 Supreme Court Cases 114 Modern Times 118 1

2 Colonial America Study Guide Geography New England Rocky Soil, short growing season, good harbors, ample timber (wood), Fishing, shipbuilding, small family farms surrounded by small town Middle Atlantic Breadbasket Southern Colonies Good fertile soil, warm weather, ample rainfall = large farms (plantations) ideal for slave labor (enslaved Africans) All early colonies located near coastline and/or rivers transportation Government Early forms of representative government Virginia House of Burgesses, Mayflower Compact and New England Town Meeting Magna Carta and English Bill of Rights placed limits on government power John Peter Zenger Trial established freedom of the press Mercantilism Colonies produce raw materials to supply manufacturing in England. England regulates what colonies can/cannot do. For Example colonies cannot develop own manufacturing. Salutary Neglect When England did not enforce Mercantilism laws colonies develop a sense of freedom and independence French and Indian War England must pay for war and ends salutary neglect starts taxing colonies and regulating their trade. Independence Protests against British colonial policies gradually led to demands for independence Influences Thomas Paine s Common Sense Mercantilism doesn t make sense John Locke Natural Rights and Social Compact theory directly influences Thomas Jefferson s Declaration of Independence. Declaration includes reason for government protect natural rights and a list of grievances against the king. Proposed right to govern comes from the people (popular sovereignty) and is for the purpose of securing natural rights. 2

3 Colonial America and Geography Questions 1. Which geographic feature did the British government use in 1763 as a boundary to restrict the westward settlement of American colonists? (1) St. Lawrence River (2) Rocky Mountains (3) Appalachian Mountains (4) Mississippi River 1 Which heading best completes the partial outline below? (1) British System of National Government in North America (2) Colonial Responses to the Practice of Salutary Neglect (3) British Attempts to Control Colonial Governments (4) Colonial Efforts at Self-Government 2. During the colonial era, the British promoted the policy of mercantilism to (1) control the commerce of their American colonies (2) promote colonial trade with France and Spain (3) ban all trade between the British colonies in North America (4) restrict the importation of enslaved Africans Base your answers to questions 3 and 4 on the passage below. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, 3. Which document includes this passage? (1) Mayflower Compact (2) Declaration of Independence (3) Northwest Ordinance (4) Monroe Doctrine 3 4. This passage suggests that the authority of government (1) originates from the divine right of kings (2) is based on a social contract meant to guarantee individual rights (3) includes the power to seize private property for national defense (4) is the source of all the natural rights of citizens 5. Which factor most influenced the economic development of the colonial South? (1) plentiful forests (2) warm and wet growing seasons (3) rich deposits of iron ore and coal (4) abundant water power for manufacturing Base your answer to question 6 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies. The Jury withdrew, and in a small time returned, and being asked by the clerk, whether they were agreed of their verdict, and whether John Peter Zenger was guilty of printing and publishing the libels in the information mentioned? They answered by Thomas Hunt, their foreman, Not Guilty. Upon which there were three huzzas [cheers] in the hall which was crowded with people, and the next day I was discharged from my imprisonment. John Peter Zenger, The court case discussed in this passage was important in the development of colonial America because it helped establish the principle of (1) freedom of the press (2) double jeopardy (3) freedom of assembly (4) judicial independence 7. Because of fertile land and a long growing season, plantations in the thirteen colonies developed in (1) New England (2) the Middle Atlantic region (3) the South (4) the upper Mississippi River valley

4 8. River systems were important to the development of the United States because they (1) allowed Americans to travel easily between the east coast and the west coast (2) prevented foreign invasion of United States territory (3) provided routes for shipping agricultural and manufacturing products (4) made the southeast the major destination for immigrants 9. Which provision of the Bill of Rights was influenced by the trial of John Peter Zenger? (1) right to bear arms (2) right to an attorney (3) freedom of religion (4) freedom of the press 10. One way that the British government carried out the policy of mercantilism was by (1) promoting free trade between its colonies and Europe (2) prohibiting the transatlantic trade in enslaved Africans (3) encouraging the development of colonial manufacturing and trade (4) requiring that most colonial trade occur within the British Empire 11. Which title best completes the partial outline below? I. A. Virginia House of Burgesses B. Mayflower Compact C. New England town meetings (1) Developments in Colonial Self-Government (2) Colonial Efforts to Abandon British Rule (3) Attempts by Colonial Leaders to Form a National Government (4) Colonial Organizations Established by the British Parliament Base your answer to question 12 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies. that to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, Declaration of Independence, This passage demonstrates that Thomas Jefferson was directly influenced by the (1) ideas of John Locke (2) goals of the Albany Plan of Union (3) belief in the divine right of kings (4) traditional separation of church and state 13. Thomas Jefferson incorporated John Locke s idea of the social contract theory in the Declaration of Independence because this idea (1) justified the overthrow of a government that denied individual liberties (2) considered economic rights more important than inalienable rights (3) supported the divine right of kings (4) called for a gradual change of government Base your answer to question 14 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies. As to government matters, it is not in the power of Britain to do this continent justice: the business of it will soon be too weighty and intricate to be managed with any tolerable degree of convenience, by a power so distant from us, and so very ignorant of us; for if they cannot conquer us, they cannot govern us. To be always running three or four thousand miles with a tale or a petition, waiting four or five months for an answer, which, when obtained, requires five or six more to explain it in, will in a few years be looked upon as folly and childishness. There was a time when it was proper, and there is a proper time for it to cease. Thomas Paine, Common Sense, What is the main argument Thomas Paine makes concerning the relationship between Great Britain and its American colonies? (1) Britain wants to make America a part of the European continental system. (2) America is too distant for Great Britain to govern effectively. (3) America lacks representation in Parliament. (4) American colonial leaders believe British officials want to use them to fight European wars. 4

5 15. The social contract theory as used in the Declaration of Independence was most directly influenced by the writings of (1) John Locke (2) Adam Smith (3) Voltaire (4) Benjamin Franklin 16. Which heading best completes the partial outline below? I. A. Committees of Correspondence B. Nonimportation Agreements C. Boston Tea Party D. First Continental Congress (1) Protests Against Slavery in the American Colonies (2) British Parliamentary Actions to Punish Colonial Americans (3) Colonial Responses to British Mercantile Policies (4) Colonial Attempts to End the British Policy of Salutary Neglect 17. In writing the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson was influenced most by John Locke s idea of (1) due process of law (2) natural rights (3) the rights of the accused (4) the right to privacy 18. In its economic relationship with its North American colonies, Great Britain followed the principles of 18th-century mercantilism by (1) outlawing the African slave trade (2) limiting the colonies trade with other nations (3) encouraging the development of manufacturing in the colonies (4) establishing laws against business monopolies I challenge the warmest advocate [supporter] for reconciliation, to shew [show], a single advantage that this continent can reap [gain], by being connected with Great Britain. I repeat the challenge, not a single advantage is derived [acquired]. Our corn will fetch its price in any market in Europe, and our imported goods must be paid for, buy them where we will.... Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 1776 This speaker is most likely opposed to (1) mercantilism (2) capitalism (3) direct democracy (4) representative government 20. Which political feature of the United States developed during the colonial period? (1) two-party system (2) federalism (3) representative government (4) universal suffrage 21. During the early to mid-1700s, the British policy of salutary neglect toward the American colonies contributed to (1) a decline in colonial manufacturing (2) the decline of slavery in the northern colonies (3) a decrease in French and Spanish influence in North America (4) the development of independent colonial trade practices 5

6 25. According to the Declaration of Independence, the fundamental purpose of government is to (1) protect people s natural rights (2) equalize opportunities for all citizens (3) provide for the defense of the nation (4) establish a system of free public education 26. One of the principles stated in the Declaration of Independence is that government should (1) guarantee economic equality among citizens (2) have unlimited power to rule the people (3) be based upon the consent of the governed (4) be led by educated citizens 22. What would be the best title for this map? (1) British Domination of the Americas (2) Colonial Trade Routes (3) Spanish Colonies in the New World (4) The United States in A major argument for American independence found in the Declaration of Independence was that the British (1) stopped participating in the slave trade (2) refused to sell products to Americans (3) deprived Americans of their natural rights (4) censored American representatives in Parliament 24. Which statement is most accurate about the movement for independence in the thirteen colonies? (1) The independence movement began soon after the founding of the Plymouth Colony. (2) Protests against British colonial policies gradually led to demands for independence. (3) The King of England required the colonists to become economically self-sufficient. (4) The movement for independence was equally strong in all of the colonies. 27. Which geographic feature is primarily responsible for the lowest population density in the area shown on the map? (1) Columbia River (3) Rocky Mountains (2) Pacific Ocean (4) Mississippi River Valley 28. Jamestown, founded in 1607 Plymouth colony, founded in 1620 New Amsterdam, founded in 1625 These early colonial settlements were similar in that each was located (1) at the base of a mountain range (2) near the coastline (3) in an arid climate (4) on offshore islands 6

7 29. In the Declaration of Independence, the argument for freedom from British rule is based primarily on the (1) theory of divine right expressed by James I (2) economic principles set forth by Adam Smith (3) social contract theory of government developed by John Locke (4) belief in a strong central government expressed by Alexander Hamilton 30. During the colonial period, the British Parliament used the policy of mercantilism to (1) limit manufacturing in America (2) prevent criticism of royal policies (3) deny representation to the colonists (4) force colonists to worship in the Anglican Church 34. In his pamphlet Common Sense, Thomas Paine urged American colonists to (1) establish their own nation (2) pay their colonial taxes (3) obey the laws of Parliament (4) form an alliance with France 35. The Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights were significant influences on United States constitutional development because they (1) provided suffrage for all men and women (2) placed limits on the powers of the government (3) called for the abolition of slavery (4) supported the development of federalism 31. The Mayflower Compact and the Virginia House of Burgesses are examples of (1) equal opportunities for women during the colonial period (2) steps toward representative government (3) economic agreements between the colonists and Native American Indians (4) limitations placed on colonial Americans by the British government 32. One similarity between the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights is that both documents (1) provide for a government with three separate branches (2) discuss colonial grievances against the monarchy (3) stress the importance of individual liberty (4) criticize the practice of slavery 33. Which heading best completes the partial outline below? I. A. Representation B. Slave trade C. Taxation D. Election of the president (1) Causes of the Revolutionary War (2) Provisions of the Treaty of Paris, 1783 (3) Protections under the 10th Amendment (4) Compromises at the Constitutional Convention A conclusion supported by the information on the map is that slavery in the American colonies was (1) declining by the start of the Revolutionary War (2) concentrated in areas suitable for large plantations (3) becoming illegal in the northern colonies (4) growing fastest in the New England colonies

8 37. Which geographic feature was the boundary line between the United States and French Louisiana in 1803? (1) Appalachian Mountains (3) Mississippi River (2) Great Lakes (4) Rocky Mountains 38. Which geographic factor most directly influenced the location of the first English settlements in North America? (1) rivers along the Atlantic coast (2) availability of flat land in the Midwest (3) mild climate along the Gulf coast (4) forests throughout the Middle Colonies 39. The Declaration of Independence contains a (1) proposal for reuniting the colonies and England (2) statement of grievances against the King of England (3) request for a treaty between the colonies and Spain (4) plan for organizing the western territories 40. Which set of events related to early America is in the correct chronological order? (1) inauguration of George Washington passage of Stamp Act Battle of Saratoga French and Indian War (2) Battle of Saratoga French and Indian War passage of Stamp Act inauguration of George Washington (3) French and Indian War passage of Stamp Act Battle of Saratoga inauguration of George Washington (4) passage of Stamp Act French and Indian War inauguration of George Washington Battle of Saratoga 41. Critics of the Articles of Confederation argued that it (1) imposed unfair taxes on the states (2) used a draft to raise a national army (3) provided a strong system of federal courts (4) placed too much power in the hands of the states 42. The original settlements in the thirteen British colonies were all located (1) east of the Appalachian Mountains (2) along the Gulf Coast (3) on the Great Plains (4) west of the Mississippi River 43. What was a main reason large plantations developed in the South during the colonial period? (1) British laws discouraged tenant farming. (2) Cotton could only be grown in wetlands. (3) Southern mountains led to the development of isolated, self-sufficient farms. (4) The coastal plain in the South contained large areas of fertile soil. 44. Which statement about the British colonial policy of mercantilism is most accurate? (1) Raw materials from the colonies were shipped to England. (2) England encouraged the colonies to seek independence. (3) The colonies were required to send manufactured goods to Europe. (4) The British opposed the use of slave labor in the colonies. 45. In colonial America, the House of Burgesses, the Mayflower Compact, and town hall meetings were all developments that led to the (1) regulation of trade with Native American Indians (2) protection of the rights of women (3) elimination of the power of the upper classes (4) creation of representative government 46. During the early 1770s, how did the British government respond to increasing American protests of British colonial policy? (1) It offered self-government to the colonists. (2) It increased efforts to maintain order and enforce laws. (3) It agreed to grant the colonies representation in Parliament. (4) It asked France for help in controlling the colonists. 8

9 47. Which document is most closely associated with John Locke s social contract theory of government? (1) Albany Plan of Union (2) Declaration of Independence (3) Treaty of Paris (1783) (4) Sedition Act of The creation of the Virginia House of Burgesses and the signing of the Mayflower Compact showed that American colonists (1) supported the abolition of slavery (2) practiced elements of self-government (3) promoted public education (4) demanded immediate independence 49. Which two key principles of government are included in the Declaration of Independence? (1) majority rule and minority rights (2) universal suffrage and judicial independence (3) direct democracy and equality for women (4) consent of the governed and natural rights 50. Which heading best completes the partial outline below? I. A. Vast timber resources B. Rocky soil C. Rich ocean fishing grounds D. Single-family farms (1) Factors in the Economic Development of Colonial New England (2) Reasons for the Development of Southern Plantations (3) Features Contributing to Dutch Success in Colonial New Amsterdam (4) Components of the British System of Mercantilism 51. One reason traditions of self-government developed in the American colonies before the French and Indian War was that the British (1) sent effective leaders to govern colonial settlements (2) required colonial representation in Parliament (3) practiced salutary neglect in the colonies (4) maintained a strong military presence in the colonies 52. The Proclamation of 1763 was intended to (1) allow American farmers to use the Mississippi River (2) outlaw slavery in the Ohio River valley (3) prevent France from expanding into the Great Lakes region (4) avoid conflicts with Native American Indians west of the Appalachian Mountains 53. In the 1760s, Americans in the original thirteen British colonies began to protest against (1) efforts by the king to extend voting rights to women (2) laws passed by the British Parliament regulating colonial trade (3) limits placed on land ownership by royal governors (4) decisions of British authorities to end immigration to the colonies 54. The development of a farming culture among pre- Columbian Native American Indians helped ensure (1) safety from neighboring tribes (2) the establishment of a nomadic lifestyle (3) the continuation of hunting and gathering (4) a more stable food supply 55. During the colonial period, the economic development of the South was most directly dependent on the labor of (1) factory workers (3) Irish immigrants (2) wheat farmers (4) enslaved Africans 56. The results of the French and Indian War ( ) led to the independence movement in the thirteen colonies because the British (1) lost control of Canada and Florida (2) began imposing new taxes on the colonists (3) removed the Spanish threat to the colonists (4) opened the area west of the Appalachian Mountains to colonial settlers 9

10 Base your answer to question 57 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it 57. The purpose of this statement was to (1) urge support for the Albany Plan of Union (2) provide justification for declaring independence (3) criticize the Articles of Confederation (4) advocate obedience to Great Britain 58. Which geographic factor most directly influenced the location of the first English settlements in North America? (1) rivers along the Atlantic coast (2) availability of flat land in the Midwest (3) mild climate along the Gulf coast (4) forests throughout the Middle Colonies 59. The Declaration of Independence contains a (1) proposal for reuniting the colonies and England (2) statement of grievances against the King of England (3) request for a treaty between the colonies and Spain (4) plan for organizing the western territories 60. The Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights were significant influences on United States constitutional development because they (1) provided suffrage for all men and women (2) placed limits on the powers of the government (3) called for the abolition of slavery (4) supported the development of federalism Which set of events related to early America is in the correct chronological order? (1) inauguration of George Washington passage of Stamp Act Battle of Saratoga French and Indian War (2) Battle of Saratoga French and Indian War passage of Stamp Act inauguration of George Washington (3) French and Indian War passage of Stamp Act Battle of Saratoga inauguration of George Washington (4) passage of Stamp Act French and Indian War inauguration of George Washington Battle of Saratoga 62. The original settlements in the thirteen British colonies were all located (1) east of the Appalachian Mountains (2) along the Gulf Coast (3) on the Great Plains (4) west of the Mississippi River 63. What was a main reason large plantations developed in the South during the colonial period? (1) British laws discouraged tenant farming. (2) Cotton could only be grown in wetlands. (3) Southern mountains led to the development of isolated, self-sufficient farms. (4) The coastal plain in the South contained large areas of fertile soil. 64. Which statement about the British colonial policy of mercantilism is most accurate? (1) Raw materials from the colonies were shipped to England. (2) England encouraged the colonies to seek independence. (3) The colonies were required to send manufactured goods to Europe. (4) The British opposed the use of slave labor in the colonies. 65. In colonial America, the House of Burgesses, the Mayflower Compact, and town hall meetings were all developments that led to the (1) regulation of trade with Native American Indians (2) protection of the rights of women (3) elimination of the power of the upper classes (4) creation of representative government

11 66. During the early 1770s, how did the British government respond to increasing American protests of British colonial policy? (1) It offered self-government to the colonists. (2) It increased efforts to maintain order and enforce laws. (3) It agreed to grant the colonies representation in Parliament. (4) It asked France for help in controlling the colonists. 67. Which document is most closely associated with John Locke s social contract theory of government? (1) Albany Plan of Union (2) Declaration of Independence (3) Treaty of Paris (1783) (4) Sedition Act of Which protection in the Bill of Rights is most directly related to the 1735 trial of John Peter Zenger? (1) freedom of the press (2) right to bear arms (3) ban on unreasonable searches (4) freedom from double jeopardy 69. In the publication Common Sense, Thomas Paine argued that (1) foreign nations would reject an independent American government (2) the British government would be impossible to overthrow (3) America was dependent on British trade and protection (4) the American colonies should break away from England 70. Shays Rebellion (1786) became a concern for many national leaders because it (1) indicated there would be future conflicts over the spread of slavery (2) exposed fundamental weaknesses in government under the Articles of Confederation (3) pointed to the need for federal government regulation of interstate commerce (4) showed that frontier settlements were vulnerable to raids by Native American Indians 71. Colonial-era New England town meetings and the Virginia House of Burgesses were both (1) early social reform movements (2) attempts to build a strong national government (3) steps in the growth of representative democracy (4) efforts to regulate trade with Native American Indians 72. During the colonial period, which geographic feature presented the greatest barrier to the westward migration of American settlers? (1) Appalachian Mountains (2) Ohio River (3) Great Plains (4) Rocky Mountains 73. Which action by the British government was considered by American colonists to be a violation of their rights as Englishmen? (1) making treaties with Native American Indians (2) protecting the colonies from foreign invasion (3) failing to enforce the Navigation Acts (4) taxing the colonies without representation in Parliament 11

12 Government Study Guide Articles of Confederation First government of the United States Feared strong central government (because of their experience with King) so they made a VERY weak central government and left all the power to the states. Failed Federal govt was too weak. Chaos and rebellion reigned. Shays s rebellion proved to many that a stronger government had to be created. Success of the Articles of Confederation. Land Ordinance Orderly way of organizing unsettled land in the Northwest Territory. Process of creating new states. U.S. Constitution Creation of a new, more powerful federal government. Constitutional Convention - bundle of compromises Writers could agree on very little Compromise on many issues Great Compromise - Large and small states differed on how representation in Congress is determined (Virginia vs. Ney Jersey Plans) Compromised by creating a two house legislature House of Reps based on population (made big states happy) and Senate based on equality (made small states happy) 3/5 Compromise Do slaves count toward representation? Every slave = 3/5 person Preamble starts of We the People = the people are sovereign, government gets it s power from the people Federalism Dividing the power between different levels of government State and Federal Federal Power (Delegated) Shared Power (concurrent) State Power (reserved) Coin money Make war Tax Education Driving ***COMMON MISTAKE WARNING*** DO NOT confuse federalism and checks and balances. Federalism issues MUST involve a STATE government and Federal Government. Checks and Balances MUST involve two of the three branches at the FEDERAL level only.*** Protections from tyranny Separation of Powers Government divided in to 3 branches (from Montesquieu) 3 Branches Executive (President), Legislative (Congress House and Senate), and Judicial (Supreme Court) Checks and Balance Each branch has power to override the powers of another branch Examples Congress can override presidential veto, Senate must ratify President s treaties and judicial appointments, president appoints judges, Supreme Court can declare a law unconstitutional Census taken every 10 years to determine representation in Congress. 12

13 Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists debated the ratification of Constitution and nature of federalism (Where should the power be Federal government or the state governments?) Federalists wanted the new Constitution felt there were enough protections from tyranny The Federalist Papers written to written to win support for ratification (passage) of new Constitution Anti-Federalists Opposed to Constitution Feared the new powerful federal (national) government - Wanted power to remain in the state governments. Bill of Rights created to sooth fears of Anti-Federalists List of rights the government can never take away Unwritten Constitution Things our government does out of custom and tradition even though there is no mention of them in the Constitution examples - Political Parties, President s Cabinet Judicial Review Power of the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional. First used in Marbury v. Madison Electoral College means by which the president is elected criticism is it is possible to win the popular vote but still lose the election Elastic Clause also known as necessary and proper clause allows the government to expand powers beyond what is written in the Constitution Allows for change over time. Amendment Process process of changing Constitution also allows for change over time 13

14 Government Questions 1. Which issue did the Virginia Plan, the New Jersey Plan, and the Great Compromise address at the Constitutional Convention (1787)? (1) the power to regulate interstate commerce (2) the number of justices on the Supreme Court (3) a system for electing the president (4) a method of determining state representation in Congress 2. Which headline is reporting the clearest example of the United States Constitution s system of checks and balances? (1) Environmental Protection Agency Proposes Stricter Air Pollution Controls (2) Supreme Court Rules on Arizona Immigration Law (3) President Vetoes Defense Spending Bill (4) California Passes Strict Gun Control Law 3. The Three-fifths Compromise adopted in the Constitution in 1787 had the effect of (1) increasing the representation of southern states in Congress (2) providing a method for ratifying amendments (3) making possible the impeachment of the president (4) allowing the use of the elastic clause in the legislative process 4. What was the major argument of those who opposed ratification of the United States Constitution? (1) The states should not be forced to pay taxes to the federal government. (2) The new constitution did not adequately protect individual liberties against abuse by the federal government. (3) The judicial branch was granted more power than the legislative and executive branches. (4) The federal government did not have enough power to defend the nation against foreign enemies. 5. Under the Articles of Confederation, the years between 1781 and 1787 are often referred to as the critical period because the (1) colonies were forced to pay high reparations to England (2) states were fighting the French and Indian War (3) southern states threatened to secede from the Union over the issue of slavery (4) central government lacked the power to deal with major problems 6. Which power regarding the federal judiciary was established in Marbury v. Madison? (1) The president appoints all federal judges. (2) The Congress creates lower federal courts. (3) Members of the federal courts serve life terms. (4) Federal laws may be declared unconstitutional. 7. The Preamble of the Constitution demonstrates that the writers believed that sovereignty belongs to the (1) federal government (3) president (2) state governments (4) people 8. The Federalist Papers, written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, were intended to (1) promote independence from Great Britain (2) persuade voters to keep the Articles of Confederation (3) win support for ratification of the Constitution (4) endorse candidates running for Congress Senate Rejects Supreme Court Nominee Supreme Court Declares National Recovery Act (NRA) Unconstitutional Congress Overrides Truman Veto of Taft- Hartley Act 9. Each of these headlines illustrates the use of (1) reserved powers (3) executive privilege (2) checks and balances (4) federal supremacy 14

15 10. the Constitutional Convention of 1787, the Great Compromise between the large states and the small states resulted in (1) the creation of a bicameral legislature (2) a provision for equal protection of the laws (3) a permanent solution to the slavery issue (4) the guarantee of voting rights for all male property owners 11. The framework of government described in the Constitution of the United States (1787) most clearly shows the dissatisfaction of the founders with the (1) Albany Plan of Union (2) Northwest Ordinance (3) Articles of Confederation (4) Treaty of Paris 12. The term federalism is best defined as (1) the process of amending a constitution (2) the power of the courts to determine the constitutionality of laws (3) a republican form of government with no hereditary ruler (4) the division of power between the states and the national government 13. Which action is an example of the use of checks and balances? (1) impeachment of President Bill Clinton (2) choosing a vice presidential running mate by a presidential candidate (3) election of the Speaker of the House by the majority party (4) starting negotiations for a treaty by President George Washington 14. The Supreme Court decision in Marbury v. Madison (1803) strengthened the constitutional principle of separation of powers by (1) defining the Court s role in impeachment trials (2) clarifying the president s authority to veto bills passed by Congress (3) denying states the right to sue the federal government (4) establishing the Court s right to review the constitutionality of federal laws 15 New Congress to Have Two Houses Slaves to Count as Three-Fifths of a Person President to be Chosen by Electoral Vote 15. Which conclusion about the Constitutional Convention is best supported by these headlines? (1) The framers of the Constitution were able to compromise on important issues. (2) States that were small in area would lose power in the new Constitution. (3) States with large populations controlled the outcome of the convention. (4) The president and Congress would have equal power under the new constitution. 16. Which power is shared by the federal government and the New York State government? (1) enacting immigration laws (2) levying taxes (3) granting patents and copyrights (4) issuing passports 17. The unwritten constitution is best defined as the (1) amendments to the United States Constitution (2) powers that the Constitution reserves for the states (3) powers that the Constitution denies to Congress and to the states (4) practices of the government that are based on custom and tradition The Congress shall have Power... To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested [granted] by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof This section of the United States Constitution was frequently used during the 20th century to (1) expand federal control of interstate commerce (2) reduce the number of federal courts (3) overturn decisions of the electoral college (4) impeach the president 19. New York State and the United States have republican forms of government because both have (1) a bill of rights (2) a written constitution (3) an elected legislature (4) three branches of government

16 20. In the case of Marbury v. Madison (1803), the Supreme Court increased its power by (1) establishing the practice of judicial review (2) upholding the presidential appointment power (3) expanding the meaning of individual liberties (4) declaring the principle of states rights unconstitutional 21. During the Constitutional Convention of 1787, the plans for Congress proposed by delegates from New Jersey and Virginia differed mainly over the issue of (1) life terms of office or short terms of office (2) appointed legislators or elected legislators (3) equal state representation or proportionate state representation (4) power to check other branches or power limited to lawmaking 22. Which governmental action illustrates the system of checks and balances? (1) a senator helping a governor solve a state problem (2) the president negotiating a trade agreement with foreign diplomats (3) the Senate ratifying a peace treaty (4) Congress raising taxes to pay for federal programs 23. A major criticism of the electoral college system has been that (1) party loyalty is weakened after a presidential election (2) electors frequently fail to vote for a candidate (3) members of the electoral college are appointed for life terms (4) a president may be elected without receiving the majority of the popular vote 24. Which feature must a nation have to be considered a democracy? (1) a strong president (2) citizen participation in government (3) elected judges to conduct trials (4) a set of laws 25. The principles of government that Thomas Jefferson included in the Declaration of Independence were most influenced by (1) John Locke s social contract theory (2) Adam Smith s ideas of free enterprise (3) Louis XIV s belief in divine right (4) William Penn s views on religious toleration 26. The necessary and proper clause, the amendment process, and the unwritten constitution are evidence that our constitutional system of government provides for (1) popular sovereignty (2) equal representation (3) flexibility (4) ratification 27. In 1788 and 1789, a major controversy between the Federalists and the Antifederalists focused on (1) expansion of slavery into the territories (2) the wisdom of creating a two-house legislature (3) division of power among different levels of government (4) the issue of allowing women the right to vote 28. Antifederalist objections to the ratification of the Constitution led to the (1) addition of a Bill of Rights (2) seven-year delay in the ratification of the Constitution (3) rewriting of major parts of the Constitution (4) elimination of states rights 29. The Articles of Confederation and the theory of nullification were both attempts to (1) strengthen the national government (2) form new political parties (3) protect states rights (4) strengthen the presidency 30. Which topic has been the focus of four different amendments to the United States Constitution? (1) voting rights (2) term limits on federal officeholders (3) the electoral college (4) prohibition of alcoholic beverages 16

17 31. The Preamble of the United States Constitution states the purposes of government and is based on the belief that (1) the states have ultimate authority (2) members of Congress should be appointed (3) Supreme Court Justices should be elected (4) the people are sovereign Speaker A: We want a strong national government to provide order and protect the rights of the people. Speaker B: We want a weak national government so that it will not threaten the rights of the people or the powers of the states. Speaker C: We want to add a bill of rights to the Constitution to protect the people against abuses of power. Speaker D: A bill of rights is unnecessary because the new government s powers are limited by the Constitution. 32. A theme in the statements is a concern about (1) excessive state power (2) the Land Ordinance of 1785 (3) the rights of the individual (4) creation of the Articles of Confederation 33. These statements represent points of view that differ between (1) pro-independence Patriots and pro-british Tories (2) leaders of the North and the West (3) supporters of Congress and the president (4) Federalists and Antifederalists 34. The framers of the United States Constitution included the concepts of federalism, checks and balances, and separation of powers in the document because they (1) feared a government with unlimited power (2) favored the poor over the rich (3) wanted to increase the powers of the states (4) hoped to expand the democratic process 35. The power of judicial review allows the Supreme Court to (1) repeal amendments to the Constitution (2) determine the constitutionality of a law (3) break tie votes in the electoral college (4) impeach the president and other high-level officials The development of political parties and of the committee system used in Congress illustrates the application of (1) constitutional amendments (2) federal legislation (3) the unwritten constitution (4) Supreme Court decisions 37. A loose interpretation of the Constitution was applied when (1) George Washington appointed John Jay to the Supreme Court (2) John Adams signed the Alien and Sedition Acts (3) Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territory (4) James Monroe delivered his State of the Union message 38. The ratification of the 26th amendment, which lowered the voting age to 18, was a result of the (1) participation of the United States in the Vietnam War (2) fear of McCarthyism (3) reaction to the launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union (4) reporting of the Watergate scandal 39. To address the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, delegates at the Constitutional Convention agreed to (1) eliminate the slave trade (2) increase the powers of the central government (3) decrease the number of states (4) allow states to set tariff rates 40. During the Constitutional Convention of 1787, the major disagreement between the large and small states occurred over the issue of (1) continuation of slavery (2) guaranteeing States rights (3) representation in Congress (4) control of interstate commerce

18 it is the opinion of this committee that a national government ought to be established consisting of a Supreme Legislature, Judiciary, and Executive.... Resolution submitted by Edmund Randolph, delegate to the Constitutional Convention, 1787 In adopting this resolution, the framers of the Constitution showed their belief in the idea of (1) judicial review (2) an elastic clause (3) States rights (4) separation of powers 42. The requirement to conduct a census was included in the United States Constitution to (1) control the numbers of immigrants (2) determine income tax rates (3) determine the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives (4) record the birth and death rates of the population 43. Which role of the president is considered part of the unwritten constitution? (1) nominating federal judges (2) signing or vetoing legislation (3) acting as the leader of his political party (4) serving as commander in chief of the armed forces Now, one of the most essential branches of English liberty is the freedom of one s house. A man s house is his castle; and whilst he is quiet, he is as well guarded as a prince in his castle.... James Otis, Against the Writs of Assistance, 1761 Which provision in the Bill of Rights includes this same belief? (1) right to a fair trial (2) protection against unreasonable search and seizure (3) guarantee against double jeopardy (4) prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment 45. The Supreme Court decision in Marbury v. Madison (1803) was important because it (1) established the principle of judicial review (2) led to the reelection of President Thomas Jefferson (3) showed that the states were stronger than the federal government (4) proved that the legislative branch was the most powerful branch of government 46. The Great Compromise at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 was important because it (1) established suffrage for all males over the age of twenty-one (2) ended the controversy over slavery (3) created a single-house national legislature (4) balanced the interests of states with large and small populations 47. To provide for change, the authors of the United States Constitution included the amendment process and the (1) commerce clause (2) elastic clause (3) supremacy clause (4) naturalization clause 48. Filibusters were used by United States Senators from the South in the 1950s and 1960s to (1) block passage of civil rights bills (2) protest United States involvement in Vietnam (3) override presidential vetoes of environmental bills (4) gain approval of presidential appointments to the Supreme Court 49. Judicial review gives the United States Supreme Court the power to (1) declare state laws unconstitutional (2) override a congressional veto (3) impeach and remove the president from office (4) approve treaties with foreign nations 18

19 Lincoln Suspends Writ of Habeas Corpus Supreme Court Rules for Government in Draft Resister Case Relocation of Japanese Americans Upheld by Supreme Court 50. These headlines illustrate that during wartime (1) the liberties of individuals can be restricted (2) the role of the government in regulating the economy increases (3) most Americans support participation in wars (4) new job opportunities are created by increased demand 51. The constitutional basis for the separation of church and state is the (1) establishment clause of the 1st Amendment (2) double jeopardy provision of the 5th Amendment (3) reserved powers of the 10th Amendment (4) equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment 52. Which statement describes a characteristic of the government established by the Articles of Confederation? (1) A Supreme Court had the authority to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional. (2) The national government controlled interstate commerce. (3) The president maintained exclusive control over foreign policy. (4) A system was created where the states held the most power. 53. Which action is considered part of the unwritten constitution? (1) ratification of a treaty by the Senate (2) formation of the first two political parties (3) creation of a system of federal courts including the Supreme Court (4) presidential veto of a bill passed by Congress 54. Which constitutional principle is best illustrated by the cartoon? (1) federalism (2) popular sovereignty (3) judicial review (4) checks and balances 55. The enumeration [listing] in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed [interpreted] to deny or disparage [weaken] others retained by the people. 9th Amendment to the United States Constitution The most likely reason this amendment was included in the Bill of Rights was to (1) increase federal power over the people (2) expand state control over individual citizens (3) protect rights beyond those listed in the Constitution (4) prevent Congress from granting additional rights to individuals 19

20 56. The requirement that all persons placed under arrest must be informed of their legal rights resulted from a (1) custom adopted from English common law (2) law enacted by Congress (3) decision of the United States Supreme Court 61. The first amendment of the Constitution deals primarily with (1) states rights (2) property rights (3) rights of the accused (4) rights of self-expression The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude th Amendment, Section 1, United States Constitution, Which actions did Southern States take to keep African Americans from exercising the rights guaranteed in this amendment? (1) suspending habeas corpus and denying women the right to vote (2) collecting poll taxes and requiring literacy tests (3) establishing religious and property-holding requirements for voting (4) passing Black Codes and establishing segregated schools 58. Which principle included in the United States Constitution shows that the framers agreed with Montesquieu? (1) separation of powers (2) federal supremacy (3) implied powers (4) due process 59. Which headline illustrates the use of judicial review? (1) Congress Passes a Civil Rights Bill (2) Conference Committee Meets to Finalize Budget (3) New York State s Reapportionment Plan Ruled Unconstitutional (4) President Signs SALT Agreement with Russia 60. Judicial review, as practiced by the federal courts, resulted directly from (1) the decisions of colonial governors (2) the Articles of Confederation (3) the Bill of Rights (4) a Supreme Court decision 62. The system shown in the diagram was developed under the Articles of Confederation in order to (1) divide lands seized from the Loyalists (2) provide an orderly system of development for the Northwest Territory (3) remove Native American Indians to areas west of the Appalachian Mountains (4) extend slavery as the nation grew 63. Which statement is an example of the system of federalism? (1) Cabinet members are appointed by the president. (2) Revenue bills must begin in the House of Representatives. (3) The national government coins money, but states cannot. (4) The president can negotiate treaties, but the Senate has the power to ratify them. 64. The first amendment of the Constitution deals primarily with (1) states rights (2) property rights (3) rights of the accused (4) rights of self-expression 20

21 65. Judicial review, as practiced by the federal courts, resulted directly from (1) the decisions of colonial governors (2) the Articles of Confederation (3) the Bill of Rights (4) a Supreme Court decision 66. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 set a precedent for other western territories by (1) allowing slavery (2) including voting rights for women (3) providing a method for the creation of new states (4) setting aside land for churches 67. The government created by the Articles of Confederation was unsuccessful at solving many major problems because (1) unlimited power was given to the Supreme Court (2) most power remained with the state governments (3) members of Congress were elected according to each state s population (4) political parties prevented the passage of legislation 68. The first amendment guarantee of freedom of speech was added to the United States Constitution primarily because its supporters believed it was essential to (1) discourage criticism of government policies (2) ensure the functioning of democracy (3) limit political debate in Congress (4) encourage more candidates to run for office 69. Which change within the federal government results from the census that is taken every ten years? (1) The Supreme Court gains new justices. (2) Members of Congress face new term limits. (3) Large states gain additional seats in the Senate. (4) Some states lose or gain members in the House of Representatives. 70. Federalism is a term used to define the division of power between the (1) president and the vice president (2) Senate and the House of Representatives (3) national and state levels of government (4) three branches of the federal government 71. Which presidential action is an example of the use of the unwritten constitution? (1) signing a law passed by Congress (2) calling a meeting of the cabinet (3) ordering the navy to patrol the Persian Gulf (4) nominating a federal court judge Article 6. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes whereof the party shall have been duly convicted: Provided, always, That any person escaping into the same, from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed in any one of the original States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labor or service as aforesaid. Northwest Ordinance, Based on this excerpt from the Northwest Ordinance, which statement is a valid conclusion? (1) The issue of slavery was largely ignored before the Civil War. (2) Abolitionists had gained control of the Constitutional Convention. (3) Slavery was legally banned in the Northwest Territory. (4) Enslaved persons had constitutionally protected civil rights. 73. The Great Compromise enabled delegates at the Constitutional Convention (1787) to (1) establish the principle of popular sovereignty in the territories (2) give Congress the exclusive right to declare war if the nation is attacked (3) protect the interests of states with small populations and states with large populations (4) provide for the indirect election of the president through the electoral college 21

22 74. The major benefit of having the elastic clause in the United States Constitution is that it (1) allows the government to respond to changing conditions (2) protects the rights of racial minorities (3) prevents one branch of government from becoming too powerful (4) establishes a postal service 75. Which constitutional principle best protects the public from abuse by one branch of government? (1) equality (2) federalism (3) executive privilege (4) checks and balances A bicameral legislature is created in which states have equal representation in the Senate, but representation in the House depends on population. An enslaved person is counted as three-fifths of one person for purposes of both representation and taxation. 76. These two statements describe (1) grievances included in the Declaration of Independence (2) provisions found in the Articles of Confederation (3) compromises reached at the Constitutional Convention (4) amendments included in the Bill of Rights 77. Many critics of the electoral college system point out that it (1) penalizes the states with the smallest population (2) encourages the formation of minor political parties (3) grants too much influence to the United States Senate (4) might not select the candidate with the largest number of popular votes 78. The writers of the Constitution corrected an economic weakness under the Articles of Confederation when they (1) granted Congress the power to levy and collect taxes (2) created an executive branch headed by the president (3) granted the president the authority to negotiate treaties (4) created a two-house legislature Base your answers to questions 79 and 80 on the speakers statements below and on your knowledge of social studies. Speaker A: As it stands now, the Constitution does not protect civil liberties. Speaker B: The system of checks and balances will control any abuse of power by a branch of government. Speaker C: The demands of the majority will overwhelm the minority. Speaker D: The amendment process will allow the Constitution to be changed when the need arises. 79. How was the concern of Speaker A resolved? (1) adoption of the elastic clause (2) establishment of the House of Representatives (3) creation of the federal court system (4) addition of the Bill of Rights 80. Which two speakers support the ratification of the Constitution? (1) A and D (3) B and D (2) A and C (4) B and C 81. Which headline illustrates the use of the unwritten constitution? (1) Washington Establishes a Cabinet (2) House Votes to Impeach Andrew Johnson (3) Senate Rejects the Treaty of Versailles (4) President Nominates John Roberts for Supreme Court 22

23 82. The years between the end of the American Revolution and the ratification of the Constitution are sometimes called the critical period because (1) the western territories were left ungoverned (2) the United States fought a war with France (3) Spain refused to sell Florida to the United States (4) the central government failed to solve many economic problems 83. The term judicial review is best defined as the (1) right of a defendant to appeal the verdict of a jury (2) ability of Congress to create new federal courts (3) authority of the Senate to confirm Supreme Court justices (4) power of the Supreme Court to determine the constitutionality of laws 84. According to the United States Constitution, the federal census is used to determine the (1) size of the United States Supreme Court (2) maximum number of cabinet members (3) apportionment of members in the House of Representatives (4) number of senators allotted to each state Speaker B: A bicameral legislature would protect the power of both the large states and the small states. Speaker C: The expansion of the national government will lead to tyranny. Speaker D: The executive branch should have significant power. 86. Which speaker is expressing an idea that was included in the Great Compromise during the drafting of the Constitution in 1787? (1) A (3) C (2) B (4) D 87. During the debate over ratification of the Constitution, people who agreed with the statements of Speakers A and D became known as (1) Loyalists (2) Federalists (3) Antifederalists (4) Democratic Republicans 85. The Supreme Court case of Marbury v. Madison (1803) strengthened the power of the judicial branch by (1) denying states the right to secede from the Union (2) providing the president the power to declare war (3) ruling that Congress has the right to create new territories (4) granting federal courts the power to declare laws unconstitutional Base your answers to questions 86 and 87 on the speakers statements below and on your knowledge of social studies. Speaker A: Our national government should be strong. State governments should have only limited powers. 23

24 Early Republic Study Guide George Washington Set many precedents as 1 st President Unwritten Constitution Things our government does out of custom and tradition even though there is no mention of them in the Constitution examples - Political Parties, President s Cabinet 1 st Political Parties created because of differences in his cabinet Hamilton vs. Jefferson Hamilton s Financial Plan Excise tax (on Whiskey caused Whiskey Rebellion), National Bank, high tariff Jefferson opposes National Bank arguing it is unconstitutional Strict vs loose interpretation of Constitution Strict (Jefferson) Govt can ONLY do what the Constitution says it can do Loose (Hamilton) Govt can do a lot more because of the elastic (or necessary and proper) clause Hamilton Wins National bank will help stabilize the American economy and lead to prosperity. Washington s Foreign Policy NEUTRALITY All the early presidents favored a policy of neutrality in order to preserve newly won independence Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions A state can nullify (strike down, ignore) a federal law belief that states are more powerful than federal government (debate over nature of Federalism again) Thomas Jefferson Also remained NEUTRAL in European conflicts/crisis Biggest achievement was purchase of Louisiana. However, this purchase requires a loose interpretation of the Constitution went against his own political beliefs of strict interpretation. Louisiana was important because it allowed the U.S. to use the Port of New Orleans and the Mississippi river to transport U.S. agricultural products Monroe Doctrine issued to prevent European nations from future colonization in Latin America. Court Cases Judicial Review Power of the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional. First used in Marbury v. Madison Gibbons v Ogden based on the federal governments right to regulate interstate commerce 24

25 Andrew Jackson Greatly expanded the power of the Presidency (even given nickname King Andrew) examples: used veto power often, replaces government workers with his supporters (spoils system) Trail of Tears Jackson ordered the controversial removal of Native Americans from South East (Georgia) to West of the Mississippi River because white settlers desired the land on which Native American Indians lived. Lead to suffering and death of many natives. Erie Canal Linked Great Lakes to Hudson River and to the Atlantic Ocean Helped populate upstate New York and the mid-west and made New York City the commercial, Industrial and financial center of the Nation. 25

26 Early Republic Questions 1. Which foreign policy toward Europe did President George Washington recommend in his Farewell Address? (1) military alliances (3) imperialism (2) internationalism (4) neutrality 2. What was a primary goal of President Thomas Jefferson s 1803 decision to purchase the Louisiana Territory? (1) studying Native American Indian societies (2) mining gold and silver in California (3) gaining control of the port of New Orleans (4) securing access to the iron ore deposits near the Great Lakes 3. The case of Marbury v. Madison (1803) established the principle that (1) the Supreme Court can declare federal laws unconstitutional (2) the states have power over the federal government (3) the president nominates federal judges (4) Congress can override presidential vetoes 4. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798) held that states could nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts because these laws (1) repealed the Northwest Ordinance (2) placed an unfair tax on whiskey made by western farmers (3) violated the Constitution (4) established limits on universal suffrage 5. Based on the map, the Erie Canal and Hudson River contributed directly to the (1) decisions to restrict immigration (2) rapid increase in population in upstate New York (3) settlement of New England (4) acquisition of land from Canada 6. Completion of the Erie Canal in 1825 encouraged the growth of the Midwest because it (1) linked the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Coast (2) helped force the removal of British forts in the Northwest Territory (3) stimulated development of cotton production in the Ohio River valley (4) increased trade with Asia 7. A major reason for President Thomas Jefferson s purchase of the Louisiana Territory was to (1) eliminate Spanish control of California (2) take possession of all of Florida (3) give the United States control of the Mississippi River (4) provide access to areas east of the Appalachian Mountains 26

27 8. What was one important geographic reason the United States was able to maintain a foreign policy of neutrality throughout most of the 19th century? (1) The Atlantic Ocean provided a buffer from European interference. (2) Extensive mountain ranges along the Pacific coastline prevented invasions. (3) Scarce natural resources discouraged international trade. (4) European immigrants had rapid communication with their homelands. 9. President Andrew Jackson used the spoils system to (1) stop the westward expansion of slavery (2) strengthen the military for national defense (3) reward loyal political supporters (4) destroy the Bank of the United States 13. Which geographical consideration had the greatest influence on President Thomas Jefferson s decision to purchase the Louisiana Territory in 1803? (1) Large gold reserves were located in the territory. (2) The size of the territory would create a barrier to French influence. (3) The Rocky Mountain region was an outlet for future population growth. (4) Full control of the port of New Orleans on the Mississippi River would be established. 14. Conflicts between Jeffersonians and Hamiltonians during President George Washington s first administration led directly to the (1) end of the Era of Good Feelings (2) decision to replace the Articles of Confederation (3) addition of the elastic clause to the Constitution (4) start of the first political parties 10. One similarity in the foreign policies of Presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and James Monroe was that they (1) favored France over England (2) promoted colonial expansion (3) came to the defense of Latin American nations (4) sought to avoid involvement in European political struggles 11. During the presidency of George Washington, disagreements between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson over the interpretation of the Constitution contributed to the (1) impeachment of federal judges (2) defeat of the Whiskey Rebellion (3) formation of political parties (4) elimination of the commerce clause 12. One reason President George Washington called for a policy of neutrality in the 1790s was to (1) improve his popularity among Federalist voters (2) avoid United States participation in European wars (3) gain support for the development of a United States navy (4) enforce the Treaty of Alliance with France 27

28 United States 18. Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton supported the creation of the Bank of the United States because it would (1) increase the power of state banks (2) raise revenue to reduce the need for tariffs (3) help ensure the economic stability of the new nation (4) provide low-cost loans to farmers 19. President George Washington s leadership during the Whiskey Rebellion (1794) was important because it (1) showed the ability of the new government to enforce federal law (2) helped assure his reelection to a third term (3) forced frontier farmers to limit grain production (4) halted British fort construction in the Northwest 15. Information on the graph most clearly supports the conclusion that the Erie Canal (1) slowed migration to the Midwest (2) replaced railroads as the main method of transportation (3) improved transportation between the Hudson River and the Great Lakes (4) relied on the development of steamboats for canal use 16. One major result of the completion of the Erie Canal was that (1) the population of Rochester fell (2) shipping on Lake Champlain decreased (3) manufacturing along the canal declined (4) New York City became the nation s commercial center 17. In the 1830s, President Andrew Jackson supported the Indian removal policy because (1) white settlers desired the land on which Native American Indians lived (2) Native American Indians were attacking southern cities (3) he wanted to punish Native American Indians for their political opposition (4) he sought complete control of Texas by the Base your answer to question 20 on the time line below and on your knowledge of social studies Louisiana Purchase Treaty established western boundary of United States Convention with Britain established northern boundary of Louisiana Territory Adams-Onís Treaty granted Florida to United States Webster-Ashburton Treaty established MaineCanada border Treaty of Oregon established northern boundary of Oregon Territory. 20. The time line shows that the major way the United States gained territory in the early 19th century was through (1) war (3) executive orders (2) diplomacy (4) arbitration 21. One result of the War of 1812 was that the United States (1) acquired French-held territory in southern Canada (2) maintained its independence and its territory (3) lost control of the Ohio River valley (4) gained territory from Mexico 28

29 22. What economic change resulted from the transportation revolution before the Civil War? (1) The Northeast became better connected to the western section of the country. (2) Trade between the United States and Europe was sharply reduced. (3) The system of slavery on southern plantations began to disappear. (4) The federal government began to regulate new businesses. 23. The Articles of Confederation and the theory of nullification were both attempts to (1) strengthen the national government (2) form new political parties (3) protect states rights (4) strengthen the presidency 24. How did President George Washington react to the conflict between France and England in 1793? (1) He used the opportunity to begin the war for American independence. (2) He declared the neutrality of the United States. (3) He aided the French because they had supported the American Revolution. (4) He negotiated a peace settlement between the warring nations. 25. A loose interpretation of the Constitution was applied when (1) George Washington appointed John Jay to the Supreme Court (2) John Adams signed the Alien and Sedition Acts (3) Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territory (4) James Monroe delivered his State of the Union message 26. During the first half of the 19th century, the construction of canals and roads led to the (1) expansion of trade between midwestern farmers and eastern merchants (2) growth of plantation agriculture in Texas and New Mexico (3) severe economic decline of the South (4) bankruptcy of several railroad companies in the Mississippi Valley One reason James Madison and Thomas Jefferson objected to Alexander Hamilton s financial policies was that they believed (1) the establishment of a national bank was unconstitutional (2) a laissez-faire policy would not help the country s economy (3) the government should encourage industrial development (4) high tariffs were needed to protect America s economic interests 28. Which proposal was included in Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton s financial plans in the 1790s? (1) incentives to encourage agricultural expansion (2) creation of a national bank (3) direct taxes on the states to support government operations (4) free trade with other nations 29. President George Washington s principal reason for issuing the Proclamation of Neutrality (1793) was to (1) repay France for help in the Revolutionary War (2) protect United States interests in the Caribbean area (3) safeguard the newly won independence (4) punish the British for failing to withdraw from American territory 30. The Supreme Court decision in Marbury v. Madison (1803) was important because it (1) established the principle of judicial review (2) led to the reelection of President Thomas Jefferson (3) showed that the states were stronger than the federal government (4) proved that the legislative branch was the most powerful branch of government 31. Thomas Jefferson opposed Alexander Hamilton s plan to create a national bank primarily because the plan would (1) weaken the nation s currency (2) increase the national debt (3) promote the interests of farmers (4) depend on a loose interpretation of the Constitution

30 Tis [It is] our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world.... President George Washington, Farewell Address, The United States was able to follow this advice from President Washington for several decades primarily because of (1) industrial and agricultural self-sufficiency (2) strong support from other Western Hemisphere nations (3) geographic isolation from Europe (4) peaceful relations between the European powers 33. The major purpose of the Monroe Doctrine (1823) was to (1) create a military alliance for the defense of North America (2) guarantee democratic governments in Latin America (3) secure new colonies in the Caribbean (4) limit European influence in the Western Hemisphere 34. The completion of the Erie Canal in the early 19th century aided the economic development of the United States by (1) supplying water for the irrigation of western farms (2) lowering the cost of shipping goods from the Midwest to the Atlantic coast (3) providing a shipping route for cotton from the South to Europe (4) supplying waterpower for running factories and mills 35. Which action during Washington s administration led to the Whiskey Rebellion in western Pennsylvania? (1) passage of a new excise tax (2) establishment of a presidential cabinet (3) creation of the Bank of the United States (4) ban on slavery in the Northwest Territory 36. The foreign policies of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and James Monroe were similar in that they each (1) supported wars against England (2) failed to acquire new territory (3) attempted to avoid involvement in European affairs (4) aided the French in return for their help during the Revolutionary War 37. Acquiring New Orleans as part of the Louisiana Purchase was considered important to the development of the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys because the city (1) provided protection from attacks by the Spanish (2) provided migrant workers for river valley farms (3) served as a port for American agricultural goods (4) served as the cultural center for the nation 38. One major reason that Alexander Hamilton proposed a national bank was to (1) improve the economic position of the United States government (2) help state governments collect taxes (3) make loans available to owners of small farms (4) reduce foreign investment in the United States 39. A major foreign policy success of President Thomas Jefferson s administration was the (1) purchase of the Louisiana Territory (2) support for the Alien and Sedition Acts (3) victory in the war of 1812 (4) passage of the Embargo Act 40. The Supreme Court decisions in Gibbons v. Ogden and Northern Securities Co. v. United States were based on the federal government s power to (1) issue patents (2) control the stock market (3) regulate interstate commerce (4) encourage technological development 30

31 41. How did Alexander Hamilton s financial plan affect the economy of the United States during the 1790s? (1) National tax revenues decreased. (2) High tariffs increased foreign trade. (3) Treasury policies contributed to widespread inflation. (4) The newly created Bank of the United States helped stabilize the economy. 42. One result of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory (1803) was that the United States (1) acquired California from Spain (2) gained control of the port of New Orleans (3) ended border conflicts with British Canada (4) annexed Florida 43. During George Washington s presidency, the authority of the federal government was strengthened by the (1) elimination of political parties (2) suppression of the Whiskey Rebellion (3) formation of a military alliance with England (4) establishment of a national language 44. Under the leadership of Chief Justice John Marshall ( ), the Supreme Court expanded the influence of the national government by (1) forcing states to grant relief from personal debt (2) authorizing the president to use troops without congressional approval (3) ending the importation of enslaved Africans (4) strengthening federal powers over interstate commerce and banking 45. Which action of President Thomas Jefferson was in conflict with his belief in a strict interpretation of the Constitution? (1) protesting the impressment of United States sailors (2) purchasing the Louisiana Territory from France (3) pardoning violators of the Alien and Sedition Acts (4) using the United States Navy to subdue the Barbary pirates 46. The decision in Marbury v. Madison (1803) was significant because it established that the Supreme Court (1) had limited powers over state courts (2) had the power to choose its own members (3) could declare a federal law unconstitutional (4) could impeach the president and other government officials 47. A major reason for purchasing the Louisiana Territory (1803) was to (1) gain access to the Ohio Territory (2) remove the British from the borders of the United States (3) secure control of the port of New Orleans (4) open the Rocky Mountains to miners 48. Which document was issued primarily to prevent European nations from future colonization in Latin America? (1) Jay Treaty (1795) (2) Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) (3) Embargo Act (1807) (4) Monroe Doctrine (1823Base your answer to question 24 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies. Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate [connect] ourselves by artificial ties in the ordinary vicissitudes [changes] of her politics or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities [antagonisms]. President George Washington, Farewell Address, According to the passage, President Washington believed that the United States should (1) seek financial aid from European nations (2) end all existing European friendships (3) avoid involvement in the political disputes of Europe (4) discontinue commercial relations with Europe 31

32 50. Many critics of the electoral college system point out that it (1) penalizes the states with the smallest population (2) encourages the formation of minor political parties (3) grants too much influence to the United States Senate (4) might not select the candidate with the largest number of popular votes 51. The establishment of judicial review in Marbury v. Madison (1803) gave federal courts the authority to (1) decide whether a law is constitutional (2) create lower courts (3) approve foreign treaties (4) appoint judges to lifetime terms 52. One feature common to the foreign policies of Presidents George Washington, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson was that each wanted to (1) favor France in its conflict with Great Britain (2) secure new territory west of the Mississippi River (3) maintain neutrality during European conflicts (4) seek military alliances with neighboring Countries 53. The importance of the Supreme Court s ruling in Marbury v. Madison (1803) is that the Court (1) decided on the legality of state taxation of federal property (2) allowed for the influence of political parties in the passage of laws (3) refused to expand federal power over interstate trade (4) established the power of judicial review of federal laws 54. What was a major foreign policy goal of the United States during the first half of the 1800s? (1) forming defense alliances with European nations (2) establishing colonies in the Caribbean and Latin America (3) maintaining neutrality while increasing foreign trade (4) continuing the transatlantic African slave trade Jackson Replaces Many Government Workers With His Supporters Jackson Vetoes Bank Recharter Bill for Political Reasons Jackson Refuses to Enforce Worcester v. Georgia Decision 55. Which conclusion about President Andrew Jackson is most consistent with these headlines? (1) He allowed Congress to decide controversial issues. (2) He expanded presidential powers. (3) He demonstrated weakness in dealing with domestic issues. (4) He relied on the Supreme Court to settle disputes. 56. As a result of President Andrew Jackson s policies, Native American Indians were (1) relocated to reservations in Mexico (2) forcibly removed to areas west of the Mississippi River (3) gradually allowed to return to their ancestral lands (4) given United States citizenship 57. In Marbury v. Madison (1803), the Supreme Court established a precedent for (1) judicial review (2) the impeachment process for civil officers (3) lifetime offices for justices (4) treaty ratification procedures 58. The Lewis and Clark expedition ( ) was important because it (1) determined the route of the first transcontinental railroad (2) opened an all-water route to the Gulf of Mexico (3) removed the British threat from the Northwest Territory (4) increased understanding of the area included in the Louisiana Purchase 32

33 59. How did Alexander Hamilton s financial plan affect the economy of the United States during the 1790s? (1) National tax revenues decreased. (2) High tariffs increased foreign trade. (3) Treasury policies contributed to widespread inflation. (4) The newly created Bank of the United States helped stabilize the economy. 60. One result of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory (1803) was that the United States (1) acquired California from Spain (2) gained control of the port of New Orleans (3) ended border conflicts with British Canada (4) annexed Florida 61. The decision in Marbury v. Madison (1803) was significant because it established that the Supreme Court (1) had limited powers over state courts (2) had the power to choose its own members (3) could declare a federal law unconstitutional (4) could impeach the president and other government officials Base your answer to question 62 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies. Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate [connect] ourselves by artificial ties in the ordinary vicissitudes [changes] of her politics or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities [antagonisms]. President George Washington, Farewell Address, According to the passage, President Washington believed that the United States should (1) seek financial aid from European nations (2) end all existing European friendships (3) avoid involvement in the political disputes of Europe (4) discontinue commercial relations with Europe 63. Many critics of the electoral college system point out that it (1) penalizes the states with the smallest population (2) encourages the formation of minor political parties (3) grants too much influence to the United States Senate (4) might not select the candidate with the largest number of popular votes 64. The establishment of judicial review in Marbury v. Madison (1803) gave federal courts the authority to (1) decide whether a law is constitutional (2) create lower courts (3) approve foreign treaties (4) appoint judges to lifetime terms 65. A major reason for purchasing the Louisiana Territory (1803) was to (1) gain access to the Ohio Territory (2) remove the British from the borders of theunited States (3) secure control of the port of New Orleans (4) open the Rocky Mountains to miners 66. As a result of President Andrew Jackson s policies, Native American Indians were (1) relocated to reservations in Mexico (2) forcibly removed to areas west of the Mississippi River (3) gradually allowed to return to their ancestral lands (4) given United States citizenship 67. During the presidency of Andrew Jackson, the spoils system resulted in (1) federal laws being nullified by the states (2) elected officials rewarding their supporters with government jobs (3) all free males being given the right to vote (4) the end of political corruption in the federal Government 33

34 68. One important goal of the Monroe Doctrine (1823) was to (1) reduce trade barriers between the United States and African nations (2) establish United States colonies and naval bases in the Caribbean (3) provide military assistance to help the Philippines (4) prevent former colonial powers from taking over Latin American nations gain independence from Spain 69. During the 19th century, New York was one of the most powerful states in the nation because it (1) became the financial and industrial center of the nation (2) led the nation in achieving political reforms (3) produced more presidents than any other state (4) offered more civil liberties than any other state 34

35 Manifest Destiny and Sectionalism Manifest Destiny The belief that the United States should expand Westward to the Pacific Ocean. Mexican American War (1848) fought (in part) to fulfill this belief in Manifest Destiny. Conquered huge tract of land in SW from Mexico. Factors for moving west Gold Rush (California 1848) ***Problems*** Created division - Should slaves be allowed in the new territories? A slave territory will become another slave state. Compromises over slave issue Postponed sectional division and war. Missouri Compromise (1820) Missouri comes in as a slave state, Maine as a free state keeps slave/free state balance in the Senate. All States above latitude will be free. Compromise of 1850 California enters as a free state but northern states must enforce the Fugitive Slave Act. Fugitive Slave Act Northerners must return suspected escaped slaves to the South back into slavery. Despised by many northerners. Kansas Nebraska Act The people of Kansas and Nebraska Territory can choose for themselves whether to allow slaves or not Popular Sovereignty Bloody Kansas Violence breaks out in Kansas between pro-slave and anti-slavery advocates. Dredd Scott v. Sanford Supreme Court rules that blacks cannot be citizens and that a slave brought into free territory is still a slave. Enrages North. John Brown s Raid on Harpers Ferry Northern Abolitionist marches into South with a small militia to arm and free the slaves. Enrages South. Dredd Scott, Bloody Kansas, John Brown and the Fugitive Slave act all make sectional compromise all but impossible. Famous Abolitionists Frederick Douglas, Harriet Beecher Stowe (wrote Uncle Tom s Cabin), William Lloyd Garrison 35

36 Manifest Destiny and Sectionalism Questions 1. Which heading best completes the partial outline below? (1) Reasons for the American System (2) Successes of Third Political Parties (3) Causes of Sectionalism (4) Justifications for Economic Reform 3. After the Civil War, many owners of large plantations in the South responded to the loss of enslaved labor by (1) hiring Irish immigrants to do the work of freedmen (2) selling their plantations to formerly enslaved persons (3) creating tenant farms and sharecropping (4) paying wages to farmworkers who had migrated from the North 4. One way that Bleeding Kansas, the Dred Scott decision, and John Brown s raid on Harper s Ferry had a similar effect on the United States was that these events (1) ended conflict over slavery in the territories (2) eased tensions between the North and the South (3) contributed to the formation of the Whig Party (4) made sectional compromise more difficult 5. Which heading best completes the partial outline below? I. A. Missouri Compromise B. Compromise of 1850 C. Kansas-Nebraska Act (1) Rise of Sectionalism (2) Impact of Industrialization (3) Examples of Religious Revivalism (4) Events Leading to the Mexican War 2. This 1863 poster is recruiting African Americans to help (1) defeat the Confederacy in the Civil War (2) assist in the efforts of the Underground Railroad (3) settle land in the South and in border states (4) enforce the terms of the Fugitive Slave Act 6. William Lloyd Garrison, Harriet Tubman, and Harriet Beecher Stowe are best known for their efforts to (1) create free public schools (2) begin the temperance movement (3) expand the rights of women (4) oppose the practice of slavery 7. In which war was Manifest Destiny used to justify United States government actions? (1) Revolutionary War (2) Mexican War (3) Civil War (4) Vietnam War 36

37 8. The term Manifest Destiny was first used to support (1) independence from Great Britain (2) westward expansion to the Pacific Ocean (3) efforts to stop secession of Southern states (4) laws restricting labor union activity 9. In the mid-1800s, the growth of the populations of California and the western territories was mainly a result of the (1) discovery of gold and silver (2) opening of the Panama Canal (3) migration of freedmen after the Civil War (4) secession of the Southern states 10. In 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry s visit to Japan was important to the United States because it (1) ended the United States policy of neutrality (2) opened new trading opportunities in Asia (3) began a military alliance between the two nations (4) acquired cheap labor for America s factories 12. The Missouri Compromise (1820), the Compromise of 1850, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) were all efforts to (1) end fighting between midwestern farmers and Native American Indians (2) encourage manufacturing in the West (3) increase the number of people who voted in presidential elections (4) settle disputes over the spread of slavery to the western territories Base your answers to questions 13 and 14 on the speakers statements below and on your knowledge of social studies. Speaker A: The right way to settle the question of slavery in the territories is to let the people who live there determine if their state is to be slave or free. Speaker B: The Supreme Court s decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford is exactly what this country needs. Perhaps now the abolitionists will stop their meddling. Speaker C: Secession is unlawful and treasonous. Everything possible must be done to preserve the Union. Speaker D: The rights of the states must be protected. The federal government is exceeding its authority. 11. This poster from the 1850s appeared in response to the (1) passage of the fugitive slave law (2) start of the Civil War (3) issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation (4) enactment of the 13th Amendment The solution proposed by Speaker A is known as (1) nullification (3) the spoils system (2) popular sovereignty (4) federal supremacy 14. Which speaker most accurately represents the opinions of President Abraham Lincoln? (1) A (3) C (2) B (4) D 15. During the 1840s, abolitionists opposed annexation of new western territory because they (1) feared the admission of new slave states (2) wanted to limit the power of the national government (3) were concerned with the legal rights of Native American Indians (4) supported an isolationist foreign policy

38 16. From 1820 to 1865, the debates over nullification, protective tariffs, and the spread of slavery into the new territories concerned the constitutional issue of the (1) balance of power between the federal and state governments (2) balance between the rights of individuals and the need to maintain order (3) protection of the rights of ethnic and racial groups (4) separation of power between the executive and legislative branches 17. Which heading best completes the partial outline below? I. A. Nullification crisis B. Kansas-Nebraska Act C. Dred Scott v. Sanford D. Election of Lincoln (1860) (1) Foreign Policies of the United States (2) Government Policies Toward Native American Indians (3) Consequences of Manifest Destiny (4) Causes of Sectional Conflict 18. Which term did Americans use in the 1840s to describe the idea that the United States should possess the entire continent? (1) containment (2) globalization (3) Manifest Destiny (4) popular sovereignty 19. The principle of popular sovereignty was an important part of the (1) Indian Removal Act (3) Homestead Act (2) Kansas-Nebraska Act (4) Dawes Act 20. The annexation of Texas and the Mexican Cession are best described as efforts by the United States to (1) remove European threats (2) limit the spread of slavery (3) end wars of aggression (4) fulfill Manifest Destiny 21. In the Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas- Nebraska Act of 1854, popular sovereignty was proposed as a way to (1) allow northern states the power to ban slavery (2) deny southern states the legal right to own slaves (3) allow settlers in new territories to vote on the issue of slavery (4) overturn previous Supreme Court decisions on slavery 22. Which title best completes the partial outline below? I. A. California Gold Rush (1849) B. Homestead Act (1862) C. Completion of transcontinental railroad (1869) (1) Factors Encouraging Westward Settlement (2) Government-Sponsored Transportation Programs (3) Recognition of Native American Indian Land Rights (4) Actions Promoting the Conservation of Resources 23. In the 1840s, President James K. Polk s belief in Manifest Destiny led to (1) a war with Mexico (2) an alliance with several South American nations (3) the establishment of new colonies in the Caribbean (4) a ban on the activities of northern abolitionists 24. The principle of popular sovereignty was an important part of the (1) Indian Removal Act (3) Homestead Act (2) Kansas-Nebraska Act (4) Dawes Act Natural Resources Publication of The Liberator Kansas-Nebraska Act Dred Scott decision 25. The events listed above all contributed to the (1) outbreak of the Civil War (2) formation of the policy of Manifest Destiny (3) passage of the Missouri Compromise (4) annexation of Texas 38

39 Civil War and Reconstruction Election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln Southern states secede from the Union because they believe he is an abolitionist He is not. He only wants to stop the spread of slavery into the territories. ***Lincoln fights the Civil War to restore the Union, NOT FREE THE SLAVES.*** Emancipation Proclamation ONLY freed the slaves in the states in rebellion not all the slaves. Not considered the end of slavery African-Americans fought for the North in segregated units of negros Reconstruction Reconstruction Period immediately after the Civil War Purpose was to reconstruct the Nation Civil War Amendments 13 th Amendment Freed the slaves 14 th Amendment Gave blacks Citizenship 15 th Amendment Gave blacks the right to vote Despite this, African American s gradually fall back into deplorable conditions. Jim Crow laws that segregated people based on race Poll Taxes and Literacy Tests Used to keep African Americans from voting Sharecropping economic system designed to provide a cheap labor supplt for plantation owners and to keep blacks poor. Large numbers of freed slaves became sharecroppers Plessy V. Ferguson - Supreme Court rules segregation (Jim Crow) is legal if the facilities are equal (Separate but equal) 39

40 Civil War and Reconstruction 1. The separate but equal doctrine established by the Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) upheld the legality of (1) woman s suffrage in state elections (2) the activities of the Ku Klux Klan (3) racial segregation in public facilities (4) restrictions on voting rights of African Americans 2. As the Civil War began, President Abraham Lincoln stated that his primary goal was to (1) end slavery (2) set new national boundaries (3) increase congressional powers (4) preserve the Union 3. The institution of slavery was formally abolished in the United States by the (1) Compromise of 1850 (2) Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 (3) creation of the Freedmen s Bureau in 1865 (4) ratification of the 13th amendment in After the Civil War, which development limited economic opportunities for African Americans in the South? (1) creation of military districts (2) establishment of the Freedmen s Bureau (3) use of the sharecropping system (4) ratification of the 14th amendment 5. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses, and poll taxes were enacted by Southern States to (1) limit the movement of African Americans (2) restrict the voting rights of African Americans (3) improve the social status of African Americans (4) expand educational opportunities for African Americans... Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable! Daniel Webster, The principle expressed in this statement was also reflected in (1) Thomas Jefferson s call for nullification of the Alien and Sedition Acts (2) Federalist Party threats during the War of 1812 (3) John Calhoun s defense of States rights (4) Abraham Lincoln s attitude toward Southern secession 8. As the Civil War began, President Abraham Lincoln stated that his primary goal was to (1) end slavery (2) set new national boundaries (3) increase congressional powers (4) preserve the Union 9. The Civil War affected the northern economy by (1) causing a severe depression (2) increasing unemployment rates (3) decreasing demand for agricultural products (4) stimulating industrialization 10. In the ten years following the Civil War, a large numbers of former slaves earned a living by becoming (1) conductors on the Underground Railroad (2) workers in Northern factories (3) sharecroppers on Southern farms (4) gold miners in California 6. Black Codes were established in the South immediately after the Civil War in an effort to (1) integrate freedmen into American society (2) enforce the Emancipation Proclamation (3) expand educational opportunities (4) limit the rights of newly freed African Americans 40

41 11. Which statement is best supported by the data in the table? (1) The Confederate troops lost the Civil War as a result of their higher numbers of injuries and fatalities. (2) The Union army had better generals during the Civil War. (3) The Civil War had more casualties than any other war. (4) More soldiers died from disease than from wounds. 12. After the Civil War, white Southern landowners used sharecropping to (1) set up schools to educate formerly enslaved persons (2) encourage freedmen to migrate north (3) maintain a cheap labor supply (4) sell their plantations to formerly enslaved Persons The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude th Amendment, Section 1, United States Constitution, The Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) had a major impact on the lives of African Americans because it ruled that (1) segregation was illegal in educational institutions (2) voting was a right guaranteed by the Constitution (3) separate but equal public facilities were legal (4) military occupation of the South was Unconstitutional 15. The North s rapid economic growth during the Civil War was stimulated by (1) the elimination of taxes on defense industries (2) a reduction in the number of immigrants (3) increased government demand for many products (4) enslaved persons filling industrial jobs 16. Constitutional amendments adopted during Reconstruction were intended to (1) provide legal and political rights for African Americans (2) end property and religious qualifications for voting (3) correct problems with the electoral college system (4) limit the number of terms of the president 17. In the South, the passage of Jim Crow laws in the 1870s and 1880s led directly to the (1) racial integration of public schools (2) decline of the Democratic party (3) organization of the Ku Klux Klan (4) segregation of public facilities 13. Which actions did Southern States take to keep African Americans from exercising the rights guaranteed in this amendment? (1) suspending habeas corpus and denying women the right to vote (2) collecting poll taxes and requiring literacy tests (3) establishing religious and property-holding requirements for voting (4) passing Black Codes and establishing segregated schools 41

42 20. Which statement best describes how the status of African Americans in the South changed soon after the end of Reconstruction in 1877? (1) The Supreme Court consistently supported civil rights for African Americans. (2) Poll taxes and literacy tests were eliminated for African Americans. (3) Increasing numbers of African Americans were elected to public office. (4) African Americans faced increasing discrimination and segregation. 18. What is the main idea of this cartoon from the Reconstruction Era? (1) Southern society was oppressed by Radical Republican policies. (2) Military force was necessary to stop Southern secession. (3) United States soldiers forced women in the South to work in factories. (4) Sharecropping was an economic burden for women after the Civil War. States (4) ending the Freedmen s Bureau 19. The constitutional controversy that led directly to the start of the Civil War concerned the right of states to (1) control tariff rates (2) sign treaties with foreign nations (3) redraw congressional districts (4) secede from the Union 21. Which inference is most clearly supported by the information in this table? (1) Slavery decreased throughout the South with the end of the African slave trade. (2) The enslaved population began to decline after (3) The transcontinental railroad spread slavery outside the South. (4) Slavery would likely have continued to grow had there not been a civil war. 22. A primary reason for the passage of the 14 th amendment in 1868 was to (1) prohibit the secession of states (2) uphold the legality of the Black Codes (3) continue the presidential plan for Reconstruction (4) guarantee citizenship rights to the newly freed slaves 42

43 23. After the Civil War, freedmen in the South had difficulty improving their economic condition because (1) literacy for formerly enslaved persons was prohibited (2) migration of factory workers from Northern cities had created competition for jobs (3) the federal government confiscated their 40- acre grants (4) the system of sharecropping kept them in a cycle of poverty 24. The constitutional controversy that led directly to the start of the Civil War concerned the right of states to (1) control tariff rates (2) sign treaties with foreign nations (3) redraw congressional districts (4) secede from the Union Base your answers to questions 25 and 26 on the quotation below and on your knowledge of social studies. In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath registered in Heaven to destroy the government, while I shall have the most solemn one to preserve, protect, and defend it. President Abraham Lincoln, First Inaugural Address, March 4, When President Lincoln made this speech, which step toward civil war had already taken place? (1) The Emancipation Proclamation had been issued. (2) Union troops had invaded several Southern states. (3) General Robert E. Lee had led an attack on Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. (4) Several Southern states had seceded from the Union. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. 14th amendment, Section 1, United States Constitution 27. This amendment was adopted in 1868 primarily to (1) protect the rights of formerly enslaved persons (2) make it easier for immigrants to become citizens (3) extend suffrage to settlers on the Great Plains (4) require the federal government to pay the costs of Reconstruction 25. President Lincoln made this statement in an effort to (1) urge Congress to spend money to buy the freedom of slaves (2) convince Southerners that he posed no threat to their way of life (3) offer to compromise his position regarding territorial expansion of slavery (4) persuade Americans that war between the North and South was unavoidable 43

44 The whole military force of the State is at the service of a Mr. Suttle, a slaveholder from Virginia, to enable him to catch a man whom he calls his property; but not a soldier is offered to save a citizen of Massachusetts from being kidnapped! Is this what all these soldiers, all this training, have been for these seventy-nine years past [since the beginning of the American Revolution]? Have they been trained merely to rob Mexico and carry back fugitive slaves to their masters? Henry David Thoreau, Independence Day speech at Framingham, Massachusetts 28. The author of this statement is expressing dissatisfaction with a provision included in the (1) Treaty of Ghent (1815) (2) Oregon Treaty of 1846 (3) Compromise of 1850 (4) Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) 29. President Abraham Lincoln s plan for Reconstruction after the Civil War included (1) restoring the social conditions that existed before the war began (2) conducting trials for former Confederate leaders (3) destroying the economic and social power of the Southern planters (4) reuniting the nation as quickly as possible 30. In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Supreme Court ruled that (1) states may not secede from the Union (2) racial segregation was constitutional (3) slaves are property and may not be taken from their owners (4) all western territories should be open to Slavery Use cartoon to answer 5 and 6 44

45 The New West and Industrialization ( ) New West ( ) Dawes Act Provided incentives to Native Americans to assimilate into American culture. Children were brought to Americanization schools. Homestead Act Provided 160 acres of land on the Great Plains to homesteaders who would farm it for 5 years. Helped settle the great plains. Transcontinental Railroad Railroad linking east and west coast helping movement of industrial goods. Also helped settle the great plains. Introduced new methods of business organization and finance. Eventually regulated by Interstate Commerce Commission first federal government regulatory agency. Populist Party political party of farmers who want the federal government to do more: regulate the railroads, monopolies and banks, increase the money supply to raise price of crops etc. Industrialization New Methods of production assembly line New methods of transportation Railroad Nature of work changes low skill, workers poorly paid and easily replaced Immigrants flooded to the cities of the northeast (east coast) to fill these jobs. Old Immigrants Before 1880 Northers and Western Europe New Immigrants After 1880 From southern and eastern Europe Urbanization rapid growth of cities to house large immigrant labor source Nativism anti-immigrant sentiment. Business owners wanted immigration to provide cheap labor while many workers and labor unions opposed immigration because they were competition for jobs. Laws that reflected Nativist beliefs Chinese Exclusion Act and the Immigration or Quota Acts of the 1920 s. Big Business - Nature of business changes some grow bigger and bigger Laissez-Faire The belief that Government should NOT regulate business or pass laws that interfere in commerce. Monopoly or Trust driving competition out of business and being the only company that makes a certain product or service Tycoons Were they robber barons (bad) or pioneers of industry (good) Rockefeller Oil Morgan Banking Vanderbilt Railroads Carnegie Steel 45

46 They used social Darwinism to justify their huge sums of wealth. Meaning they were more fit than those that did not acquire huge sums of money. Because it was natural for them to be rich, they opposed all types of government intervention on behalf of workers or the poor (supported Laissez-faire). Andrew Carnegie Gospel of Wealth Role of wealthy to share their wealth with community. Sherman Anti-Trust Act passed to outlaw trusts and monopolies and ensure competition between competing businesses. Other problems of industrialization: unsanitary living conditions, child labor, dangerous working conditions, 46

47 WESTERN FRONTEIR QUESTION BANK Base your answer to question 1 on the photographs below and on your knowledge of social studies. Apache children on arrival at the Carlisle Indian School (Pennsylvania), 1886 Apache children at the Carlisle Indian School four months later, These photographs of 19th-century life on the Great Plains indicate that (1) Native American Indians and white settlers used the same building materials for protection (2) Native American Indians and white settlers adapted differently to the same environment (3) white settlers learned farming practices from Native American Indians (4) both Native American Indians and white settlers depended on the buffalo for survival 3. This pair of photographs suggests that the major purpose of the Carlisle Indian School was to (1) train future leaders in tribal traditions (2) prepare children for life on the reservation (3) teach skills needed for working in factories (4) promote cultural assimilation 2. Which region of the United States was most directly affected by the passage of the Homestead Act? (1) Atlantic Coast (2) Rocky Mountains (3) Appalachian Mountains (4) Great Plains 47

48 4. What was the primary goal of the Dawes Act of 1887 regarding Native American Indians? (1) assimilating Native American Indians into mainstream American life (2) increasing the size of Native American Indian reservations (3) promoting Native American Indian languages and cultures (4) strengthening Native 5. The Homestead Act and grants of land to railroads were used to (1) raise money to finance the federal government (2) limit the influence of monopolies and trusts (3) support the development of state universities (4) encourage settlement of the West 6. During the 19th century, the completion of the Erie Canal and the transcontinental railroads contributed to the industrial growth of the United States by (1) making the movement of goods easier and cheaper (2) protecting the United States from low-priced foreign imports (3) encouraging subsistence farming (4) connecting the United States to markets in Mexico and Canada 7. In an outline, which main topic would include the other three? (1) Erie Canal (2) 19th-Century Internal Improvements (3) Transcontinental Railroad (4) National Road 8. In an effort to resolve conflicts with the frontier settlers in the 1870s, the federal government forced Native American Indians to (1) move west of the Mississippi River (2) live on reservations with definite boundaries (3) relocate to urban industrial centers (4) help build the transcontinental railroad Which trend is shown in these graphs? (1) When production increases, prices decrease. (2) When production increases, prices increase. (3) When production remains unchanged, prices decrease. (4) Prices and production are usually unrelated. 10. As a result of the trends shown in the graphs, the Populist Party wanted the federal government to increase the money supply to (1) raise the prices of crops (2) limit the exportation of corn (3) discourage the consumption of corn (4) increase agricultural imports Settlement of the Great Plains Creation of standard time zones Establishment of the first federal regulatory agency Introduction of new methods of business management and finance 11. These developments in the late 19th century show the importance of (1) railroads on the development of the United States (2) agrarian reformers in western states (3) the labor union movement on the nation (4) the oil industry in increasing American power in the world 12. The passage of the Dawes Act in 1887 was primarily an attempt by the United States government to (1) limit the power of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (2) return eastern land to Native American Indian tribes (3) encourage Native American Indians to give up their traditional cultures (4) hire Native American Indians as military scouts

49 Industrialization Question Bank 1. The federal government responded to the railroad strikes of 1877 and the Pullman strike of 1894 by (1) using military force against the workers (2) requiring negotiation to resolve the disputes (3) maintaining a neutral position between labor and management (4) providing economic aid to striking workers 4. Which proposal was most consistent with the goals of the American Federation of Labor under the leadership of Samuel Gompers? (1) government ownership of the transportation and communication industries (2) collective bargaining to reach agreements on wages and hours (3) formation of a third political party to promote union policies (4) organization of unskilled workers into one national union 5. Few restrictions were placed on immigration to the United States in the late 19th century primarily because immigrants (1) would work for low wages (2) provided a rich source of investment capital (3) would add to the diversity of the population (4) faced little opposition from citizens 2. What was the primary cause of the trends shown on the graph? (1) closing of the western frontier (2) industrialization in the North and the Midwest (3) passage of the Homestead Act (4) completion of the transcontinental railroad 3. From 1870 to 1900, business leaders in the United States often attempted to increase productivity, maximize profits, and decrease costs by (1) reducing competition through the formation of trusts (2) increasing benefits for industrial workers (3) supporting the passage of strict antitrust laws (4) preventing foreign investment in the United States 6. Between 1880 and 1900, most immigrants coming to the United States settled in the cities along the east coast because (1) many factory jobs were available in the East (2) little farmland remained to be settled in the Midwest (3) most immigrants came from the cities of Europe (4) city laws afforded special rights and protections for immigrants 7. A major cause of antagonism toward the new immigrants who came to the United States after 1880 was the belief that they (1) were better educated than native-born Americans (2) had a higher standard of living than most Americans (3) adapted easily to American culture (4) competed with Americans for jobs as unskilled laborers 49

50 Speaker A: When demand ran high, and markets were scarce, he showed little mercy, broke his contracts for delivery and raised prices. Speaker B: The man of wealth must hold his fortune in trust for the community and use it for philanthropic and charitable purposes. Speaker C: It is cruel to slander the rich because they have been successful. They have gone into great enterprises that have enriched the nation and the nation has enriched them. Speaker D: The fruits of the toil of millions are boldly stolen to build up colossal fortunes for the few, unprecedented in the history of mankind. 8. Which two speakers would most likely label late 19th-century industrialists as robber barons? (1) A and B (2) A and D (3) B and C (4) C and D 9. The most valid conclusion that can be drawn from the different viewpoints of these speakers is that industrialists of the late 19th century (1) benefited and harmed society (2) treated their workers fairly (3) used illegal means to gain wealth (4) generally opposed the free-enterprise economic System 10. The term robber baron was used to criticize the (1) tactics of big-business leaders (2) corruption of government officials (3) dishonesty of carpetbaggers (4) unskilled labor of illegal immigrants 11. The Gentlemen s Agreement, literacy tests, and the quota system were all attempts by Congress to restrict (1) immigration (2) property ownership (3) voting rights (4) access to public education What is the main idea of this cartoon from the 1800s? (1) Labor is gaining power over big business. (2) Most Americans support the labor movement. (3) Business has advantages over labor. (4) Government should support the expansion of railroads. 13. The Sherman Antitrust Act and the Clayton Antitrust Act were passed in an effort to (1) promote the formation of new trusts (2) maintain competition in business (3) increase business investment (4) limit the activities of foreign corporations 14. What major trend related to population occurred during the industrialization boom of the late 1800s? (1) Immigration decreased. (2) Suburbanization decreased. (3) Urbanization increased. (4) Migration to rural areas increased. 15. In the last half of the 1800s, which development led to the other three? (1) expansion of the middle class (2) growth of industrialization (3) formation of trusts (4) creation of labor unions 16. The new immigrants to the United States between 1890 and 1915 came primarily from (1) southern and eastern Europe (2) northern and western Europe (3) East Asia (4) Latin America

51 17. Which economic concept is best illustrated by the cartoon? (1) supply and demand (3) monopoly (2) mercantilism (4) trade 18. Mark Twain labeled the late 1800s in the United States the Gilded Age to describe the (1) end of the practice of slavery (2) absence of international conflicts (3) extremes of wealth and poverty (4) achievements of the labor movement 19. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, where did most of the immigrants to the United States settle? (1) urban centers of the Northeast (2) plantations of the New South (3) mining areas of the Far West (4) farming regions of the Great Plains 20. Both the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act were (1) inspired by the effectiveness of earlier state laws (2) designed to protect business from foreign competition (3) declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in the late 1800s (4) passed by the federal government to regulate big business During the late 1800s, the defenders of Social Darwinism would most likely have supported (1) labor unions (2) progressive income taxes (3) laissez-faire capitalism (4) environmental conservation... This, then, is held to be the duty of the man of Wealth: First, to set an example of modest, unostentatious living, shunning display or extravagance; to provide moderately for the legitimate wants of those dependent upon him; and after doing so to consider all surplus revenues which come to him simply as trust funds, which he is called upon to administer, and strictly bound as a matter of duty to administer in the manner which, in his judgment, is best calculated to produce the most beneficial results for the community... Andrew Carnegie, Wealth, North American Review, June According to this passage, the responsibility of the wealthy is to (1) invest in future industry to increase wealth (2) share their excess wealth with the community (3) maintain a lifestyle consistent with their wealth (4) influence government to assist all people 23. Andrew Carnegie carried out the ideas expressed in this statement by (1) funding numerous libraries and educational institutions (2) serving many years in the federal government (3) investing his fortune in several new industries (4) promoting programs to benefit the wealthy 24. The Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act were attempts by Congress to (1) regulate the activities of big business (2) protect consumers against unsafe products (3) impose government regulations on agricultural production (4) bring transportation activities under government ownership

52 25. Business leaders John D. Rockefeller, J. P. Morgan, and Cornelius Vanderbilt were referred to as robber barons primarily because they (1) bought titles of nobility from foreign governments (2) were ruthless in dealing with competitors (3) stole money from state and local governments (4) gained all of their wealth by illegal means 30. Which action by the federal government during the late 1800s is an example of nativism? (1) passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act (2) creation of tribal reservations in the East (3) grants of financial aid to western farmers (4) support for the construction of transcontinental railroads 26. What is the main idea of the cartoon? (1) Government policies have created a recession. (2) Americans support the activities of trusts. (3) Good government has saved the country from trusts. (4) Trusts are a threat to the nation. 27. Which group would most likely have favored government action to address the issue shown in the cartoon? (1) bankers (3) industrialists (2) unions (4) railroad owners 28. Which development led to the other three? (1) growth of tenements and slums (2) shift from a rural to an urban lifestyle (3) rapid industrial growth (4) widespread use of child labor 29. Which group s numbers increased the most as a result of the Industrial Revolution? (1) skilled craftsmen (2) landed aristocracy (3) urban middle class (4) owners of small farms Which idea of the late 1800s is most closely associated with this cartoon? (1) regulated capitalism (2) graduated income tax (3) Social Darwinism (4) the Gospel of Wealth 32. During the early 1890s, the federal government dealt with situations like the one shown in the cartoon by (1) raising tariff rates on imported oil (2) providing economic aid for small businesses (3) prosecuting businessmen for graft and corruption (4) passing the Sherman Antitrust Act

53 The growth of a large business is merely survival of the fittest. The American beauty rose can be produced in the splendor and fragrance which bring cheer to its beholder only by sacrificing the early buds which grow up around it. This is not an evil tendency in business. It is merely the working out of a law of nature and a law of God.... John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 33. Which concept is described by this passage? (1) communism (2) Populism (3) utopian socialism (4) Social Darwinism 34. The growth of big business in the late 1800s resulted in (1) a reduction in child labor (2) the elimination of the middle class (3) the widening of the economic gap between rich and poor (4) a shift in transportation investment from railroads to canals 35. In the late 19th century, Congress tried to limit the power of monopolies by (1) creating the Federal Trade Commission (2) strengthening the Supreme Court (3) adopting Granger laws (4) passing the Sherman Antitrust Act 36. During the late 1800s, the principles of Social Darwinism were used to justify (1) support for unlimited immigration (2) desegregation of public facilities (3) the use of strikes by organized labor (4) the accumulation of great wealth by Industrialists 37. The theory of laissez-faire economics was used during the late 1800s to (1) justify unregulated business growth (2) call for more consumer protection (3) support Progressive programs (4) achieve equal distribution of income 38. According to the graph, which was the first year in which more Americans lived in urban areas than in rural areas? (1) 1860 (3) 1920 (2) 1890 (4) 1930\ 39. What was a major cause of the trend shown in the chart? (1) availability of cheap farmland (2) increased industrialization (3) end of restrictions on immigration (4) completion of the interstate highway system 40. After 1880, a major new source of labor for American factories was (1) western farmers who moved back to eastern cities (2) young women who worked until they married (3) formerly enslaved persons fleeing from the South (4) immigrants from southern and eastern Europe 41. In the 1890s, calls for limiting immigration were largely the result of (1) nativist reactions toward southern and eastern Europeans (2) a desire to achieve cultural pluralism (3) the influence of industrialists (4) the adoption of a constitutional amendment 53

54 Speaker A: Until the 1880s, most immigrants came from the same European countries where colonial immigrants originated. Speaker B: New immigrants of the late 1800s often experienced discrimination. Speaker C: The use of a quota system is the best way to address the issues of immigration. Speaker D: Today s immigrants take too many jobs away from those who were born in America. 42. Which two speakers are expressing an opinion related to United States immigration? (1) A and B (3) B and D (2) A and C (4) C and D 43. The new immigrants referred to by Speaker B came mainly from (1) western and northern Europe (2) southern and eastern Europe (3) Africa and Asia (4) Central America and South America 44. During the late 1800s, the principles of Social Darwinism and laissez-faire economics were most closely associated with the interests of (1) farmers (2) coal miners (3) organizers of labor unions (4) owners of big businesses The annual quota of any nationality shall be 2 per centum of the number of foreign-born individuals of such nationality resident in continental United States as determined by the United States census of 1890, but the minimum quota of any nationality shall be 100. Section 11a, Immigration Act of The passage of this act reflects the American public s perception that (1) too many immigrants were coming into the country (2) dictatorships were emerging in western Europe (3) fewer workers were needed in consumer goods industries (4) economic prosperity was dependent on unskilled foreign labor 47. Why did the United States follow a policy of open immigration during much of the 1800s? (1) Many United States citizens wanted to live abroad. (2) The United States had a shortage of labor. (3) Prosperous conditions in Europe resulted in fewer immigrants coming to the United States. (4) Immigrants provided United States industry with investment capital. 45. Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act (1887) and the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) in response to (1) foreign influences on the United States economy (2) public demand for better roads (3) monopolistic practices that were harmful to small businesses (4) the failure of federal banks to provide loans to individuals 54

55 Progressive Era Progressive Era response of the American people to the problems of industrialization end of laissez-faire demanded greater control of the government by the people AND greater control over business by the government in order to promote the public interest what is good for society as a whole. Labor Unions fought for better working conditions and higher pay American Federation of Labor bread and butter unionism. Organized ONLY skilled workers and fought for very specific goals. Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire highlighted need for worker safety laws. Overall Labor was unsuccessful in this era, business too powerful and government sided with business owners. Business owners used yellow-dog contracts and blacklists against labor organizers Muckrakers journalists concerned with bringing attention to the problems of industrialization Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives Living conditions of urban poor Upton Sinclair The Jungle conditions in meat packing plants, lead to Teddy Roosevelt signing the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act. Jane Addams Created settlement houses to aid inner-city immigrant communities and the urban poor Progressive Political Reforms All about increasing the power of the average person over the government (increase in democracy) Direct Primary, referendum, recall, secret ballot. Other Progressive Reforms or Legislation: Federal Reserve System controls the amount of money in circulation How? Lower interest rates to spark borrowing and spending. When? Economic slowdown. 16 th Amendment Graduated Income Tax Rate of taxation increased as incomes rose 17 th Amendment Direct election of Senators by the people of the states 18 th Amendment Prohibition of Alcohol disaster as people willingly ignored the paw 19 th Amendment Women get the right to vote leaders in this movement include Susan B. Anthony, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Conservation Movement to conserve natural resources and open spaces for future generations - Theodore Roosevelt, John Muir, and Gifford Pinchot were leading conservationists. Roosevelt creates National Park System Other notable events in this era Plessy v. Fergusson Supreme Court decision that said segregation was legal. Separate but equal Progressive Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson Used federal anti-trust laws to break up abusive trusts and monopolies. 55

56 Progressive Era Question Bank NO LACK OF BIG GAME The President Seems to Have Scared Up Quite a Bunch of Octopi. 3. The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 was passed in an attempt to (1) increase United States exports (2) safeguard the health of workers (3) regulate the amount of money in circulation (4) protect national forests from destruction 4. Which development was a result of the Progressive movement? (1) Government increased its regulation of business practices. (2) Women become less active in public life. (3) The influence of the national government was reduced. (4) Congress failed to balance the federal budget. Source: Charles Bartholomew, The Minneapolis Journal, April 13, 1903 (adapted) 1. Based on the information provided by the cartoon, President Theodore Roosevelt s goal was to (1) persuade businesses to accept nationalization (2) assist businesses in resisting interference by investors (3) establish worker safety regulations in factories (4) use federal power to control monopolies 2. Which act of Congress gave President Roosevelt the authority that he demonstrates in this cartoon? (1) Meat Inspection Act (2) Sherman Antitrust Act (3) Underwood Tariff Act (4) Pure Food and Drug Act 5. One major goal of the Progressive movement was to (1) balance the federal budget by decreasing spending (2) provide unemployment insurance to workers (3) limit direct citizen control over government (4) pass laws to help solve economic and social problems We therefore formulate, and for ourselves adopt the following pledge, asking our sisters and brothers of a common danger and a common hope, to make common cause with us, in working its reasonable and helpful precepts [principles] into the practice of everyday life. I hereby solemnly promise, God helping me, to abstain from all distilled, fermented and malt liquors, including wine, beer and cider, and to employ all proper means to discourage the use of and traffic in the same. National Woman s Christian Temperance Union, 1908 (adapted) 6. According to this passage, those who adopted this pledge believed that (1) religion had no place in national politics (2) Congress should repeal Prohibition (3) alcohol consumption was damaging to society (4) only the government can solve social problems 56

57 7. Which term best describes Theodore Roosevelt, John Muir, and Gifford Pinchot? (1) philanthropists (2) conservationists (3) yellow journalists (4) captains of industry 8. During the Progressive Era, many state and local governments adopted initiative, referendum, and recall procedures that (1) eliminated the need for the electoral college (2) created political action committees (PACs) (3) gave voters a more direct voice in government (4) strengthened the role of the president s cabinet 9. The tragedy of the Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire of 1911 drew national attention to the need to (1) restrict immigration from southern Europe (2) establish full-time fire departments (3) protect the safety of workers (4) improve conditions for tenement dwellers 10. To improve distribution of money and guarantee an adequate money supply, President Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to (1) eliminate the gold standard (2) limit foreign investment (3) provide insurance for bank deposits (4) establish the Federal Reserve System 13. The photographs of Jacob Riis are most closely associated with the (1) battlefields of the Civil War (2) living conditions of the urban poor (3) plight of sharecroppers in the South (4) victims of the Dust Bowl on the Great Plains 14. Which Progressive Era political reform allows voters to choose party candidates to run for elected public offices? (1) referendum (3) initiative (2) recall (4) direct primary 15. A similarity between the Bank of the United States, created in 1791, and the present-day Federal Reserve System is that both were established to (1) set tariff rates (2) regulate the money supply (3) achieve balanced budgets (4) restrict the gold supply 16. The Sherman Antitrust Act and the Clayton Antitrust Act were passed in an effort to (1) promote the formation of new trusts (2) maintain competition in business (3) increase business investment (4) limit the activities of foreign corporations 11. In 1906, the publication of The Jungle, written by Upton Sinclair, led Congress to (1) enact stronger prohibition laws (2) support the national conservation movement (3) establish a system for meat inspection (4) legalize strikes and boycotts by labor unions 12. Progressive Era reforms such as the initiative, referendum, and recall attempted to (1) increase the power of citizens in state and local government (2) reestablish the system of checks and balances (3) provide low-interest loans to farmers (4) expand voting rights to Native Americans 57

58 Progressive Era Legislation Date Legislation Purpose 1905 United States Forest Service established 1906 Meat Inspection Act 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act 1913 Department of Labor Manage the nation s water and timber resources Regulate meat processing to ensure clean conditions Outlaw dishonest labeling of food and drugs Promote the interests of working people 11. The common purpose of these legislative acts was to (1) protect the nation s natural resources (2) improve conditions for recent immigrants to the United States (3) advance the growth of big business (4) promote the general welfare of the American public 12. During the Progressive Era, Jane Addams responded to urban conditions by working to establish (1) settlement houses that provided assistance to the poor (2) newspapers that helped to inform Americans about slum conditions (3) laws that restricted certain immigrant groups (4) free public schools located in inner-city neighborhoods The Federal Reserve System has an impact on economic conditions in the United States by (1) regulating the amount of money in circulation (2) providing direct loans to farmers and small businesses (3) enforcing strict antitrust laws (4) controlling imports from other nations 15. President Theodore Roosevelt s conservation efforts were influenced by a desire to (1) protect natural resources for the future (2) increase revenues through land sales (3) reduce the role of the federal government (4) return tribal lands to Native American Indians 16. The Federal Reserve System has an impact on economic conditions in the United States by (1) regulating the amount of money in circulation (2) providing direct loans to farmers and small businesses (3) enforcing strict antitrust laws (4) controlling imports from other nations 17. Which reform idea was a common goal of the Populists and the Progressives? (1) restoration of the nation s cities (2) expansion of opportunities for immigrants (3) improvement in the status of African Americans (4) greater control of government by the people 18. Which Progressive Era muckraker s book led to the passage of the Meat Inspection Act? (1) Jacob Riis s How the Other Half Lives (2) Lincoln Steffens s The Shame of the Cities (3) Upton Sinclair s The Jungle (4) Frank Norris s The Octopus 20 During the Progressive Era, Presidents Theodore

59 Speaker A: The best way to prevent corruption in government is to allow citizens a direct role in the legislative process. Speaker B: Breaking up trusts and monopolies will increase business competition. Speaker C: An important goal of the federal government should be the protection of our natural resources. Speaker D: Government will only improve when women are granted full suffrage. 17. Which speaker s statement is most directly related to the political concepts of initiative, referendum, and recall? (1) A (3) C (2) B (4) D 18. Which two speakers viewpoints reflect actions taken by Theodore Roosevelt when he was president ( )? (1) A and B (3) C and D (2) B and C (4) D and A 19. Which idea led to the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission, the Federal Trade Commission, and the Food and Drug Administration? (1) Business activity must sometimes be regulated in the public interest. (2) Workers should be allowed to bargain with owners for working conditions. (3) Domestic industry should be protected from foreign competition. (4) The economy works best without government regulation. 20. When the Federal Reserve Board lowers interest rates, it is most likely attempting to (1) stimulate consumer spending (2) lower prices (3) encourage saving (4) reduce investment 22. During the 20th century, federal prosecutions of corporations such as Standard Oil, AT&T, and Microsoft were based on alleged violations of (1) stock market practices (2) environmental regulations (3) labor union protections (4) antitrust laws 23. Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson broke with the policies of late 19thcentury presidents concerning (1) colonial expansion (2) federal ownership of railroads (3) laissez-faire economic practices (4) civil rights for African Americans 24. Jane Addams and Jacob Riis were most notable for their efforts to (1) treat the wounded in World War I (2) stop the spread of diseases in Latin America (3) legalize birth control for women (4) aid the urban poor 25. The Federal Reserve System was created to (1) maintain a national petroleum supply (2) provide military support for the armed forces (3) protect consumers from fraud (4) manage the nation s supply of currency and interest rates 26. During the late 19th century, which practices were used by employers against workers? (1) boycotts and lockouts (2) picketing and walkouts (3) blacklists and yellow-dog contracts (4) mass rallies and sit-down strikes 21. The initiative, the referendum, and the recall were adopted by several states during the Progressive Era as ways to (1) limit immigration (2) promote the formation of trusts (3) restrict the use of presidential vetoes (4) make government more democratic 59

60 The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex th Amendment, United States Constitution 27. group of women worked for the passage of this amendment? (1) Harriet Tubman, Jane Addams, and Dorothea Dix (2) Susan B. Anthony, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton (3) Madeline Albright, Geraldine Ferraro, and Sandra Day O Connor (4) Clara Barton, Amelia Earhart, and Eleanor Roosevelt 28. During the late 1800s, what was the main reason labor unions had difficulty achieving gains for workers? (1) Communists had taken control of the major unions. (2) The government supported business efforts to limit the powers of unions. (3) Most unions had been organized by big business. (4) Most workers were satisfied with working conditions. 29. A goal of the Progressive movement was to (1) reduce the government s involvement in social issues (2) correct the problems caused by industrialization (3) promote laissez-faire policies (4) promote settlement of land west of the Mississippi River 30. The actions of muckrakers in the late 19th century and early 20th century resulted in (1) Supreme Court decisions that expanded the right to vote (2) government regulation of unfair business practices (3) increases in the power of monopolies (4) reduction of the president s power to manage the economy 31. During the Progressive Era, muckrakers published articles and novels primarily to (1) advance their own political careers (2) make Americans aware of problems in society (3) help the federal government become more efficient (4) provide entertainment for readers 32. One responsibility of the Federal Reserve System is to (1) balance the federal budget (2) raise or lower income taxes (3) control the supply of money (4) regulate the stock market 33. Supporters of a graduated national income tax argued that it was the fairest type of tax because the (1) rate of taxation was the same for all persons (2) rate of taxation increased as incomes rose (3) income tax provided the most revenue for the government (4) income tax replaced state and local government taxes 34. Both the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act were (1) inspired by the effectiveness of earlier state laws (2) designed to protect business from foreign competition (3) declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in the late 1800s (4) passed by the federal government to regulate big business 35. One responsibility of the Federal Reserve System is to (1) balance the federal budget (2) raise or lower income taxes (3) control the supply of money (4) regulate the stock market 36. A goal of the Progressive movement was to (1) reduce the government s involvement in social issues (2) correct the problems caused by industrialization (3) promote laissez-faire policies (4) promote settlement of land west of the Mississippi River 60

61 37. Which idea led to the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission, the Federal Trade Commission, and the Food and Drug Administration? (1) Business activity must sometimes be regulated in the public interest. (2) Workers should be allowed to bargain with owners for working conditions. (3) Domestic industry should be protected from foreign competition. (4) The economy works best without government regulation. 38. In a United States history textbook, the terms bread and butter unionism, Gospel of Wealth, and mechanization would most likely be found in a chapter entitled (1) Reconstruction ( ) (2) Industrialization ( ) (3) Imperialism ( ) (4) The Roaring Twenties ( ) 39. When the Federal Reserve Board lowers interest rates, it is most likely attempting to (1) stimulate consumer spending (2) lower prices (3) encourage saving (4) reduce investment 40. The initiative, the referendum, and the recall were adopted by several states during the Progressive Era as ways to (1) limit immigration (2) promote the formation of trusts (3) restrict the use of presidential vetoes (4) make government more democratic 41. A major reason for the creation of the Federal Reserve System (1913) was to (1) regulate the supply of money in the economy (2) lend money directly to consumers at low interest rates (3) finance public works projects (4) invest government money in private Industries 42. In the early 20th century, muckrakers were able to influence American society mainly by (1) organizing demonstrations in large cities (2) contributing to presidential election campaigns (3) lobbying members of Congress (4) exposing corruption in business and government 43. Which statement about President Theodore Roosevelt s Square Deal is an opinion rather than a fact? (1) The Square Deal included policies to increase railroad regulation. (2) Consumer protection was an element of the Square Deal. (3) Square Deal policy made distinctions between good and bad trusts. (4) The Square Deal was superior to any other president s program. 44. The term muckraker was used in the early 1900s to describe writers who (1) supported limits on government regulation (2) exposed abuses in American society (3) wanted the United States to ban all immigration (4) promoted racial integration efforts 45. The Federal Reserve System was created in 1913 to (1) authorize Congress to set interest rates (2) regulate the nation s money supply (3) allow the government to own the nation s banks (4) take over the responsibility of printing money 46. Which was the first labor strike to end with the president intervening on behalf of the workers? (1) 1886 Haymarket Affair (3) 1902 Anthracite Coal Strike (2) 1894 Pullman Strike (4) 1912 Textile Strike 61

62 Governor Defeated in Recall Election Referendum Held on Term Limits Conservationists Propose Initiative on National Parks 47. These headlines are all examples of Progressive Era reforms designed to (1) place more power in the hands of the voters (2) strengthen the power of state legislatures (3) decrease States rights and increase federal power (4) exclude specific ethnic groups from the political process 48. Which reform idea was a common goal of the Populists and the Progressives? (1) restoration of the nation s cities (2) expansion of opportunities for immigrants (3) improvement in the status of African Americans (4) greater control of government by the people 49. In the late 1800s, supporters of laissez-faire capitalism claimed that government regulation of business would be (1) essential to protect the rights of consumers (2) necessary to provide jobs for the unemployed (3) useful in competing with foreign nations (4) harmful to economic growth 62

63 Imperialism and WWI Cheat Sheet Imperialism Policy of a strong nation taking over or controlling a weaker, less powerful nation. U.S. acquires oversees territory to promote strategic and economic interests. Commodore Matthew Perry Visits Japan and opens it up to U.S. trade Open Door Policy Purpose was to guarantee equal trading rights in China. Spanish American War Fought after the American Battleship U.S.S. Maine blew up in Havana Harbor. Journalists seized on this with wild stories of Spanish atrocities Yellow Journalism During the War, U.S. annexes (takes for itself) Hawaii. Results U.S. is now a world power with an oversees empire: Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam With colonies in the Pacific Ocean Need for a Canal through central America pushes Teddy Roosevelt to begin Panama Canal. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine Further restrict European involvement in Western Hemisphere (particularly Latin America) Roosevelt s Big Stick Diplomacy Use of powerful navy to promote American interests (example policing Latin America) World War I Woodrow Wilson follows American tradition of neutrality at start of war Despite this we favor trade with the Allies. Germany sinks American ships to keep supplies from the allies (unrestricted submarine warfare) Wilson goes to war to protect American shipping rights and freedom of the seas. Before the war, Wilson lays out his plan for post-war peace 14 Points. One point was the creation of the League of Nations international collective security organization. U.S. never joins League of Nations because the Senate (who ratifies treaties) is afraid it will bring us into future European Wars. Many desire a return to normalcy, and for some that meant isolationism. War at Home Women work in the factories to support war effort helped them achieve right to vote following the war African-Americans Many moved to Northern cities because of available factory jobs Great Migration. Schenck v. U.S. Supreme Court decides that freedoms and liberties (in this case speech) can be limited in a time of war if they are a clear and present danger 63

64 Imperialism/WWI Question Bank 3. What was the major cause of African American migration from the rural South to northern cities during World War I? (1) offers of free public education (2) availability of factory jobs (3) desire to live in integrated neighborhoods (4) opportunity to gain religious freedom 4. After World War I, a return to normalcy was most clearly demonstrated by (1) opposition to joining the League of Nations (2) ending farm subsidies under the Agricultural Adjustment Act (3) reducing tariff rates on imported goods (4) rejection of disarmament agreements 1. Which activity is illustrated in this photograph? (1) picketing against United States involvement in World War I (2) making a statement of support for the League of Nations (3) protesting the nation s denial of woman s suffrage (4) supporting punishment of Germany for causing World War I 2. The Great Migration of African Americans between 1915 and 1930 was mainly a movement from (1) cities to suburban developments (2) northern farms to northern cities (3) southern cities to free land in the West (4) the rural South to northern cities 5. What was one characteristic of American imperialism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries? (1) avoiding involvement with nations in East Asia (2) supporting independence movements in Africa (3) rejecting the use of military force to gain colonies (4) acquiring territory to promote economic and strategic interests 6. After World War I, senators who opposed United States participation in the League of Nations argued that American membership in the organization would (1) limit the power of the president (2) make trade with nonmember nations more difficult (3) force the country to end traditional military alliances (4) involve the nation in future world conflicts 7. The Great Migration during World War I refers to the movement of (1) factory workers from the Northeast to the Sun Belt (2) communists deported to Russia as undesirable aliens (3) African Americans to northern cities to find work (4) refugees fleeing from eastern Europe to the United States 64

65 8. One foreign policy goal of President Theodore Roosevelt was to (1) create future states by annexing Pacific island territories (2) restrict European intervention in the Western Hemisphere (3) limit United States investment in Latin America (4) encourage independence movements in Africa 9. Secretary of State John Hay sent his Open Door Notes ( ) to world powers to (1) keep Chinese workers from coming to America (2) secure a fair settlement in the RussoJapanese War (3) protect United States trading interests in China (4) bring a peaceful end to the Boxer Rebellion 10. Between the 1890s and the start of World War I, the United States expanded its access to overseas markets and raw materials through the policy of (1) containment (2) imperialism (3) isolationism (4) neutrality 11. The Open Door policy of 1899 was originally adopted so that the United States could (1) restrict Chinese immigration (2) stop Japan from colonizing China (3) gain equal trading rights in China (4) encourage the development of democracy in China 12. During World War I, many American women helped gain support for the suffrage movement by (1) protesting against the war (2) joining the military service (3) lobbying for child-care facilities (4) working in wartime industries 13. Following World War I, the United States Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles primarily because the treaty (1) failed to include most of President Wilson s Fourteen Points (2) did not punish Germany for starting the war (3) contained provisions that might lead the United States into foreign conflicts (4) made no provision for reduction of military weapons 14. The migration of African Americans to the North during and following World War I was mainly a result of the (1) success of military desegregation (2) efforts of the civil rights movement (3) availability of new factory jobs (4) impact of affirmative action programs 15. In the late 1800s, the Granger movement tried to improve conditions for farmers by (1) lowering the rate of inflation (2) strengthening the gold standard (3) forcing railroads to lower their rates (4) making labor unions stronger 16. An important result of the Spanish-American War of 1898 was that the United States (1) acquired territories in Africa (2) became a world power with an overseas empire (3) improved its relations with Germany (4) lost interest in Latin American affairs 17. One goal for a lasting peace that President Woodrow Wilson included in his Fourteen Points was (1) establishing a League of Nations (2) maintaining a permanent military force in Europe (3) returning the United States to a policy of isolationism (4) blaming Germany for causing World War I 65

66 18. The clear and present danger doctrine stated by the Supreme Court in the case of Schenck v. United States (1919) had an important impact on the Bill of Rights because it (1) limited the powers of the president (2) placed limits on freedom of speech (3) clarified standards for a fair trial (4) expanded the rights of persons accused of crimes 19. In 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry s visit to Japan was important to the United States because it (1) ended the United States policy of neutrality (2) opened new trading opportunities in Asia (3) began a military alliance between the two nations (4) acquired cheap labor for America s factories 20. One result of the Spanish-American War of 1898 was that the United States was (1) recognized as a world power (2) committed to isolationism (3) drawn into World War II (4) forced into an economic depression 21. During his reelection campaign in 1916, President Woodrow Wilson used the slogan, He kept us out of war. In April of 1917, Wilson asked Congress to declare war on Germany. What helped bring about this change? (1) Bolshevik forces increased their strength in Germany and Italy. (2) Britain was invaded by nations of the Central Powers. (3) Russia signed a treaty of alliance with the Central Powers. (4) Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare. 22. Why was there increased interest in building a canal across Central America in the late 1800s? (1) The United States had acquired colonies in the Pacific region. (2) Tariffs on Chinese and Japanese products had ended. (3) The main source of immigration had shifted from northern Europe to southern Europe. (4) Transcontinental railroads had not yet been completed. 23. Which foreign policy is the main issue of this cartoon? (1) containment (3) internationalism (2) imperialism (4) neutrality 24. A goal of President Theodore Roosevelt s Big Stick policy and President William Howard Taft s Dollar Diplomacy policy toward Latin America was to (1) join Western Hemisphere nations in a military alliance (2) protect American economic and political interests (3) encourage foreign nations to establish colonies (4) raise Latin America s standard of living 25. Maintaining trading opportunities in China for United States businesses was the primary purpose of (1) the Open Door Policy (2) the Roosevelt Corollary (3) the Gentlemen s Agreement (4) Dollar Diplomacy 26. A major reason the United States entered World War I was to (1) gain additional colonial possessions (2) react to the bombing of Pearl Harbor (3) safeguard freedom of the seas for United States ships (4) honor prewar commitments to its military allies 66

67 27. Which factor contributed most to the growth of nativist attitudes in the United States in the years immediately following World War I? (1) the establishment of national Prohibition (2) a decline of organized religions (3) the increase in the number of settlement houses (4) the large numbers of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe 28. At the beginning of World War I, President Woodrow Wilson followed a traditional United States foreign policy by (1) refusing to permit trade with either side in the conflict (2) sending troops to aid Great Britain (3) declaring American neutrality (4) requesting an immediate declaration of war against the aggressors 29. President Woodrow Wilson s Fourteen Points were proposed during World War I primarily to (1) define postwar objectives for the United States (2) outline military strategies for the United States (3) convince other democratic nations to join the United Nations (4) strengthen the United States policy of Isolationism 30. The clear-and-present danger doctrine established in Schenck v. United States (1919) permits the government to (1) declare war on any nation that attacks the United States (2) limit speech that threatens the security of the nation (3) break up monopolies that limit business competition (4) outlaw organizations that threaten the civil rights of others 31. The main reason the United States implemented the Open Door policy in China was to (1) promote immigration (2) expand democratic reforms (3) encourage religious freedom (4) guarantee access to markets Which United States policy is most closely associated with the annexation of Hawaii and the Philippines? (1) neutrality (2) isolationism (3) imperialism (4) international cooperation 33. The Supreme Court decision in Schenck v. United States (1919) stated that (1) immigrants have limited rights (2) freedom of speech is not absolute (3) rights of the accused may not be limited (4) women should be granted suffrage 34. The Panamanian revolt, the Russo-Japanese war, and the creation of the national parks system occurred during the presidency of (1) William McKinley (2) Woodrow Wilson (3) Herbert Hoover (4) Theodore Roosevelt 35. By proclaiming the Open Door policy in 1899, the United States was attempting to (1) keep Japan from attacking and colonizing China (2) increase trade between Russia and the United States (3) ensure equal trading opportunities in China (4) prevent European countries from colonizing the Western Hemisphere 36. President Theodore Roosevelt s Big Stick policy was used by the United States to (1) police the Western Hemisphere (2) expand its colonial empire in Africa (3) isolate itself from European conflicts (4) settle a dispute between Russia and Japan 37. In the years before the United States entered World War I, President Woodrow Wilson violated his position of strict neutrality by (1) secretly sending troops to fight for the democratic nations (2) openly encouraging Mexico to send troops to support the Allies (3) supporting economic policies that favored the Allied nations (4) using United States warships to attack German submarines

68 38. In Schenck v. United States (1919), the Supreme Court upheld the right of government to protect national security during wartime by (1) nationalizing important industries that supported the war effort (2) limiting speech that presented a clear and present danger to the nation (3) suspending the writ of habeas corpus for illegal aliens (4) expelling enemy aliens who had favored the Central Powers 39. The establishment of the Open Door policy ( ) and the response to the Boxer Rebellion (1900) showed that the United States wanted to (1) curb Russian expansion (2) gain access to Chinese markets (3) build factories in the Far East (4) limit Asian immigration to the United States 68

69 Boom to Bust (1920 s through the Great Depression) 1920 s 1920 s Period of rapid social change characterized by an influx of new technology and consumer goods. Economy of 1920 s Period of economic expansion driven by new consumer goods (automobile, radio, vacuum, refrigerator etc.) Improved mass production techniques made many of these products affordable. Women- get right to vote (19 th Amendment). New found freedom of women represented by the culture of the flapper. African Americans- Harlem Renaissance flourishing of African-American Art. Artists include Langston Hughes (Literature), Duke Ellington and Bessie Smith (Music) Prohibition banning of alcoholic beverages very hard to enforce laws few people support. Conflict Rapid Cultural change led to a backlash among those who valued traditional American society. Modern vs. Traditional Scopes Monkey Trial, Anti-Immigrant (Nativism), rebirth of the KKK Immigration anti-immigrant sentiment (nativism) on rise in 1920 s. Nativist Sentiment also plays role in Palmer Raids, Trial of Sacco and Vanzetti (Italian Immigrants) and the popularity of the KKK. Red Scare led some to believe immigrants would bring communism to the U.S. Palmer Raids an example of the Red Scare s Quota Acts created to limit certain types of immigrants from coming into the U.S. For Farmers, 1920 s was not an era of prosperity (economics) due to overproduction Depression high unemployment Great Depression Causes - Speculation on the stock market, lack of government regulations (laissez-faire), buying with credit (including stocks), unequal distribution of wealth. Hoover s Response Too Little, Too Late. Hoovervilles (homeless villages) nicknamed because of Hoover s refusal to provide direct relief to unemployed and homeless Dust Bowl economic disaster on the great plains resulting from over farming and a severe draught 69

70 ***Franklin Delano Roosevelt s (FDR) New Deal*** based on the belief that the government should be responsible for the welfare of the people. Direct Relief for unemployed Reform of the economic system to include welfare programs for Americans Recovery of the U.S. Economy. Programs: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Insured people s money in banks Bank failures made people distrust banks. Securities and Exchange Commission Oversaw stock market to limit risk of another collapse. National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) Guaranteed right of workers to join union on collective bargaining rights Public Works Administration or Work Progress Administration Job Creation primary goal. Supreme Court rules a number of New Deal programs unconstitutional. FDR tries to pack 6 more justice onto the court to win cases. He wants new justices who agree with him. This was a threat to Checks and balances and Congress refuses to go along. Great example of checks and balances working. 70

71 Boom to Bust s and 1930 s HARLEM What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode? Langston Hughes, 1951 (adapted) 1. Which statement about the period from 1918 through 1929 is most clearly supported by information in the graph? (1) The percentage of income controlled by the wealthiest Americans declined. (2) The income gap between the wealthiest fifth and the rest of the population increased. (3) The overall per capita income in the United States declined. (4) The percentage of income controlled by the poor steadily increased. 4. The dream deferred in this poem refers to the hopes African Americans had for (1) social and political equality (2) an independent African American nation (3) access to affordable medical treatment (4) separate public accommodations 2. Which New Deal agency had the creation of new jobs as its primary goal? (1) Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) (2) Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) (3) Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) (4) Works Progress Administration (WPA) 3. The Wagner Act (National Labor Relations Act) of 1935 helped organized labor by (1) mandating government control over industry (2) guaranteeing workers the right to collective bargaining (3) banning the closed shop in the workplace (4) requiring all workers to join unions The main idea of the cartoon is that President Franklin D. Roosevelt wanted to (1) impeach justices who did not support him (2) control the decisions of the Supreme Court (3) create higher qualifications for justices (4) encourage the Supreme Court to act more efficiently

72 6. The term Harlem Renaissance best describes (1) state and federal laws passed to end racial discrimination (2) urban renewal efforts in New York City (3) government programs to promote African American businesses (4) a period of African American cultural Achievements 7. In the 1920s, controversies over Prohibition, the National Origins Act, and the Scopes trial all reflected disagreement over the (1) effects of demobilization (2) cultural values of the American people (3) role of the federal government in the economy (4) influence of labor unions on American life 2. We propose to limit the amount any one man can earn in one year or inherit to $1 million to the person. 3. Now, by limiting the size of the fortunes and incomes of the big men, we will throw into the government Treasury the money and property from which we will care for the millions of people who have nothing; and with this money we will provide a home and the comforts of home, with such common conveniences as radio and automobile, for every family in America, free of debt. Senator Huey Long, According to Senator Long, one reason for the suffering caused by the Great Depression was the (1) failure of President Franklin D. Roosevelt to sign relief legislation (2) overproduction of military equipment (3) uneven distribution of income that favored the rich (4) failure of labor unions to accept shorter work days 9. President Franklin D. Roosevelt responded to the circumstances described in this passage by (1) renewing New Deal programs to help big business (2) raising taxes to assure a balanced federal budget (3) stressing free market economic principles (4) increasing New Deal efforts for relief and reform What was the primary motive behind President Franklin D. Roosevelt s 1937 proposal to add members to the Supreme Court? (1) removal of Republican justices from the Court (2) ending the Court s use of judicial review (3) assuring United States neutrality at the start of World War II (4) protection of New Deal programs from unfavorable Court decisions 11. What was a major factor leading to the erosion of regional cultural differences in the 1920s? (1) development of television (2) growing popularity of radio and motion pictures (3) publication of novels by F. Scott Fitzgerald and Sinclair Lewis (4) expansion of air travel after Charles Lindbergh s flight The annual quota of any nationality shall be 2 per centum of the number of foreign-born individuals of such nationality resident in continental United States as determined by the United States census of 1890, but the minimum quota of any nationality shall be 100. Section 11a, Immigration Act of The passage of this act reflects the American public s perception that (1) too many immigrants were coming into the country (2) dictatorships were emerging in western Europe (3) fewer workers were needed in consumer goods industries (4) economic prosperity was dependent on unskilled foreign labor 13. During the 1920s, the trial of Sacco and Vanzetti, the Palmer raids, and the revival of the Ku Klux Klan demonstrate that (1) nativist sentiments were on the rise (2) cultural values were similar between urban and rural Americans (3) popular support for international involvement was increasing (4) public support for limiting immigration was declining

73 14. A major difference between the philosophies of President Herbert Hoover and President Franklin D. Roosevelt in responding to the Great Depression is that Roosevelt (1) wanted to rely on private charities to provide assistance (2) stressed the need for individual self-reliance (3) supported direct relief to people out of work (4) thought the government should not be involved in economic reform 15. Which federal agency, created during the New Deal, was intended to prevent serious problems in the stock market? (1) Social Security Administration (2) Works Progress Administration (3) Agricultural Adjustment Administration (4) Securities and Exchange Commission 16. During the 1920s, controversies concerning the Scopes trial, national Prohibition, and the behavior of flappers were all signs of disagreement over (1) the return to normalcy (2) traditional values and changing lifestyles (3) causes of the Great Depression (4) the benefits of new technology 17. A major goal of the immigration acts of the 1920s was to (1) allow unlimited immigration from Southeast Asia (2) assure equal numbers of immigrants from all nations (3) favor wealthy and well-educated immigrants (4) use quotas to limit immigration from southern and eastern Europe 18. Which conditions are most characteristic of an economic depression? (1) high unemployment and overproduction (2) large business investments and low taxes (3) too much money in circulation and high stock prices (4) high employment and increased real estate investments The New Deal tried to solve many problems of the Great Depression by (1) providing federal aid to many sectors of the economy (2) reducing taxes on big business to stimulate job creation (3) lowering federal spending to maintain a balanced budget (4) decreasing foreign competition by raising tariffs 20. President Franklin D. Roosevelt tried to pack the United States Supreme Court, but Congress did not support him. This situation is an example of (1) Congress undermining the separation of powers (2) the president using the unwritten constitution (3) the use of the system of checks and balances (4) how federalism was preserved by one branch of government 21. Which event of the 1920s symbolized a conflict over cultural values? (1) election of Herbert Hoover (2) transatlantic flight of Charles Lindbergh (3) Scopes trial (4) stock market crash 22. The data in the chart support the idea that the immigration laws of 1921 and 1924 were primarily designed to (1) stop illegal entry into the country (2) admit skilled workers (3) encourage immigration from southern Europe (4) reduce immigration from specific regions 23. The United States adopted the immigration policies shown in the chart mainly because of (1) pressures from nativists and labor unions (2) hardships caused by the Great Depression (3) prejudices generated during World War II (4) threats from other nations to stop migration to the United States

74 24. Which group of Americans generally failed to experience the economic prosperity of the 1920s? (1) farmers (3) consumers (2) retailers (4) manufacturers 25. A primary objective of United States foreign policy during the 1930s was to (1) avoid involvement in Asian and European conflicts (2) protect business interests in Africa through direct intervention (3) strengthen international peacekeeping organizations (4) acquire overseas land as colonies 26. Which statement best illustrates a basic idea of President Franklin D. Roosevelt s New Deal? (1) Communism provides the only real solution to economic problems. (2) Unemployed workers should rely on the states rather than on the federal government for help. (3) The United States reached its economic peak in the 1920s and is now a declining industrial power. (4) The economy sometimes needs public money to encourage business activity. 27. Which action by President Franklin D. Roosevelt challenged the principle of checks and balances? (1) frequently vetoing New Deal legislation (2) trying to increase the number of justices on the Supreme Court (3) taking over the Senate s treaty ratification power (4) desegregating defense industries 28. Which heading would be most appropriate for the partial outline below? I. A. Wages lagging behind the cost of living B. Overproduction of consumer goods C. Excessive buying on credit 29. In the 1930s, shantytowns, often called Hoovervilles, sprang up across the United States because of President Herbert Hoover s (1) support for federal programs to provide jobs for the unemployed (2) refusal to provide direct federal aid to the homeless (3) efforts to help the residents return to their farms (4) emergency relief program to provide food to the poor 30. Henry Ford produced a more affordable car primarily because his company (1) paid workers lower wages than its competitors paid (2) used foreign-made parts (3) developed a less expensive method of production (4) offered a variety of options to buyers 31. Which pair of events illustrates an accurate cause-and-effect relationship? (1) Sacco and Vanzetti trial -- ratification of the woman suffrage amendment (2) rebirth of the KKK -- formation of the Populist Party (3) Red Scare -- demand for limits on immigration (4) high food prices -- start of the Great Depression 32. Which situation helped cause the stock market crash of 1929? (1) excessive speculation and buying on margin (2) unwillingness of people to invest in new industries (3) increased government spending (4) too much government regulation of business (1) Mercantilist Economic Theory (2) Features of a Bull Stock Market (3) Monopolistic Business Practices (4) Causes of the Great Depression 74

75 33. Which factor contributed most to the situation shown in the cartoon? (1) low tariff rates (2) shortages of consumer goods (3) nonregulation of banks (4) creation of a national bank 34. Much of the economic growth of the 1920s was based on (1) increased trade with other nations (2) the production of new consumer goods (3) rising prices of agricultural products (4) the rapid development of the West 35. Langston Hughes and Duke Ellington are noted for their contributions to the cultural movement of the 1920s known as the (1) Gospel of Wealth (2) Lost Generation (3) Harlem Renaissance (4) Gilded Age 36. Which conclusion is best supported by the information on the graph? (1) The level of automobile production remained constant. (2) The average American family found the automobile too expensive to purchase. (3) By 1929, most of the automobiles in the world were produced in the United States. (4) Changes in economic conditions led to changes in automobile production. 37. The failure of national Prohibition led to a public awareness that (1) crime rates decline when the sale of alcoholic beverages is banned (2) economic prosperity encourages social conformity (3) unpopular laws are difficult to enforce (4) geographic conditions affect law enforcement 38. A lasting effect of the New Deal has been a belief that government should (1) own the principal means of producing goods and services (2) allow natural market forces to determine economic conditions (3) maintain a balanced federal budget during hard economic times (4) assume responsibility for the well-being of its citizens 39. What was a principle reason for rapid economic growth in the United States during the 1920s? (1) prosperity of American agriculture (2) increase of American imports (3) development of many new consumer goods (4) increased spending on defense 75

76 40. What was one factor that led to the Great Depression? (1) government limitations on the amount of money in circulation (2) high wages paid by employers (3) increases in the tax rate for corporations (4) excessive speculation in the stock market 41. Much of the domestic legislation of the New Deal period was based on the idea that the federal government should (1) favor big business over labor and farming (2) assume some responsibility for the welfare of people (3) own and operate the major industries of the country (4) require local communities to be responsible for social welfare programs 43. President Roosevelt responded to the situation illustrated in the cartoon by (1) calling for repeal of many New Deal programs (2) demanding popular election of members of the judicial branch (3) asking voters to elect more Democrats to Congress (4) proposing to increase the number of justices on the Supreme Court 44. Reducing interest rates to stimulate economic growth is a function of the (1) Department of Commerce (2) Federal Reserve System (3) Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (4) Securities and Exchange Commission 45. The influence of nativism during the 1920s is best illustrated by the (1) increase in the popularity of the automobile (2) emergence of the flappers (3) expansion of trusts and monopolies (4) growth of the Ku Klux Klan 42. What is the main idea of this cartoon? (1) The legislative branch disagreed with the executive branch during the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. (2) President Franklin D. Roosevelt wanted the Supreme Court to support his programs. (3) Justices of the Supreme Court were not asked for their opinion about New Deal programs. (4) The three branches of government agreed on the correct response to the Great Depression. 76 Public Ignores Prohibition Restrictions Evolution and Creation Debated in Scopes Trial Women Bring Change to the Industrial Workforce 46. What do headlines such as these from the 1920s illustrate? (1) conflict between traditional and modern values (2) trend towar d mass consumption of consumer goods (3) hostility of certain groups toward ethnic minorities (4) debate over the role of government in the economy 47. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), established during the New Deal, were important because they (1) increased the supply of money in the economy (2) guaranteed loans to failing businesses and banks (3) attempted to restore public confidence in financial institutions (4) provided grants to unemployed workers

77 48. At the beginning of World War II, national debate focused on whether the United States should continue the policy of (1) coexistence (3) imperialism (2) containment (4) isolationism 49. In 1920, women gained the right to vote as a result of a (1) presidential order (2) Supreme Court decision (3) national election (4) constitutional amendment 54. During President Franklin D. Roosevelt s administration, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) were created as a way to (1) provide jobs to those who were unemployed (2) raise revenue for relief and recovery programs (3) limit risks associated with savings and investments (4) implement the new income tax amendment 50. The Red Scare, the National Origins Acts of the 1920s, and the verdict in the Sacco and Vanzetti trial are examples of negative American attitudes toward (1) immigrants (2) business leaders (3) African Americans (4) labor union leaders 51. Improved mass-production techniques affected the American economy of the 1920s by (1) reducing prices of consumer goods (2) lowering the quality of most products (3) causing higher unemployment (4) decreasing the quantity of manufactured Products 52. The Scopes Trial of 1925 is an example of (1) the effects of assimilation on American culture (2) a clash between scientific ideas and religious beliefs (3) an increase in violence in American society (4) government intervention in racial conflicts 53. What were two basic causes of the Dust Bowl during the early 1930s? (1) strip mining and toxic waste dumping (2) over farming and severe drought (3) clear-cutting of forests and construction of railroads (4) overpopulation and urban sprawl 55. According to the graph, which was the first year in which more Americans lived in urban areas than in rural areas? (1) 1860 (3) 1920 (2) 1890 (4) 1930\ 56. What was a major cause of the trend shown in the chart? (1) availability of cheap farmland (2) increased industrialization (3) end of restrictions on immigration (4) completion of the interstate highway system 77

78 57. Which economic factor was a major cause of the Great Depression? (1) purchase of stocks on credit (2) increases in taxes on business (3) reduction of tariffs on imports (4) failure to produce enough consumer goods 58. What common problem did farmers of the 1890s and farmers of the 1920s face? (1) failure to plant enough crops to meet local needs (2) government overregulation of farming (3) low tariffs on crops (4) overproduction compared to consumer Demand Teapot Dome Scandal Harlem Renaissance Scopes trial 59. During which decade did these events occur? (1) 1920s (3) 1940s (2) 1930s (4) 1950s 60. In the 1920s, both Langston Hughes and Duke Ellington made major contributions to (1) economic growth (3) the creative arts (2) educational reform (4) political leadership 61. The changing image of women during the 1920s was symbolized by the (1) passage of an equal pay act (2) drafting of women into the army (3) popularity of the flappers and their style of dress (4) appointment of several women to President Calvin Coolidge s cabinet 62. The economic prosperity of the 1920s was mainly the result of the (1) adoption of lower tariff rates (2) stricter enforcement of antitrust laws (3) success of most United States farmers (4) development of new industries for consumer goods 63. The Harlem Renaissance was important to American society because it (1) highlighted the cultural achievements of African Americans (2) isolated African Americans from mainstream society (3) provided new political opportunities for African Americans (4) brought an end to racial segregation in the North 64. The New Deal programs of President Franklin D. Roosevelt changed the United States economy by (1) restoring the principle of a balanced budget (2) expanding the trustbusting practices of Progressive Era presidents (3) encouraging greater production of agricultural goods (4) increasing government involvement with both business and labor 65. What was one feature of the United States economy during the 1920s that contributed to the Great Depression? (1) increase in federal regulation (2) expansion of easy credit (3) growth of the trade deficit (4) influence of foreign corporations 66. Duke Ellington, Langston Hughes, and Bessie Smith are most closely associated with efforts to (1) expand the Back to Africa movement (2) fight discrimination through the judicial system (3) promote the cultural identity of African Americans through the arts (4) establish the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 78

79 67. In which geographic region of the nation was this 1935 photograph taken? (1) New England (3) Pacific Northwest (2) Southeast (4) Great Plains 68. The conditions shown in the photograph were mainly the result of (1) government subsidies to increase crop production (2) migrations from farms to cities (3) poor farming methods and sustained drought (4) reduced tariffs on farm machinery and crops 69. Which factor contributed most to the repeal of national Prohibition in 1933? (1) the inability of government to enforce the law (2) an improvement in the economy (3) a decline in organized crime (4) the start of World War II 70. After World War I, one way in which the Red Scare, the passing of the Quota Acts, and the growth of the Ku Klux Klan were similar is that they all (1) exploited fears about people who were considered un-american (2) encouraged the assimilation of new immigrants into American society (3) supported the goals of the suffrage movement (4) exhibited prejudice against African Americans 71. Which conclusion is most clearly supported by the information in the chart? (1) President Herbert Hoover s economic policies expanded job opportunities. (2) The United States unemployment rate reached its highest level in (3) President Franklin D. Roosevelt s New Deal programs failed to address the unemployment crisis. (4) World War II ended the high unemployment rates of the Great Depression. 72. As part of the New Deal, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) were created to (1) allow for a quick recovery of stock prices (2) provide direct loans to businesses (3) protect individual investors from stock fraud and bank failure (4) allow banks and companies to invest in the stock market 79

80 World War II Cheat Sheet World War II when war broke out (1930 s) the U.S. was careful not to get involved, learned lessons from WWI. Passed the Neutrality Acts that banned trade with nations at war (remember WWI Germany sinking U.S. ships brought us in) Arsenal of Democracy slowly Neutrality Acts are repealed allowing the U.S. to provide weapons (the arsenal) to the allies (democratic countries) Lend-Lease Act Directly supplied allied nations with war materials without officially declaring war. Pearl Harbor (Dec. 7, 1941) U.S. formally enters war. War Bonds sold to pay for war Japanese Americans moved to relocation camps (prison camps) because they were viewed as a security threat (sprinkled with a hint of anti-japanese prejudice). This action was upheld by the Supreme Court in Korematsu v. U.S. Women enter workforce in war related industries to help build war materials (Rosie the Riveter) After war they were replaced in those jobs by returning servicemen and were expected to go back to their traditional role in society. African Americans continue northward migration for jobs. After the war they will begin fighting for civil rights. After the war, Harry Truman desegregated armed forces. Labor Wages skyrocket during war. Government Control over Economy Increases: Rationing certain foods/goods (like gas) were rationed (limits placed on how each family could use or buy). This was to ensure there were enough resources for the troops. Price Controls- To keep rate of inflation down. High wages and shortages of products lead to price increases. Manhattan Project top secret project to build the atomic bomb. Introduced questions about morality of nuclear war. Truman decides to use atomic bombs dropped on Japan to end war. Nuremburg Trials Trials of Nazi leaders for their role in the holocaust made individual soldiers and national leaders accountable for their wartime actions. 80

81 World War II Questions 1. In the mid 1930s, which action did the federal government take in an attempt to avoid the situations that drew the United States into World War I? (1) passing the Neutrality Acts (2) allowing only the United States Navy to deliver military goods overseas (3) investing money in nations threatened by Germany (4) forming a military alliance with the Soviet Union 2. The Lend-Lease Act of 1941 significantly changed United States policy toward nations involved in World War II because it (1) supplied war materials to Allied nations without a declaration of war (2) imposed a trade boycott on Germany and Japan (3) authorized the seizure of British assets in the United States (4) approved the appeasement policies of the French and British governments 3. The scientists working on the Manhattan Project during World War II were responsible for (1) designing weapons for the D-Day invasion (2) building satellites to spy on the Axis nations (3) creating materials for biological and chemical warfare (4) developing the atomic bomb 4. The instructions referred to in this public notice resulted in the (1) deportation of most Japanese aliens to Japan (2) protection of the homes and property of Japanese Americans (3) removal of Japanese Americans to internment camps (4) drafting of all young Japanese American men into the United States military 5. One reason the United States supported the creation of the United Nations was to (1) determine blame for the start of World War II (2) improve efforts to collect war debts (3) maintain international peace (4) promote the development of nuclear weapons 81

82 6. What is the most accurate title for this map? (1) American Imperialism in the 20 th Century (2) World War II in the Pacific (3) Causes of World War II (4) Creation of Wartime Alliances 7. The map shows that the Allied forces (1) made slow but steady progress in defeating Japan (2) conducted most of the battles north of the Hawaiian Islands (3) maintained control of the Philippines from the beginning of the war (4) had military support from the Soviet Union throughout the war 8. Which trend in United States foreign policy is shown by the passage of the Neutrality Act of 1939, the destroyers for bases deal of 1940, and the Lend-Lease Act of 1941? (1) withdrawal from overseas colonies (2) expansion of trade with the Axis powers (3) increase in support for the Allied powers (4) reduction in war preparedness 9. The internment of Japanese Americans during World War II was initially authorized by (1) a constitutional amendment (2) an executive order of the president (3) a proclamation by the governor of California (4) a decision of the Supreme Court 10. After World War II, the legal basis for the criminal trials of German and Japanese wartime officials by the Allies was that these officials had (1) overthrown monarchies by force (2) violated nonaggression pacts (3) committed crimes against humanity (4) established communist police states 11. Before entering World War II, the United States acted as the arsenal of democracy by (1) creating a weapons stockpile for use after the war (2) financing overseas radio broadcasts in support of democracy (3) providing workers for overseas factories (4) supplying war materials to the Allies 82

83 12. During World War II, the federal government used rationing to (1) hold down prices of military weapons (2) increase educational benefits for veterans (3) increase imports of scarce products (4) provide more resources for the military 13. Which wartime policy toward Japanese Americans was upheld by the Supreme Court in its 1944 ruling in Korematsu v. United States? (1) deportation to Japan (2) mandatory military service (3) denial of voting rights (4) confinement in internment camps 14. During World War II, many Japanese Americans living on the West Coast were relocated to detention centers primarily because they (1) were known spies for Japan (2) were seen as a security threat (3) refused to serve in the United States military (4) expressed their support for Italy and Germany 15. To help pay for World War II, the United States government relied heavily on the (1) money borrowed from foreign governments (2) sale of war bonds (3) sale of United States manufactured goods to neutral nations (4) printing of additional paper money 16. The Neutrality Acts passed by Congress in the mid-1930s were efforts to (1) avoid mistakes that led the country into World War I (2) create jobs for the unemployed in the military defense industry (3) support the League of Nations efforts to stop wars in Africa and Asia (4) help the democratic nations of Europe against Hitler and Mussolini Speaker A: The current situation has necessitated that more women enter the workforce. Speaker B: My family will have to get along without sugar and flour this week. Speaker C: I say we should continue to support our president, even if a president has never been elected to four terms before now. Speaker D: I support the government in everything it has to do, to be sure we are safe from fascism here at home. 17. These speakers would have made these statements during (1) World War I (3) the Korean War (2) World War II (4) the Vietnam War 18. Which situation is Speaker B describing? (1) destruction of crops during wartime (2) need for importation of food products (3) food rationing to support a war effort (4) limitation of agricultural production through farm subsidies 19. The decision of the Supreme Court in Korematsu v. United States (1944) upheld the power of the president during wartime to (1) ban terrorists from entering the country (2) limit a group s civil liberties (3) stop mistreatment of resident legal aliens (4) deport persons who work for enemy nations 20. Why was the United States called the arsenal of democracy in 1940? (1) The leaders in the democratic nations of Europe were educated in the United States. (2) Most of the battles to defend worldwide democracy took place on American soil. (3) The United States supervised elections in European nations before the war. (4) The United States provided much of the weaponry needed to fight the Axis powers. 21. Shortly after entering World War II, the United States began the Manhattan Project to (1) work on the development of an atomic bomb (2) increase economic production to meet wartime demands (3) defend New York City against a nuclear attack (4) recruit men for the military services 83

84 22. The change in the nation s attitude toward membership in the League of Nations and membership in the United Nations shows the contrast between (1) neutrality and containment (2) appeasement and internationalism (3) isolationism and involvement (4) interventionism and détente 23. A controversial issue that resulted from World War II was the (1) future role of the League of Nations (2) morality of nuclear warfare (3) commitment of troops without congressional approval (4) civilian control of the military 24. In the 1930s, Congress attempted to avoid the situations that led to United States involvement in World War I by (1) enacting a peacetime draft law (2) passing a series of neutrality acts (3) authorizing the deportation of American Communist Party members (4) relocating Japanese Americans to internment camps The Parties to this Treaty reaffirm their faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and their desire to live in peace with all peoples and all governments. They are determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilization of their peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law.... Preamble to the North Atlantic Treaty, This statement shows the commitment of the United States to the principle of (1) colonialism (3) militarism (2) neutrality (4) collective security 26. In the cartoon, most of the diseases refer to the (1) military dictatorships of the 1930s (2) Allied powers of World War II (3) nations banned from the United Nations after World War II (4) Communist bloc countries in the Cold War 27. Which action is most closely associated with the situation shown in the cartoon? (1) signing of the Atlantic Charter (2) passage of the Neutrality Acts of (3) first fireside chat of Franklin D. Roosevelt (4) declaration of war on Japan 28. One reason the Nuremberg trials following World War II were held was to (1) bring Hitler, Mussolini, and Tojo to justice (2) force Japan to pay for the attack on Pearl Harbor (3) make German leaders accountable for the Holocaust (4) punish the German government for bombing England 84

85 ... The people of Europe who are defending themselves do not ask us to do their fighting. They ask us for the implements of war, the planes, the tanks, the guns, the freighters which will enable them to fight for their liberty and for our security. Emphatically we must get these weapons to them, get them to them in sufficient volume and quickly enough, so that we and our children will be saved the agony and suffering of war which others have had to endure.... President Franklin D. Roosevelt s Fireside Chat, December 29, In this statement, President Franklin D. Roosevelt was asking the nation to (1) support a declaration of war against Nazi Germany (2) adopt a policy of containment (3) join the League of Nations (4) become the arsenal of democracy 30. Which factor contributed to the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II? (1) labor shortage during the war (2) influence of racial prejudice (3) increase of terrorist activities on the West Coast (4) fear of loss of jobs to Japanese workers 34. Following World War II, Eleanor Roosevelt was most noted for her (1) support of racial segregation in the United States military (2) role in creating the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (3) opposition to the Truman Administration (4) efforts to end the use of land mines 31. What is the main idea of this 1945 cartoon? (1) The world community needs to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. (2) Korea s development of atomic bombs has threatened world peace. (3) The Treaty of Versailles was successful in preventing World War II. (4) Germany should be criticized for using atomic bombs. 32. Which heading best completes the partial outline below? I. A. Berlin B. Germany C. Korea D. Vietnam 85 (1) Areas Divided as the Result of Wars (2) Major Allies of the United States (3) Original Signers of the League of Nations Charter (4) Neutral Nations During World War II

86 Arms Sales to Warring Nations Banned Americans Forbidden to Travel on Ships of Warring Nations Loans to Nations at War Forbidden War Materials Sold Only on Cash-and-Carry Basis 33. These headlines from the 1930s reflect the efforts of the United States to (1) maintain freedom of the seas (2) send military supplies to the League of Nations (3) limit the spread of international communism (4) avoid participation in European wars 36. Which statement most accurately describes the foreign policy change made by the United States between the start of World War II (1939) and the attack on Pearl Harbor (1941)? (1) The traditional isolationism of the United States was strengthened. (2) The nation shifted from neutrality to military support for the Allies. (3) War was declared on Germany but not on Japan. (4) Financial aid was offered to both the Allied and Axis powers. 34. A main purpose of government-ordered rationing during World War II was to (1) increase foreign trade (2) limit the growth of industry (3) conserve raw materials for the war effort (4) encourage women to enter the workforce... The Director of the War Relocation Authority is authorized and directed to formulate and effectuate [implement] a program for the removal, from the areas designated from time to time by the Secretary of War or appropriate military commander under the authority of Executive Order No of February 19, 1942, of the persons or classes of persons designated under such Executive Order, and for their relocation, maintenance, and supervision.... Executive Order 9102, March 18, Shortly after this executive order was signed, federal government authorities began to (1) move Japanese Americans to internment camps (2) deport German and Italian aliens (3) detain and interrogate Chinese immigrants (4) arrest the individuals who planned the attack on Pearl Harbor During World War II, posters like this were used to (1) prevent antiwar protests (2) recruit more women workers (3) convince women to enlist in the military services (4) gain acceptance for wartime rationing Programs 38. Consumer rationing was used during World War II as a way to (1) increase exploration for natural resources (2) limit supplies of weapons to American allies (3) draft men into the armed forces (4) ensure that the military had essential materials

87 39. During World War II, the Manhattan Project was the name of the plan to (1) open a second front in Europe (2) capture Pacific islands held by the Japanese (3) develop the atomic bomb (4) liberate German concentration camps 40. Women played a major role on the domestic front during World War II by (1) becoming candidates for public office (2) campaigning for woman s suffrage (3) demonstrating against involvement in the war (4) taking jobs in the defense industry 41. During World War II, the need of the United States for more war materials resulted in the (1) easing of government controls on the economy (2) use of lengthy strikes by labor unions (3) rationing of some consumer goods (4) reduction in profits for defense industries A. Japan attacks Pearl Harbor. B. Germany invades Poland. C. MacArthur dictates a democratic constitution to Japan. D. Allies invade Europe on D-Day. 42. Which sequence of these events related to World War II is in the correct chronological order? (1) D B A C (3) C A B D (2) B A D C (4) A B C D 43. The Nuremberg trials held at the conclusion of World War II added to international law by (1) settling boundary disputes in Europe through arbitration (2) placing the blame for World War II on many nations (3) ruling that moral and ethical considerations do not apply in wartime (4) establishing that high officials and individuals are responsible for their wartime actions 44. In 1939, President Franklin D. Roosevelt responded to the start of World War II in Europe by (1) asking Congress to enter the war (2) urging continued appeasement of aggressor nations (3) attempting to negotiate a peaceful settlement of the hostilities (4) selling military supplies to the Allied nations 45. Which statement about the United States economy during World War II is most accurate? (1) Federal economic controls increased. (2) The manufacturing of automobiles increased. (3) Worker productivity declined. (4) Prices fell rapidly. 46. What effect did the end of World War II have on American women who worked in defense industries during the war? (1) They were invited to join labor unions. (2) Their jobs were taken by returning servicemen. (3) Their wages were increased to match those of male workers. (4) Their contributions were rewarded by the government. 47. The war crimes trials in Nuremberg and Tokyo following World War II established the concept that (1) nations could be made to pay for wartime damages (2) pardons should be granted to all accused war criminals (3) those convicted should be given shorter sentences than ordinary criminals (4) individuals could be held accountable for their actions in a war 48. Rationing was used in the United States during World War II as a way to (1) ensure adequate supplies of scarce natural resources (2) increase the number of imports (3) raise production of consumer goods (4) provide markets for American-made products 87

88 49. Consumer rationing was used during World War II as a way to (1) increase exploration for natural resources (2) limit supplies of weapons to American allies (3) draft men into the armed forces (4) ensure that the military had essential materials 50. During World War II, the Manhattan Project was the name of the plan to (1) open a second front in Europe (2) capture Pacific islands held by the Japanese (3) develop the atomic bomb (4) liberate German concentration camps 51. Women played a major role on the domestic front during World War II by (1) becoming candidates for public office (2) campaigning for woman s suffrage (3) demonstrating against involvement in the war (4) taking jobs in the defense industry 88

89 Early Cold War After the war, the Soviet Union and the spread of communism become the #1 fear of Americans. Containment Long term, patient strategy to win the cold war by stopping the spread of communism. Any foreign policy with the purpose of stopping the spread of communism. It includes economic aid, military aid and sometimes combat operations. Marshal Plan and Truman Doctrine Provide money to help rebuild war torn Europe in order to avoid communist revolutions. Nuclear Arms Race Cold War tension was heightened as more countries acquired nuclear weapons and they became more powerful. Fear of nuclear war led some to build backyard fallout shelters. Early Cold War Crisis: Berlin Airlift Stalin tries to starve U.S. influence out of West Berlin. Truman airlifts supplies to feed the city. Stalin backs down. Red China becomes communist Korean War - North Korea (communist) invades South Korea. U.S. leads United Nations forces to defend South Korea. After 3 years of war, Korea remained divided at same borders as before the war. President Truman fires General MacArthur for disobeying orders Generals must obey the President (Civilian control over military) Sputnik Soviets launch first man made satellite into space created fear that the U.S. was falling behind and needed to increase teaching of science and math in it s schools. Creation of NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization Collective Security (mutual defense) pact with non-communist nations. USSR responds with creation of the Warsaw Pact. Fidel Castro leads communist takeover over Cuba. Thousands flee Cuba and come to America. U.S. upset a communist country with ties to the Soviets is located to close to home. 89

90 Early Cold War Questions The truth of the matter is that Europe s requirements for the next three or four years of foreign food and other essential products principally from America are so much greater than her present ability to pay that she must have substantial additional help, or face economic, social, and political deterioration of a very grave character. Secretary of State George Marshall, Remarks at Harvard University Commencement, June 5, In this excerpt, Secretary of State George Marshall is identifying the need to (1) provide economic assistance to struggling European nations (2) allow European workers to settle in the United States (3) install democratic governments in the nations of Western Europe (4) strengthen European military defenses 2. The situation in Europe described by Secretary of State George Marshall was the result of the (1) failure of the United Nations to help people in need (2) devastation caused by fighting in World War II (3) construction of the Berlin Wall by the Soviet Union (4) takeover of Greece and Turkey by communists 3. The announcement of the Truman Doctrine, the Berlin airlift, and the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) were actions taken by the United States to prevent the (1) renewal of Nazi fascism in Germany, Italy, and Spain (2) expansion of communism into Western Europe (3) starvation of refugees from Eastern Europe (4) start of an arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union 4. The shelter pictured in this handbook was designed to help Americans survive (1) global climate changes (2) pandemic diseases (3) natural disasters (4) nuclear war 5. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed in 1949 primarily to (1) provide for the mutual defense of the member nations (2) promote social and cultural exchanges between members (3) promote free trade between the United States and Asia (4) rebuild Western Europe s war-ravaged Economy 90

91 U.S. Sends Aid to Greece and Turkey China Falls to Red Communists Senator Joe McCarthy Claims Communists Infest U.S. Government 6. Which generalization regarding these headlines is most valid? (1) The Cold War affected United States domestic and foreign policy. (2) The Soviet Union assisted in the rebuilding of Japan after World War II. (3) The United States returned to a foreign policy of neutrality after World War II. (4) The United Nations led the effort to contain fascism. 7. During the Korean War, President Harry Truman removed General Douglas MacArthur from command because MacArthur (1) called for an immediate end to the war (2) refused to serve under the United Nations (3) lacked the experience to provide wartime Leadership (4) threatened the constitutional principle of civilian control of the military 8. The main foreign policy objective of the Marshall Plan ( ) was to (1) stop communist aggression in Korea (2) fight poverty in Latin America (3) rebuild the economies of European nations (4) provide jobs for unemployed Americans 9. Which event of the 1950s most likely led to the publication of this cartoon? (1) Russia put cosmonauts on the Moon. (2) The Soviet Union launched the Sputnik satellite. (3) The United States was defeated in the Vietnam War. (4) American students scored low on tests in math and science. 10. The primary goal of the United States foreign policy of containment was to (1) return to noninvolvement in world affairs (2) stop communist influence from spreading (3) gain territories in Africa and Latin America (4) overthrow existing dictatorships 11. Which foreign policy decision by President Harry Truman is an example of the policy of containment? (1) relieving General MacArthur of his Korean command (2) recognizing the new nation of Israel (3) supporting the trials of war criminals in Germany and Japan (4) providing military aid to Greece and Turkey 91

92 12. The United States carried out the idea expressed in this late 1940s cartoon by (1) forming a military alliance with Russia (2) airlifting supplies to West Berlin (3) accepting Russian authority over West Berlin (4) agreeing to turn over control of Berlin to the United Nations 13. What was a major outcome of the Korean War ( )? (1) Korea continued to be a divided nation. (2) North Korea became an ally of the United States. (3) South Korea became a communist nation. (4) Control of Korea was turned over to the United Nations. 14. What does this photograph indicate about the United States in the 1950s? (1) Extraordinary steps were taken to hide atomic weapons. (2) The nation had become the only nuclear superpower. (3) Much fear was created by the Cold War. (4) Only government officials would be safe in a nuclear attack. 15. What was a result of the takeover of Cuba by Fidel Castro? (1) Relations between the Soviet Union and Cuba worsened. (2) Many Cuban Americans returned to their homeland. (3) Trade between the United States and Cuba increased. (4) Many people fled from Cuba to the United States. 92

93 Soviets Create Iron Curtain in Eastern Europe Mao Zedong Leads Successful Revolution in China North Korean Invasion of South Korea Leads to War 16. Which development is reflected in these headlines? (1) the post World War II expansion of communism (2) the beginning of détente between the Soviet Union and the United States (3) the return to an isolationist foreign policy (4) the beginning of pro-democracy movements during the Cold War 17. Information provided by the graph indicates that the Marshall Plan tried to prevent the spread of communism in Europe by (1) providing military aid to France and Great Britain (2) restoring economic stability throughout Western Europe (3) encouraging domestic revolutions in Europe (4) making European nations dependent on the United Nations 18. Which statement about the Marshall Plan is most accurate? (1) It was used to finance rearmament after World War II. (2) It was denied to all former World War II enemies. (3) It was used to rebuild European nations after World War II. (4) It was given to all African and Asian allies during the Cold War. 93

94 Post WWII Domestic GI Bill of Rights Provided economic aid like home and business loans and college tuition to returning WWII Veterans. Economic prosperity after WWII created a growing middle class which resulted in the baby boom and suburbanization. Baby Boom Massive post-wwii increase in birthrate created a housing shortage and a need for new schools and education funding Baby Boomers today are retiring and placing a strain on Social Security. Suburbanization William Levitt (Levittown) met the growing demand for baby boom housing by creating affordable single family unit housing located within commuting distance of cities. Interstate Highway Act (1956) - Provided funding to build highways, helping make places the suburbs like Levittown more appealing to live. McCarthyism and the Second Red Scare fear that communists (Reds) had infiltrated highest levels of government. Senator McCarthy fuels this fear for personal gain. Highlighted the constant tension between our freedoms (like freedom of speech) and need for national security. President Harry Truman s Fair Deal was an attempt to build on and expand FDR s New Deal 94

95 Post WWII Domestic Questions 1. One of the main effects of the passage of the Interstate Highway Act of 1956 was the expansion of (1) ridership on long-distance passenger trains (2) immigrant populations (3) communities in the suburbs (4) the airline industry 2. What was the main purpose of the GI Bill passed by Congress shortly before the end of World War II? (1) to offer low-interest loans to the defense industry (2) to provide economic aid to veterans (3) to contain the spread of international communism (4) to expand career opportunities in the military 3. Which development was a direct result of the baby boom that followed World War II? (1) decrease in school construction (2) increase in suburbanization (3) decline in crime rates (4) rise in immigration 4. The baby boom after World War II led directly to (1) a decrease in spending for public education (2) a return to a rural lifestyle (3) an increased demand for housing (4) a decrease in consumer spending 5. The rapid growth in personal income in the decade after World War II contributed to (1) a decrease in the birthrate (2) a major economic depression (3) expansion of the middle class (4) shortages in the supply of luxury goods 6. The GI Bill affected American society after World War II by (1) eliminating child labor (2) expanding voting rights (3) increasing spending on space exploration (4) extending educational and housing opportunities... The American people are sick and tired of being afraid to speak their minds lest they be politically smeared as Communists or Fascists by their opponents. Freedom of speech is not what it used to be in America. It has been so abused by some that it is not exercised by others. The American people are sick and tired of seeing innocent people smeared and guilty people whitewashed. But there have been enough proved cases to cause nationwide distrust and strong suspicion that there may be something to the unproved, sensational accusations.... Senator Margaret Chase Smith, U.S. Senate, June 1, When Senator Smith spoke these words, she was reacting to (1) the Yellow Peril (2) McCarthyism (3) the Eisenhower Doctrine (4) Progressivism 8. McCarthyism in the early 1950s resulted from (1) new commitments to civil rights for African Americans (2) opposition to the Marshall Plan (3) charges that Communists had infiltrated the United States government (4) increased public support for labor unions 9. Before ratification of the 22nd amendment in 1951, most presidents served no more than two terms because of (1) a federal law (2) a Supreme Court decision (3) the elastic clause (4) custom and tradition 10. McCarthyism in the early 1950s resulted from (1) new commitments to civil rights for African Americans (2) opposition to the Marshall Plan (3) charges that Communists had infiltrated the United States government (4) increased public support for labor unions 95

96 11. The goal of President Harry Truman s Fair Deal was to (1) continue reforms begun during Franklin D. Roosevelt s presidency (2) decrease government spending on social welfare programs (3) reduce taxes on large corporations and wealthy individuals (4) restore domestic policies that existed in the 1920s 12. McCarthyism in the early 1950s resulted from (1) new commitments to civil rights for African Americans (2) opposition to the Marshall Plan (3) charges that Communists had infiltrated the United States government (4) increased public support for labor unions 15. The protestors in the photograph are expressing their hatred for (1) fascists (3) immigrants (2) communists (4) police officers Attorney General Palmer Orders Raids on Reported Communists Senator McCarthy Launches Investigation of Accused Traitors in State Department Attorney General Ashcroft Authorizes Use of Wiretaps on Suspected Terrorists 13. Which situation is associated with the trends in agriculture shown in these tables? (1) Farm foreclosures decreased. (2) Farm size was substantially reduced. (3) Farm output declined. (4) Farmers became a smaller percentage of the labor force. 14. During the early 1950s, the tactics of Senator Joseph McCarthy were criticized because he (1) violated important constitutional liberties (2) displayed racial prejudice in his questions (3) opposed the use of loyalty oaths (4) ignored evidence of Soviet spying 16. These headlines demonstrate the tension between (1) States rights and federal control (2) Democratic and Republican party platforms (3) national security and individual liberties (4) legislative authority and executive power 17. During the next 30 years, what will be the most likely impact of the baby boom that followed World War II? (1) More money will be spent on national defense. (2) The cost of health care will decrease. (3) Social Security will have to provide for increasing numbers of retired people. (4) The elderly will be the smallest segment of the population. 96

97 18. This photograph shows the post World War II growth that was typical of (1) tourist resorts (2) suburban communities (3) inner cities (4) public housing projects 97

98 Foreign Policy John F. Kennedy: Bay of Pigs Invasion failed attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro s communist control of Cuba. Trade embargo created to force political change peacefully (just recently removed by Obama) Peace Corp Kennedy program to expand U.S. influence with goodwill volunteers in developing countries. Nuclear Arms Race: Cuban Missile Crisis Soviet Union attempts to put nuclear weapons in Cuba. Closeness of Cuba a threat because U.S. would have no time to respond to an attack. President Kennedy responds with an embargo around the island to stop delivery of additional materials. Soviet Union backs down and withdraws weapons from Cuba. Closest world has ever come to full scale nuclear war. Made leaders realize this threat must be handled more carefully. Kennedy negotiates a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty as a result. Vietnam War: Domino Theory Belief that if Vietnam becomes communist, so will the rest of Southeast Asia Goal was to contain communism by preventing communist takeover of Vietnam Escalation Gradual increase in U.S. involvement and troop levels in Vietnam. President Lyndon Baines Johnson responsible for greatest escalation. War Powers Act - Asserted the role of Congress in the commitment of troops overseas after the disastrous Vietnam War. Voting Age Constitutional Amendment changed from 21 to 18 due to war in Vietnam. How can we sent 18 year olds to die in a war when they couldn t vote? Détente: Détente Policy of President Richard Nixon to decrease tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States Nixon s Visit to China eases tension between U.S. and Red China The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) signed in the 1970s by the United States and the Soviet Union to further reduce Cold War tensions Camp David Accords President Carter s negotiated peace between Israel and Egypt. Fall of Berlin Wall symbolic moment to mark the beginning of the end of the Cold War. 98

99 Foreign Policy The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) agreements signed in the 1970s by the United States and the Soviet Union were efforts to (1) reduce Cold War tensions (2) establish a worldwide human rights policy (3) increase cooperation in the United Nations (4) negotiate a lasting peace in the Middle East Good evening, my fellow citizens. This Government, as promised, has maintained the closest surveillance of the Soviet military buildup on the island of Cuba. Within the past week unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series of offensive missile sites is now in preparation on that imprisoned island. The purposes of these bases can be none other than to provide a nuclear strike capability against the Western Hemisphere. President John F. Kennedy, Report to the American People, October 22, President John F. Kennedy reacted strongly to the situation described in this speech primarily because (1) the United States feared an influx of Cuban refugees (2) these missiles could threaten United States oil supplies in South America (3) the location of Cuba would allow the United States little time to respond to an attack (4) the United States and the Warsaw Pact nations had formed a military alliance 3. Which action has come to symbolize the end of the Cold War? (1) establishing the Peace Corps (2) achieving a truce in the Korean War (3) tearing down the Berlin Wall (4) improving United States relations with China Dear Mr. President: I believe our ground forces in South Vietnam should be kept to a minimum, consistent with the protection of our installations and property in that country. My concern is that a substantial buildup of U.S. ground troops would be construed by the Communists, and by the world, as a determination on our part to win the war on the ground. This could be a quagmire. It could turn into an open end commitment on our part that would take more and more ground troops, without a realistic hope of ultimate victory. I do not think the situation is comparable to Korea. The political posture of the parties involved, and the physical conditions, including terrain, are entirely different. Respectfully yours, Clark 4. What advice about United States involvement in Vietnam is President Lyndon B. Johnson being given in this letter? (1) Escalation of the Vietnam War is necessary to stop communist expansion. (2) Increasing the United States military commitment to Vietnam would be a mistake. (3) Victory in the Vietnam War will be assured if the president continues his policies. (4) Military success in Vietnam is improving the president s chances for reelection. 5. What was one outcome of the Cuban missile crisis in 1962? (1) Cuba became a communist nation. (2) The United States seized military control of Cuba. (3) The Soviet Union withdrew its nuclear missiles from Cuba. (4) Fidel Castro met with President John F. Kennedy. 99

100 9. Which foreign policy agreement had the most direct influence on the Middle East? (1) Kellogg-Briand Pact (2) Yalta Conference declaration (3) SALT I Treaty (4) Camp David Accords 10. The domino theory was used to justify United States involvement in the (1) War on Poverty (3) Bosnian crisis (2) Berlin airlift (4) Vietnam War 6. The crisis highlighted in these newspaper headlines was the (1) invasion of the Bay of Pigs in Cuba (2) election of Fidel Castro as president of Cuba (3) opposition of Cuba to the Alliance for Progress (4) placement of nuclear missiles in Cuba by the Soviet Union 7. The policy of détente was used by President Richard Nixon in an effort to (1) decrease tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States (2) improve relations with Latin America (3) promote democratic government in China (4) create stronger ties with Western Europe 8. Which heading best completes the partial outline below? I. A. Open Door policy B. Panamanian Revolt (1903) C. Roosevelt Corollary D. Truman Doctrine (1) American Domestic Programs (2) Cold War Events (3) United States Interventionism (4) Efforts at Isolationism 11. The main purpose of the War Powers Act of 1973 was to (1) expand the power of Congress to declare war (2) limit the president s ability to send troops into combat abroad (3) allow people to vote on the issue of United States commitments overseas (4) end the Vietnam War on favorable terms... My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.... John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address, To implement the idea expressed in this statement, President Kennedy supported the (1) creation of the Marshall Plan (2) formation of the Peace Corps (3) removal of United States troops from Korea (4) establishment of the South East Asia Treaty Organization 13. The war in Vietnam led Congress to pass the War Powers Act of 1973 in order to (1) affirm United States support for the United Nations (2) strengthen the policy of détente (3) increase United States participation in international peacekeeping operations (4) assert the role of Congress in the commitment of troops overseas 100

101 14. The ratification of the 26th amendment, which lowered the voting age to 18, was a result of the (1) participation of the United States in the Vietnam War (2) fear of McCarthyism (3) reaction to the launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union (4) reporting of the Watergate scandal... Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.... President John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address, This statement by President Kennedy suggests a continued commitment to the foreign policy of (1) isolationism (3) containment (2) appeasement (4) imperialism 16. President Richard Nixon s policy of détente is best characterized by his (1) decision to dismantle the nuclear weapons arsenal of the United States (2) attempt to reduce tensions with the Soviet Union (3) order to bomb Cambodia (4) support for membership in the United Nations for communist countries 17. The War Powers Act of 1973 was passed by Congress as a response to the (1) spread of nuclear weapons during the Cold War (2) invasion of Kuwait by Iraq (3) threat of communism in the Middle East (4) United States involvement in the Vietnam War 18. The beginning of the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe is most closely associated with the (1) fall of the Berlin Wall (2) admission of Warsaw Pact nations to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (3) intervention of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Yugoslavia (4) formation of the European Union Lyric A:... Father, father We don t need to escalate You see, war is not the answer For only love can conquer hate You know we ve got to find a way To bring some lovin here today... What s Going On, Al Cleveland, Marvin Gaye, Renaldo Benson, 1971 Lyric B:... Yeah, my blood s so mad Feels like coagulatin I m sittin here, just contemplatin I can t twist the truth It knows no regulation Hand full of senators don t pass legislation And marches alone can t bring integration When human respect is disintegratin This whole crazy world Is just too frustratin... Eve of Destruction, P.F. Sloan, Which conclusion is most clearly supported by an examination of these song lyrics? (1) In the 1960s and early 1970s, Americans shared common views on foreign policy. (2) Social conflict existed over war and civil rights in the 1960s and early 1970s. (3) The music of the 1960s and early 1970s supported government policies. (4) Most songwriters of the 1960s and early 1970s used their music to advocate violent revolution. 20. President Richard Nixon s visit to the People s Republic of China in 1972 was significant because it (1) convinced the Chinese to abandon communism (2) brought about the unification of Taiwan and Communist China (3) reduced tensions between the United States and Communist China (4) decreased United States dependence on Chinese exports 101

102 ... We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too.... President John F. Kennedy, speech at Rice University, September 12, The main purpose of this speech was to win public support for (1) establishing a missile defense system on the Moon (2) cooperating with communist countries in exploring space (3) surpassing the Soviet Union in the space race (4) controlling the spread of nuclear weapons 22. United States involvement in the Vietnam War was based in part on a desire to (1) prevent renewed Japanese expansionism in the Pacific (2) assure access to an adequate supply of oil from the Middle East (3) contain communism in Southeast Asia (4) protect American business interests in China 23. The Cuban missile crisis (1962) influenced President John F. Kennedy s decision to (1) negotiate the limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty with the Soviet Union (2) reduce the nation s commitment to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (3) forbid Americans to trade with and travel to Latin America (4) send Peace Corps volunteers to aid developing countries 24. Which topic has been the focus of four different amendments to the United States Constitution? (1) voting rights (2) term limits on federal officeholders (3) the electoral college (4) prohibition of alcoholic beverages Gorbachev Proposes Nuclear Arms Reductions Berliners Travel Freely Between East and West Russia Seeks To Join NATO 25. These headlines are most closely associated with the (1) military arms race (2) decline of Cold War hostilities (3) failures of the containment policy (4) successes of communism in the Soviet Union Batista Driven from Power Bay of Pigs Invasion Fails U-2 Planes Reveal Soviet Missiles 26. These headlines refer to the relationship between the United States and (1) Canada (3) Mexico (2) Cuba (4) Panama 27. One reason for the creation of the Peace Corps by President John F. Kennedy was to (1) stop the spread of AIDS in Africa and Asia (2) gain control of territory in Latin America (3) provide workers for industrial nations (4) give support to developing nations 28. The main goal of President Richard Nixon s foreign policy of détente was to (1) assure American victory in Vietnam (2) resolve conflicts in the Middle East (3) abolish the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (4) improve relations with the Soviet Union 29. One similarity in the presidential administrations of Abraham Lincoln, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Lyndon Johnson is that each (1) maintained a foreign policy of neutrality (2) expanded the power of the presidency (3) removed Supreme Court Justices from office (4) decreased the size of the military 102

103 30. The United States began a trade embargo against Cuba in the 1960s to (1) encourage political change in Cuba (2) promote domestic industries in Cuba (3) motivate Cubans to immigrate to the United States (4) end the domination of the banana industry by Cuba 31. The terms containment, domino theory, and massive retaliation are most closely associated with United States foreign policy efforts to (1) maintain neutrality during World War I ( ) (2) avoid conflict with Germany and Japan in the 1930s (3) wage the Cold War in the 1950s (4) increase trade with Latin America in the 1970s 103

104 Domestic Policies Great Society President Johnson s program to wage war on (end) poverty and to provide assistance to the needy. Failed do to escalation of war in Vietnam. Included Medicare health insurance for the elderly. Watergate Richard Nixon resigns (1973) from presidency as a result of his administrations cover-up of the break in at the Democratic Headquarters at the Watergate Hotel. This scandal helped erode trust in government. Energy Crisis Price of energy (particularly oil) created hardship for Americans in the 1970 s. Lead to calls for alternative energy sources. Muckrakers of the modern era: Ralph Nader Consumer Advocate Unsafe at any Speed Rachael Carlson Environmentalist Silent Spring Reagan Revolution - Goals of Reagan and Republican Party in 1980 s was to cut taxes, reduce government spending on social programs, deregulate the economy while supporting a strong military. 104

105 Domestic Policy Questions... Our decision about energy will test the character of the American people and the ability of the President and the Congress to govern. This difficult effort will be the moral equivalent of war except that we will be uniting our efforts to build and not destroy.... President Jimmy Carter Address to the Nation, April 18, President Carter put these ideas into practice by (1) halting construction of nuclear power plants (2) increasing imports of foreign oil (3) urging the development of alternative fuel sources (4) imposing a price freeze on all petroleum Products 3. Rachel Carson and Ralph Nader are similar to the muckrakers of the Progressive Era because they have (1) advocated a total change in the structure of government (2) attempted to expose societal problems (3) failed to influence public opinion (4) supported anti-american activities 4. A major goal of President Lyndon B. Johnson s Great Society was to (1) provide government aid to business (2) end poverty in the United States (3) conserve natural resources (4) stop emigration from Latin America 5. In 1965, Congress established Medicare to (1) provide health care to the elderly (2) assist foreign nations with their health problems (3) grant scholarships to medical students (4) establish universal health care 6. In the United States, regional differences in economic development are primarily due to (1) settlement patterns of immigrant groups (2) pressure from various religious groups (3) state and federal election laws (4) geographic factors in various parts of the nation 2. The investigations that are the subject of this cartoon resulted in the (1) authorization of public financing of all federal elections (2) eventual resignation of President Richard Nixon (3) upholding of President Nixon s right to executive privilege by the Supreme Court (4) issuance of pardons for presidential aides 7. A major goal of the Republican Party since the 1980s has been to (1) increase welfare benefits (2) increase the size of the federal workforce (3) reduce defense spending (4) cut federal taxes 8. Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Lyndon B. Johnson supported domestic policies that (1) favored only one region of the nation (2) attempted to increase the wealth of the rich (3) led to tax cuts for all Americans (4) provided direct help to those in need 105

106 I believe that our young people [18 20 years old] possess a great social conscience, are perplexed by the injustices which exist in the world and are anxious to rectify [correct] these ills. Senator Jennings Randolph, 1971, The New York Times 9. Those who favor this point of view would likely have supported (1) a constitutional amendment extending voting rights (2) a presidential decision to raise speed limits (3) a Supreme Court ruling to reverse desegregation (4) a law passed by Congress to increase Social Security benefits 14. One goal of President Lyndon Johnson s Great Society was to (1) improve the quality of life for the poor (2) privatize many government programs (3) send additional troops to Vietnam (4) reduce the number of nuclear weapons 10. Which statement best describes an impact of the Watergate scandal on American society? (1) The modern environmental movement began. (2) Public trust in government declined. (3) Voter turnout in elections increased. (4) An economic recession ended. 11. The Jungle by Upton Sinclair and Unsafe at Any Speed by Ralph Nader were both intended to (1) publicize the growing violence in American society (2) suggest that a poor person could get rich with hard work (3) encourage immigration reform (4) make the public aware of the poor quality of certain products 12. A major goal of President Lyndon Johnson s Great Society program was to (1) control economic inflation (2) end poverty in the United States (3) repeal several New Deal social programs (4) return responsibility for welfare programs to the states 13. A major policy of President Ronald Reagan s administration was to (1) reduce defense spending (2) lower federal income tax rates (3) end desegregation of public facilities (4) promote regulation of small businesses 106

107 Civil Rights African Americans Pre-Civil War: Famous Abolitionists (someone opposed to slavery) - William Lloyd Garrison, Harriet Tubman, and Harriet Beecher Stowe Post-Civil War: Poll Taxes and Literacy tests were used to keep blacks from voting while Jim Crow laws were used to segregate the races. Different Civil Rights groups used different approaches to achieve similar goals. Examples: non-violent protest, boycotts, the court system. Early Leaders: Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois both supported Civil Rights BUT disagreed over the methods to achieve them. Booker T. Washington believed vocational (job) training was best way to achieving EVENTUAL equality and founded the Tuskegee Institute in this idea. W.E.B. Du Bois, NAACP member, called for immediate and absolute legal and political equality. Desegregation of the Military by President Truman after WWII. Brown v. Board of Education(1954) Supreme Court Rules segregated public schools unconstitutional using the 14 th Amendment s equal protection of the law clause overturned Plessy v. Ferguson which said racial segregation WAS constitutional. President Eisenhower had to use the National Guard to enforce desegregation in Little Rock, Arkansas. Civil Disobedience refusal to follow an unjust law Examples: Rosa Parkes refusal to get up for a white man from her seat on a bus and students refusing to leave a white only lunch counter. Civil Right Act Outlawed unfair treatment based on race. Passed despite Senate attempt to filibuster the law. Voting: 24 th Amendment (banning poll taxes) and the 1965 Voting Rights Act both outlawed discriminatory voting laws resulting in increased minority voter turnout. Affirmative action promotes preference in hiring for African Americans and other minorities to correct past injustices. ***Suffrage means the right to vote*** WOMEN 1848 Seneca Falls convention Considered beginning of women s rights movement, created Declaration of Sentiments which said men and women were equal. Susan B. Anthony, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton early leaders in the fight for gender (sex) equality. Focus of recent (last 25 years) women s rights movement has been on economic issues like pay. The Equal Pay Act and the proposed Equal Rights amendment (ERA) were attempts to improve status of women. Title IX called for equal treatment of the sexes in educational funding (including sports). Hispanics Cesar Chavez Organized Hispanic farm workers for better working conditions. 107

108 Civil Rights Questions 1. A major impact of the 24th amendment banning poll taxes and of the 1965 Voting Rights Act was the (1) increase in the number of Jim Crow laws (2) movement to create a new political party for Hispanics (3) decrease in voting among African American women (4) elimination of discriminatory voting laws 2. President George Washington s response to the Whiskey Rebellion (1794) and President Dwight Eisenhower s response to events at Little Rock High School (1957) show that the (1) Supreme Court has often declared presidential actions unconstitutional (2) federal supremacy clause of the Constitution is rarely enforced (3) states have been successful in defying federal law (4) president may use troops to enforce federal decisions 3. During the civil rights movement of the 1960s, activities of the Congress of Racial Equality, the National Urban League, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) illustrated that (1) all civil rights groups use the same tactics (2) different approaches can be used to achieve a common goal (3) organizational differences usually lead to failure (4) violence is the best tool for achieving social Change 4. The Equal Pay Act, the Title IX education amendment, and the proposed Equal Rights amendment (ERA) were primarily efforts to improve the status of (1) African Americans (2) Native American Indians (3) migrant workers (4) women 5. The experiences of African Americans serving in the military forces during World War II influenced their postwar decision to (1) renew support for the principle of separate but equal (2) join the armed forces in record numbers (3) increase efforts to end racial discrimination (4) move back to the rural south 6. During the 1960s and 1970s, Cesar Chavez worked to unionize migrant farm workers by (1) seizing the land of the lettuce and grape growers (2) securing passage of federal legislation to limit immigration (3) using nonviolent tactics such as boycotts and hunger strikes (4) urging growers to reduce the workforce through mechanization 7. Which constitutional principle was tested in the cases of Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka? (1) separation of powers (2) popular sovereignty (3) equal protection of the law (4) separation of church and state 8. W. E. B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington most strongly disagreed over which issue? (1) the constitutionality of the Sherman Antitrust Act (2) the construction of the Panama Canal (3) methods to achieve racial equality (4) support for the Allies in World War I 9. In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Supreme Court ruled that (1) states may not secede from the Union (2) racial segregation was constitutional (3) slaves are property and may not be taken from their owners (4) all western territories should be open to Slavery 108

109 [Reporter Mike] WALLACE: All right, sir. A Federal District Court has already ruled that Little Rock [Arkansas] Central High School should be integrated. And the reasons for preventing integration now are anemic [weak]. In view of your promise to the President [Dwight D. Eisenhower], will you respect this decision and give your okay to integration beginning tomorrow morning? [Governor Orval] FAUBUS: I ve previously given my okay to integration. The Guard was not called out to prevent integration, but to keep the peace and order of the community. And, of course, I disagree with your preliminary statement that we are in defiance of a Federal Court order, based upon the premise that the peace and good order of the community is paramount to all other issues. Mike Wallace interview with Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus, September 15, The issue discussed in this interview grew out of an effort to enforce the Supreme Court decision in (1) Dred Scott v. Sanford (2) Plessy v. Ferguson (3) Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (4) Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States 11. The confrontation between Governor Faubus and President Eisenhower referred to in this interview was ended by the (1) use of federal troops to protect African American students (2) passage of the Voting Rights Act by Congress (3) forced resignation of Governor Faubus (4) immediate desegregation of all Southern schools 12. The Declaration of Sentiments from the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 proclaimed that (1) the abolition of slavery was necessary (2) all men and women are created equal (3) California should be admitted as a free state (4) the sale of alcoholic beverages should be Illegal 13. William Lloyd Garrison, Harriet Tubman, and Harriet Beecher Stowe are best known for their efforts to (1) create free public schools (2) begin the temperance movement (3) expand the rights of women (4) oppose the practice of slavery 14. One idea that both Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois supported is that (1) African Americans should have increased civil Rights (2) vocational training was the best approach to education (3) immigration was responsible for racial segregation (4) Jim Crow laws were needed to help African Americans... In a sense we ve come to our nation s capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the unalienable Rights of Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked insufficient funds.... Martin Luther King, Jr., August 28, The focus of this passage from Dr. King s speech was his belief that (1) equal rights for all were guaranteed by the founders of this nation (2) Americans had become blind to racial differences (3) violence was often necessary for the protection of civil liberties (4) civil rights for African Americans would always be a dream 109

110 The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex th Amendment, United States Constitution 16. Which group of women worked for the passage of this amendment? (1) Harriet Tubman, Jane Addams, and Dorothea Dix (2) Susan B. Anthony, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton (3) Madeline Albright, Geraldine Ferraro, and Sandra Day O Connor (4) Clara Barton, Amelia Earhart, and Eleanor Roosevelt 18. Which leader founded a vocational training institution in the late 1800s to improve economic opportunities for African Americans? (1) George Washington Carver (2) Frederick Douglass (3) W. E. B. Du Bois (4) Booker T. Washington 19. Filibusters were used by United States Senators from the South in the 1950s and 1960s to (1) block passage of civil rights bills (2) protest United States involvement in Vietnam (3) override presidential vetoes of environmental bills (4) gain approval of presidential appointments to the Supreme Court 20. The Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 is often viewed as the beginning of the (1) temperance movement (2) women s rights movement (3) antislavery movement (4) Native American Indian movement 17. According to the map, in which region of the United States did women receive the most support for equal suffrage before passage of the 19th amendment? (1) East (2) North (3) South (4) West 21. During the civil rights movement of the 1960s, activities of the Congress of Racial Equality, the National Urban League, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) illustrated that (1) all civil rights groups use the same tactics (2) different approaches can be used to achieve a common goal (3) organizational differences usually lead to failure (4) violence is the best tool for achieving social Change 22. In 1954, the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka advanced the civil rights movement by (1) guaranteeing equal voting rights to African Americans (2) banning racial segregation in hotels and restaurants (3) declaring that racial segregation in public schools violated the 14th amendment (4) upholding the principle of separate but equal public facilities 110

111 ... Unjust laws exist; shall we be content to obey them, or shall we endeavor to amend them, and obey them until we have succeeded, or shall we transgress them at once?... Henry David Thoreau, But the great glory of American democracy is the right to protest for right. My friends, don t let anybody make us feel that we [are] to be compared in our actions with the Ku Klux Klan or with the White Citizens Council. There will be no crosses burned at any bus stops in Montgomery. There will be no white persons pulled out of their homes and taken out on some distant road and lynched for not cooperating. There will be nobody amid, among us who will stand up and defy the Constitution of this nation. We only assemble here because of our desire to see right exist.... Martin Luther King, Jr., December Which statement most accurately summarizes the main idea of these quotations? (1) Revolution is inevitable in a democratic society. (2) Government consistently protects the freedom and dignity of all its citizens. (3) Violence is the most effective form of protest. (4) Civil disobedience is sometimes necessary to bring about change. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude th Amendment, Section 1, United States Constitution, Which actions did Southern States take to keep African Americans from exercising the rights guaranteed in this amendment? (1) suspending habeas corpus and denying women the right to vote (2) collecting poll taxes and requiring literacy tests (3) establishing religious and property-holding requirements for voting (4) passing Black Codes and establishing segregated schools 25. This poster was used during the (1) abolitionist movement (2) woman s suffrage movement (3) civil rights movement (4) environmental movement 26. The Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) had a major impact on the lives of African Americans because it ruled that (1) segregation was illegal in educational institutions (2) voting was a right guaranteed by the Constitution (3) separate but equal public facilities were legal (4) military occupation of the South was Unconstitutional 27. Which strategy did African-American students use when they refused to leave a whites only lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, in 1960? (1) economic boycott (2) hunger strike (3) petition drive (4) civil disobedience 111

112 The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex th Amendment, United States Constitution 28. Information provided by the map most clearly supports the conclusion that by 1964 racial desegregation of Southern schools was (1) failing in Oklahoma, Missouri, Kentucky, and West Virginia (2) supported by most voters in the South (3) occurring at different rates in Southern states (4) completed by the mid-1960s 29. The school desegregation that is shown on the map was most affected by the (1) decline of the Ku Klux Klan (2) passage of the equal rights amendment (3) expansion of voting rights for African Americans (4) decision of the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 30. The Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 was mainly concerned with (1) ending slavery in all the states (2) reducing consumption of alcoholic beverages (3) improving treatment of the mentally ill (4) expanding women s rights 31. In the South, the passage of Jim Crow laws in the 1870s and 1880s led directly to the (1) racial integration of public schools (2) decline of the Democratic party (3) organization of the Ku Klux Klan (4) segregation of public facilities Which group of women worked for the passage of this amendment? (1) Harriet Tubman, Jane Addams, and Dorothea Dix (2) Susan B. Anthony, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton (3) Madeline Albright, Geraldine Ferraro, and Sandra Day O Connor (4) Clara Barton, Amelia Earhart, and Eleanor Roosevelt 32. In 1957, President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, to (1) protect civil rights marchers (2) help African Americans register to vote (3) enforce a Supreme Court decision to desegregate public schools (4) end race riots resulting from a bus boycott 33. What was the decision of the Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)? (1) Black Codes were unconstitutional. (2) The citizenship principle established in Dred Scott v. Sanford was repealed. (3) The 15th amendment failed to guarantee the right to vote to all males. (4) Racial segregation did not violate the equal protection provision of the 14th amendment. 34. A major goal of the women s movement over the past twenty years has been to gain (1) full property rights (2) the right to vote (3) equal economic opportunity (4) better access to Social Security 35. A major goal of the women s movement over the past twenty years has been to gain (1) full property rights (2) the right to vote (3) equal economic opportunity (4) better access to Social Security 112

113 Speaker A: It is more important now to focus on vocational training and economic opportunities than on removing obstacles to social equality for African Americans. Speaker B: The Constitution is color-blind and recognizes no superior class in this country. All citizens are equal before the law. Speaker C: The American Negro [African American] must focus on the achievement of three goals: higher education, full political participation, and continued support for civil rights. Speaker D: African Americans should return home to Africa to establish their own 36. During the early 1900s, reform leaders tried to advance the goals of Speaker C by (1) supporting passage of Jim Crow laws (2) forming the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama (3) avoiding attempts to overturn racial segregation in the courts (4) creating the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) 37. One idea that both Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois supported is that (1) African Americans should have increased civil rights (2) vocational training was the best approach to education (3) immigration was responsible for racial segregation (4) Jim Crow laws were needed to help African Americans 113

114 Court Cases Early Cases: Marbury v. Madison (1803) Established Judicial Review (right to declare a law unconstitutional) Gibbons v. Ogden Right of federal government to regulate interstate commerce. Wartime Cases: Court has ruled numerous times that constitutional rights can be limited in time of war. Schenck v. U.S. (1919) Supreme Court decides that freedoms and liberties (in this case speech) can be limited in a time of war if they are a clear and present danger Korematsu v. U.S. Internment of Japanese Americans WAS Constitutional out of wartime necessity Rights of the Accused: Warren court expanded rights of the accused. Many of these cases were decided because the defendants were denied their Due Process right guaranteed in the Constitution. Some critics argue they limit the ability of police to be effective. Miranda v. Arizona - a person accused of a crime is entitled to have their rights read to them at time of arrest. Mapp v. Ohio Illegally obtained evidence from a warrantless search IS NOT admissible in court. Gideon v. Wainwright First Amendment Cases: (freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, petition and implied right to expression) Tinker v. Des Moines (1969) Students DO have a right to expression in school as long as it does not interrupt learning. T.L.O. v. New Jersey (1985) Gives school administrators GREATER authority to search students than police have outside school. Rights can be limited in a school. New York Times Co. v. United States (1971) said the U.S. government could not block the release of damaging information on the Vietnam War by the New York Times. Roe v. Wade (1973) Right to an abortion is protected under the 4 th Amendment implied right to privacy. United States v. Nixon (1974) said executive privilege did not protect him from having to turn over Watergate recordings made in the White House. Reinforced the principle that the president of the United States is not above the law. 114

115 Court Case Questions 1. As a result of the Supreme Court ruling in Miranda v. Arizona (1966), a person accused of a crime is entitled to (1) a speedy trial (2) reasonable bail (3) a reading of his or her rights at the time of arrest (4) protection against cruel or unusual punishment 2. One way in which the Supreme Court decisions in Mapp v. Ohio (1961), Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), and Miranda v. Arizona (1966) are similar is that each resulted in (1) more legal searches without warrants (2) fewer gun control regulations (3) additional limitations on religious freedom (4) expanded rights for people accused of crimes 3. One similarity in the Supreme Court decisions in Gideon v. Wainwright and Miranda v. Arizona is that both decisions (1) expanded the rights of the accused (2) improved the ability of the police to gather evidence (3) lengthened sentences for violent felony offenses (4) set limits on the use of the death penalty 4. The decision of the Supreme Court in the case of United States v. Nixon (1974) stated that (1) President Richard Nixon as commander in chief could extend the Vietnam War into Cambodia (2) executive branch officials could be fired by the president without the Senate s approval (3) executive privilege did not allow the president to withhold recordings that were related to the Watergate affair (4) congressional approval of the War Powers Act of 1973 violated the separation of powers You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to speak to an attorney, and to have an attorney present during any questioning. If you cannot afford a lawyer, one will be provided for you at government expense. 5. The requirements included in this passage are part of the Supreme Court s effort to protect the rights of (1) individuals accused of crimes (2) students from unreasonable searches (3) defendants from double jeopardy (4) criminals from cruel and unusual punishment 6. This passage resulted from which Supreme Court decision? (1) Mapp v. Ohio (1961) (2) Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) (3) Miranda v. Arizona (1966) (4) Tinker v. Des Moines (1969) 7. Which Supreme Court case is correctly paired with the constitutional issue it addressed? (1) Gibbons v. Ogden interstate commerce (2) Dred Scott v. Sanford executive privilege (3) Gideon v. Wainwright voting rights (4) Roe v. Wade rights of the accused 8. One criticism of the Warren Court s decisions in Mapp v. Ohio (1961), Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), and Miranda v. Arizona (1966) is that the Supreme Court (1) limited police powers while expanding the rights of criminal defendants (2) denied the first amendment rights of antiwar protestors and the press (3) forced the desegregation of public transportation (4) restricted the rights of students in public Schools 115

116 9. The Supreme Court decisions in Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) and Miranda v. Arizona (1966) have been criticized because these rulings (1) expanded the rights of the accused (2) granted more powers to federal judges (3) lengthened prison sentences for the guilty (4) reinstated the use of capital punishment 10. In Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) and Miranda v. Arizona (1966), the Supreme Court ruled that persons convicted of crimes had been (1) denied due process of law (2) denied a speedy and public trial (3) victimized by illegal search and seizure (4) sentenced to cruel and unusual punishment 11. The Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade (1973) was based on the constitutional principle of (1) protection of property rights (2) freedom of speech (3) right to privacy (4) freedom of religion 12. The Supreme Court decisions in New York Times Co. v. United States (1971) and United States v. Nixon (1974) reinforced the principle that the president of the United States (1) has unlimited use of the veto power (2) is protected from unfair media criticism (3) may not be convicted of a crime (4) is not above the law 13. The decisions of the United States Supreme Court in Tinker v. Des Moines and New York Times Co. v. United States were based on interpretations of the (1) meaning of a republican form of government (2) powers delegated specifically to Congress (3) president s right to executive privilege (4) rights guaranteed by the 1st amendment 14. Which Supreme Court case is correctly paired with the constitutional issue it addressed? (1) Gibbons v. Ogden interstate commerce (2) Dred Scott v. Sanford executive privilege (3) Gideon v. Wainwright voting rights (4) Roe v. Wade rights of the accused 15. As a result of the Supreme Court ruling in Miranda v. Arizona (1966), a person accused of a crime is entitled to (1) a speedy trial (2) reasonable bail (3) a reading of his or her rights at the time of arrest (4) protection against cruel or unusual punishment 16. The Supreme Court decisions in Mapp v. Ohio, Gideon v. Wainright, and Miranda v. Arizona all expanded (1) integration of public facilities (2) rights of the accused (3) presidential powers (4) equality in the workplace Lincoln Suspends Writ of Habeas Corpus Supreme Court Rules for Government in Draft Resister Case Relocation of Japanese Americans Upheld by Supreme Court 17. These headlines illustrate that during wartime (1) the liberties of individuals can be restricted (2) the role of the government in regulating the economy increases (3) most Americans support participation in wars (4) new job opportunities are created by increased demand 18. The requirement that all persons placed under arrest must be informed of their legal rights resulted from a (1) custom adopted from English common law (2) law enacted by Congress (3) decision of the United States Supreme Court (4) specific statement in the original Constitution of the United States 19. In the Supreme Court cases New Jersey v. T.L.O. and Tinker v. Des Moines School District, the Court ruled that (1) individual student rights are more important than a safe school environment (2) students can be expelled from school without a hearing (3) civil liberties can be both protected and limited in schools (4) the Bill of Rights does not apply to minors 116

117 20. The clear and present danger doctrine stated by the Supreme Court in the case of Schenck v. United States (1919) had an important impact on the Bill of Rights because it (1) limited the powers of the president (2) placed limits on freedom of speech (3) clarified standards for a fair trial (4) expanded the rights of persons accused of crimes 21. The Supreme Court decision in Schenck v. United States (1919) stated that (1) immigrants have limited rights (2) freedom of speech is not absolute (3) rights of the accused may not be limited (4) women should be granted suffrage 22. Judicial review, as practiced by the federal courts, resulted directly from (1) the decisions of colonial governors (2) the Articles of Confederation (3) the Bill of Rights (4) a Supreme Court decision. 23. The Supreme Court decisions in Gibbons v. Ogden and Northern Securities Co. v. United States were based on the federal government s power to (1) issue patents (2) control the stock market (3) regulate interstate commerce (4) encourage technological development 25. The decisions of the United States Supreme Court in Tinker v. Des Moines and New York Times Co. v. United States were based on interpretations of the (1) meaning of a republican form of government (2) powers delegated specifically to Congress (3) president s right to executive privilege (4) rights guaranteed by the 1st amendment 26. The decisions of the Supreme Court in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) and Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) are important because they (1) clarified constitutional limits on the right to bear arms (2) denied slaves the right to sue in federal courts (3) increased the power of the federal government over the states (4) upheld funding for the Erie Canal 24. The police enter an individual s home without invitation or a warrant and seize evidence to be used against the individual. Which Supreme Court decision may be used to rule this evidence inadmissible in court? (1) Baker v. Carr (2) Gideon v. Wainwright (3) Mapp v. Ohio (4) Roe v. Wade 117

118 Modern Times Persian Gulf War (1991) George H.W. Bush creates a multi-national coalition to push Saddam Hussein out of Kuwait because it threatened global flow of oil. Globalization In the new global economy, many Americans have lost industrial/factory jobs as businesses produce more goods in other countries. This has been made possible by lowering tariffs on goods coming into America through agreements like the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) which eliminated all tariffs between Mexico, U.S. and Canada. Big business has generally supported the move, labor unions and opposed Many different countries now have economies tied together as more participate in the global economy Since 1980, most new jobs in the U.S. have been service jobs. Clinton Impeachment President Clinton impeached BUT NOT convicted and removed from office as a result of allegations of lying under oath. Andrew Johnson was only other president impeached. Like Clinton, he also was not convicted and removed. Despite this, Clinton was popular due to a period of relative peace and economic prosperity. Election of 2000 Controversy settled by Supreme Court. Highlighted the major problem with the electoral college; Al Gore received more popular votes than his opponent George W. Bush, yet Gore lost the election. Some suggest we should do away with electoral college and elect the president with a national popular vote. Baby Boomers Aging Average age of Americans is getting older, concerns like paying for health care (Medicare) and Social Security are a real concern. 9/11/01 United States attacked by Islamic Terrorists. Domestic Result USA Patriot Act gave U.S. government greater surveillance ability. Controversy over whether it violates our Civil Liberties. International Result War on Terror Policies to seek out and destroy terrorist cells and the governments that support them Example: War in Afghanistan Iraq War (President Bush) War to remove Saddam Hussein because it was believed he was producing weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons. Controversial because no weapons were found and the fear was that is could become a quagmire reminiscent of the Vietnam War. Oba 118

119 Modern Times Questions 1. Which statement best expresses the cartoonist s point of view? (1) Citizens sometimes fail to appreciate the tax-funded benefits provided by government. (2) More social benefits programs are needed for older Americans. (3) Older Americans reject tax-supported government assistance. (4) The Tea Party movement lacks public support. 2. This cartoon was published in response to the (1) ratification of the 22nd amendment limiting presidential terms (2) influence of third-party candidates in presidential elections (3) decision of the Supreme Court establishing the one man-one vote principle (4) dispute over the presidential election between George W. Bush and Al Gore 119

120 Into the abyss Source: John de Rosier, Albany Times Union, November 26, The main idea of the cartoon is that President Barack Obama (1) is determined to end President Lyndon B. Johnson s foreign policy commitments (2) is better prepared than President Lyndon B. Johnson to lead the nation in war (3) should learn from President Lyndon B. Johnson s failure in Vietnam (4) should follow the advice of President Lyndon B. Johnson 4. In this cartoon, what is the main concern of the cartoonist? (1) The technology needed to run the federal government is too expensive. (2) Consumers should be protected from false advertising in the media. (3) Technology makes it easier to influence legislators. (4) The government is unable to safeguard the privacy of Internet users 120

121 5. What is the main idea of this cartoon? (1) The global economy is on the verge of collapse. (2) Rich nations should help poor nations improve their economic conditions. (3) One nation s economic problems affect many other nations. (4) Each nation controls its own economic destiny. 6. Which statement most accurately expresses the point of view of the cartoonist? (1) The United States should increase its imports from China. (2) Many products made in the United States are sold in China. (3) The American economy has become overly dependent on China. (4) Many Americans have had to move to China to find work. 7. Many American corporations contributed to the problem shown in the cartoon by (1) demanding that Congress increase export taxes (2) establishing manufacturing facilities overseas (3) paying workers lower wages to encourage them to retire (4) lobbying the federal government to increase the minimum wage 121

122 8. The opinion expressed by the cartoonist is that 9. This cartoon was published in response to federal the USA Patriot Act allows actions that followed the federal government to which event? (1) set new term limits for federal judges (1) passage of the Espionage Act (1917) and the (2) restrict the investigative powers of the police Sedition Act (1918) (3) violate freedoms guaranteed in the Bill of Rights (2) Supreme Court decision in Korematsu v. United (4) eliminate States rights reserved in the 10th States (1944) amendment (3) civil rights march on Washington, D.C. (1963) (4) attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon (2001) 10. This cartoon from the disputed presidential election of 2000 suggests that the winner might (1) lack strong popular support for his programs (2) easily win reelection in 2004 (3) succeed in fulfilling his campaign promises (4) be unable to claim victory in the electoral College 122

123 11. Since 1980, most new jobs in the United States have been in (1) education (3) service industries (2) heavy industry (4) civil service Hoover and Smith Campaign on Radio Kennedy Passes Nixon in Polls After Televised Debate Obama Raises Record Donations Using the Internet 12. Which statement about the use of media in political campaigns is illustrated by these headlines? (1) Media bias does not affect the ability of political leaders to communicate with voters. (2) Political leaders adapt to new forms of media to communicate with voters. (3) Electronic media are an ineffective way for political leaders to communicate with voters. Endorsements by the media have the greatest influence on voters Capitalism, demonstrably the greatest of the constructed economic systems, has in the past decade clearly proved its advantages over the alternative systems. The information highway will magnify those advantages. It will allow those who produce goods to see, a lot more efficiently than ever before, what buyers want, and will allow potential consumers to buy those goods more efficiently. Adam Smith would be pleased. More important, consumers everywhere will enjoy the benefits. Bill Gates, Which statement most accurately expresses the main idea of this passage? (1) Information technology will make it easier to buy and sell goods. (2) Information technology will make capitalism obsolete. (3) Government must regulate the information technology industry. (4) The costs of information technology will outweigh its benefits. 14. During the 1990s, an increase in Mexican immigration to the United States was caused by the immigrants desire for (1) greater political freedom (2) bilingual education (3) better economic opportunities (4) religious freedom 15. One similarity shared by President Andrew Johnson and President Bill Clinton is that both (1) served only one term as president (2) were impeached but not convicted (3) had no vice president (4) came to office after the death of a president Clinton Offers Economic Aid to Russia U.S. Sends Peacekeeping Troops to Bosnia U.S. Airlifts Food and Medicine to Somalia 16. These headlines illustrate that United States foreign policy during the 1990s stressed (1) containment (2) collective security (3) global involvement (4) neutrality 17. In 1991, one of the reasons President George H. W. Bush committed United States troops to the Persian Gulf War was to (1) maintain the flow of trade through the Suez Canal (2) fulfill military obligations as a member of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (3) contain the spread of communism in the Middle East (4) assure the flow of Middle East oil to the United States and its allies 18. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) have encouraged countries to (1) participate in the global economy (2) create a uniform international currency (3) accept similar wage and price controls (4) regulate multinational corporations 123

124 Iran Starts Uranium Enrichment Program North Korea Conducts Underground Atomic Tests Pakistan Accused of Selling Atomic Secrets to Libya 19. These headlines are most closely related to United States national security concerns over the (1) proliferation of nuclear weapons (2) construction of nuclear power plants (3) effectiveness of the nuclear test ban treaty (4) enforcement of the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty 20. The changes shown in the graph support the recent concerns of Americans about the (1) future of Social Security and Medicare (2) return to an agrarian society (3) surplus of health care workers (4) shortage of schools and colleges 21. The United States intervened in Haiti and Bosnia during the 1990s to (1) gain access to new markets (2) acquire colonies for an economic empire (3) stop conflicts within those nations (4) disrupt international drug trafficking 22. Which statement is most clearly supported by the information in the graph? (1) More children were under age 6 in 1990 than in (2) Since 1990, women have made up more than half of the workforce. (3) The gap between male and female incomes has declined. (4) Fewer women are staying home to raise their young children. 23. A candidate for public office would likely conclude from a study of this graph that the public would favor increased government support for (1) additional foreign aid (2) health care facilities (3) child day-care centers (4) colleges and universities 24. In the United States, support for the passage and expansion of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has been strongest among (1) labor unions (2) environmentalists (3) big business (4) farmers 124

125 25. The cartoonist is trying to encourage American consumers to consider that (1) the United States buys more from Japan than Japan buys from the United States (2) cars produced in the United States are often inferior to foreign-made automobiles (3) single purchases of automobiles do not have an impact on calculating foreign trade balances (4) automobile dealerships in the United States should offer more incentives for purchasing American-made cars 27. Which situation can be inferred from the population trend shown on the graph? (1) In the 1980s, more new schools were needed than in the early 1960s. (2) In the 1970s, there was increased migration to the northeast. (3) In the 1980s, the number of baby boomers was recognized as a threat to the future of Social Security benefits. (4) In the 1990s, death rates increased. 28. Information on the graph shows that the birthrate peaked in (1) 1940 (3) 1957 (2) 1947 (4) According to the cartoonist, the United States has (1) an ethnically diverse population (2) an overly restrictive immigration policy (3) a national requirement that high school students learn foreign languages (4) a census report printed in languages that are spoken in the United States 29. How were the presidential elections of 1876 and 2000 similar? (1) The winner of the popular vote lost the electoral vote. (2) Third-party candidates did not affect the outcome. (3) The outcome of the election was decided by Congress. (4) The winner was decided by the Supreme Court. 125

126 30. The data included in the table suggest that since 1971 (1) boys are losing interest in participating in sports (2) participation in sports by boys and girls is nearly equal (3) girls participation in sports equals that of boys (4) girls participation in sports is increasing at a faster rate than that of boys 31. Which development contributed most to the changes shown in the table? (1) passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (2) inclusion of Title IX in the Education Amendments of 1972 (3) the beginning of Head Start programs in the 1960s (4) increase in the number of nonpublic schools since the 1970s 32. Which practice of the federal government has contributed most to the situation shown in the table? (1) taking steps to reduce growth of the gross domestic product (2) raising taxes to try to reduce inflation (3) spending more money than is received in revenues (4) lowering taxes during election years 126

127 36. What is the most likely result of the United States raising tariff rates on imported steel? (1) The price of consumer goods made with American steel is lowered. (2) American steel companies are protected from foreign competition. (3) The quality of consumer goods made with steel is improved. (4) Foreign steel companies are encouraged to buy American steel companies. 33. The point of view expressed in this cartoon is that (1) President and Mrs. Clinton have made Chicago their new home (2) President Clinton supports adoption over abortion (3) Republican issues should not be part of the Democratic National Convention (4) Democrats sometimes support traditionally Republican issues 34. The dispute over counting Florida voter ballots in the presidential election of 2000 was settled by (1) an order of the governor of Florida (2) an agreement between the candidates (3) a vote of the United States Senate (4) a United States Supreme Court decision 35. As the average age of the nation s population increases, there will be a need to (1) create more child care facilities (2) address the financing of Medicare (3) increase the number of public schools (4) reform immigration laws 37. Which criticism of the electoral college system is illustrated by the information in the table? (1) Presidential electors frequently do not vote for the person they were pledged to support. (2) A person can win the presidency without winning the most popular votes. (3) The vote of the people in each state has little relationship to the election outcome. (4) Minor-party candidates often receive too many electoral votes. 38. Which change is most often proposed to correct the problem shown by the table? (1) adopt a constitutional amendment to elect the president by popular vote (2) pass a law requiring state electors to vote for the candidate with the most popular votes (3) place limits on the number of political parties allowed in presidential elections (4) allow the elected members of Congress to select the president 127

128 39. What was a direct result of the census of 2000? (1) Personal income tax rates were changed. (2) New United States District Courts were created. (3) Seats in the House of Representatives were reapportioned. (4) The number of United States Senators was increased. 40. During the 20th century, federal prosecutions of corporations such as Standard Oil, AT&T, and Microsoft were based on alleged violations of (1) stock market practices (2) environmental regulations (3) labor union protections (4) antitrust laws Influence of Political Action Committees Continues to Rise Republicans and Democrats Spend over $100 Million in 2000 Presidential Election Senate Passes Campaign Finance Reform Act 43. What is the central issue of these headlines? (1) Republicans and Democrats spend equal amounts of money. (2) American citizens pay high taxes to support presidential campaigns. (3) Money has a strong impact on the American political process. (4) Candidates spend much of their own money on political campaigns. 41. Information provided by the graph shows that between 1988 and 1993, there was an increased need for candidates of major political parties to win the support of (1) ethnic minorities (2) senior citizens (3) independent voters (4) the labor vote 42. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) have encouraged countries to (1) participate in the global economy (2) create a uniform international currency (3) accept similar wage and price controls (4) regulate multinational corporations 44. Which issue is the central focus of this cartoon drawn after September 11, 2001? (1) Is there a need to give up some civil liberties to protect the nation? (2) Should the United States reduce oil imports from the Middle East? (3) Does the United States need fewer limits on immigration? (4) Should the United States abandon the Constitution? 45. The federal government enforced the antitrust laws in court cases against Northern Securities Company, AT&T, and Microsoft in an effort to (1) increase business competition (2) nationalize important industries (3) improve public trust in corporate leaders (4) generate more investment capital 128

Constitution Practice Quiz

Constitution Practice Quiz 1 Which action illustrates the concept of checks and balances? (1) President Harry Truman issuing an executive order to desegregate the military (2) Congress overriding President Richard Nixon s veto of

More information

The Constitution: From Ratification to Amendments. US Government Fall, 2014

The Constitution: From Ratification to Amendments. US Government Fall, 2014 The Constitution: From Ratification to Amendments US Government Fall, 2014 Origins of American Government Colonial Period Where did ideas for government in the colonies come from? Largely, from England

More information

american History Semester Exam review (KEY)

american History Semester Exam review (KEY) american History Semester Exam review (KEY) 1. Fill in the name of each era and characteristics. Then use the word bank to match the events. 1. Exploration & Colonization 2. American Revolution 3. Creating

More information

Origins of American Government. Chapter 2

Origins of American Government. Chapter 2 Origins of American Government Chapter 2 Section 1 Essential Questions 1) What two principles of government came from the English heritage of the colonists? 2) What documents from England influenced the

More information

STAAR STUDY GUIDE 2. Designated materials are the intellectual property of s3strategies, LLC. Permission is granted for internal district use only.

STAAR STUDY GUIDE 2. Designated materials are the intellectual property of s3strategies, LLC. Permission is granted for internal district use only. Dred Scott v. Sandford - Dred Scott, a southern slave, sues for his freedom. Court decision rules that: African Americans had no rights to citizenship & Congress could not limit a slave owner s control

More information

Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation 1. Congress could not levy or collect taxes

Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation 1. Congress could not levy or collect taxes Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan The Great Compromise UNIT 2 TEST REVIEW SHEET Strengths of A of C 1- Established Federalism - A system of government where power is divided between a national government and

More information

Foundations of Government

Foundations of Government Class: Date: Foundations of Government Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. This is NOT a feature of all the states in today's

More information

Articles of Confederation

Articles of Confederation Articles of Confederation Do Now How is power divided in our country today? SWBAT Analyze government problems under the Articles of Confederation Activity Review the Articles of Confederation chart and

More information

UNIT 2 TEST REVIEW SHEET. Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation 1. Congress could not levy or collect taxes

UNIT 2 TEST REVIEW SHEET. Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation 1. Congress could not levy or collect taxes Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan The Great Compromise UNIT 2 TEST REVIEW SHEET Strengths of A of C 1- Established Federalism - A system of government where power is divided between a national government and

More information

Period 3: 1754 to 1800 (French and Indian War Election of Jefferson)

Period 3: 1754 to 1800 (French and Indian War Election of Jefferson) Period 3: 1754 to 1800 (French and Indian War Election of Jefferson) Key Concept 3.1: British attempts to assert tighter control over its North American colonies and the colonial resolve to pursue self-government

More information

Basic Concepts of Government The English colonists brought 3 ideas that loom large in the shaping of the government in the United States.

Basic Concepts of Government The English colonists brought 3 ideas that loom large in the shaping of the government in the United States. Civics Honors Chapter Two: Origins of American Government Section One: Our Political Beginnings Limited Government Representative government Magna Carta Petition of Right English Bill of Rights Charter

More information

American Democracy Now Chapter 2: The Constitution

American Democracy Now Chapter 2: The Constitution American Democracy Now Chapter 2: The Constitution Multiple-Choice Questions: 1. Which of these countries employs an unwritten constitution? a. the United States b. Great Britain c. Venezuela d. Kenya

More information

APUSH Concept Outline Period 3: 1754 to 1800

APUSH Concept Outline Period 3: 1754 to 1800 APUSH Concept Outline Period 3: 1754 to 1800 Name Directions: The Concept Outline below presents the required concepts and topics that students need to understand for the APUSH test. The statements in

More information

Civics End of Course Exam Study Guide

Civics End of Course Exam Study Guide Civics End of Course Exam Study Guide Natural born citizen Law of soil U.S. citizens obligations (duties) Popular sovereignty Representative democracy Republic Absolute Monarchy Parliament Oligarchy Socialism

More information

[ 2.1 ] Origins of American Political Ideals

[ 2.1 ] Origins of American Political Ideals [ 2.1 ] Origins of American Political Ideals [ 2.1 ] Origins of American Political Ideals Key Terms limited government representative government due process bicameral unicameral [ 2.1 ] Origins of American

More information

The United States Constitution. The Supreme Law of the Land

The United States Constitution. The Supreme Law of the Land The United States Constitution The Supreme Law of the Land Standards SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States

More information

Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. a. branches of powers. b. government triangle. c. separation of powers. d. social contract. 2. The English Bill

More information

CHAPTER 2 ORIGINS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT SECTION 1: OUR POLITICAL BEGINNINGS

CHAPTER 2 ORIGINS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT SECTION 1: OUR POLITICAL BEGINNINGS CHAPTER 2 ORIGINS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT SECTION 1: OUR POLITICAL BEGINNINGS OUR POLITICAL BEGINNINGS Basic Concepts of Government Early settlers brought ideas of government or political systems with them.

More information

Name Period Teacher. Wantagh Middle School 7 th Grade Social Studies Final Exam Review Guide

Name Period Teacher. Wantagh Middle School 7 th Grade Social Studies Final Exam Review Guide Name Period Teacher Wantagh Middle School 7 th Grade Social Studies Final Exam Review Guide 1. How did the earliest people migrate to North America? 2. How did Native Americans use the environment around

More information

Unit 2: United States Constitution and Government

Unit 2: United States Constitution and Government Unit 2: United States Constitution and Government GLE # GLE Text and Benchmarks Structure and Purposes of Government 6. Explain the distribution of powers, responsibilities, and the limits of the U.S.

More information

AGS United States Government Michigan Grade 8 Grade Level Content Expectations

AGS United States Government Michigan Grade 8 Grade Level Content Expectations Correlated to Michigan Grade 8 Grade Level Content Expectations 5910 Rice Creek Pkwy, Suite 1000 Shoreview, MN 55126 Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved. F1

More information

Topic 3: The Roots of American Democracy

Topic 3: The Roots of American Democracy Name: Date: Period: Topic 3: The Roots of American Democracy Notes Topci 3: The Roots of American Democracy 1 In the course of studying Topic 3: The Roots of American Democracy, we will a evaluate the

More information

Parliament. Magna Carta ( ) A. Signed it. English Bill of Rights. Common Law. Vocabulary Magna Carta Rule of Law Due Process

Parliament. Magna Carta ( ) A. Signed it. English Bill of Rights. Common Law. Vocabulary Magna Carta Rule of Law Due Process Objective 1.1-1.1 - Identify the English documents that influence American colonial government Vocabulary 1.1 - Magna Carta Rule of Law Due Process Parliament English Bill of Rights Common Law precedent

More information

Standard 3: Causes of the American Revolution. e. Declaration of Independence

Standard 3: Causes of the American Revolution. e. Declaration of Independence Name Date Hour U.S. History to 1877 OCCT Review Study Guide Use your notes, your textbook and all of the knowledge gained this year to complete this O.C.C.T. Review Study Guide. This study guide will be

More information

Chapter 7 Quiz. 1. The stalemate over the assumption of state debts was broken when

Chapter 7 Quiz. 1. The stalemate over the assumption of state debts was broken when You will find the quizzes for Chapters 7 and 8 below. Use two separate scantrons to mark your answers. Both quizzes are due at our next class meeting on Thursday (11/20/14). EXAM 2 WILL BE ON 11/20/14.

More information

Constitutional Foundations

Constitutional Foundations CHAPTER 2 Constitutional Foundations CHAPTER OUTLINE I. The Setting for Constitutional Change II. The Framers III. The Roots of the Constitution A. The British Constitutional Heritage B. The Colonial Heritage

More information

Unit 2 The Constitution

Unit 2 The Constitution Unit 2 The Constitution Objective 2.01: Identify principles in the United States Constitution. The Sections of the Constitution Preamble Explains why the Articles of Confederation were replaced, it also

More information

What time period s thinkers influenced the Founding Fathers? What were the failures and successes of the Articles of Confederation?

What time period s thinkers influenced the Founding Fathers? What were the failures and successes of the Articles of Confederation? Regents Review The Constitution Key Questions Key Terms What is a social contract? What time period s thinkers influenced the Founding Fathers? Why do the colonies declare their independence? What were

More information

Period 3: Give examples of colonial rivalry between Britain and France

Period 3: Give examples of colonial rivalry between Britain and France Period 3: 1754 1800 Key Concept 3.1: British attempts to assert tighter control over its North American colonies and the colonial resolve to pursue self government led to a colonial independence movement

More information

2. Which of the following was not one of the rights granted in the Magna Carta?

2. Which of the following was not one of the rights granted in the Magna Carta? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Magruder s American Government C H A P T E R 2 Origins of American Government C H A P T E R 2 Origins of American Government SECTION 1 Our Political Beginnings SECTION 2 The Coming of Independence

More information

The American Revolution & Confederation. The Birth of the United States

The American Revolution & Confederation. The Birth of the United States The American Revolution & Confederation The Birth of the United States 1774-1787 Essential Question Evaluate the extent to which the Revolution fundamentally changed American society. The First Continental

More information

Chapter Two: The Constitution

Chapter Two: The Constitution Chapter Two: The Constitution Learning Outcomes 1. Explain how the colonial experience prepared Americans for independence. 2. Discuss the restrictions that Britain placed on the colonies and the American

More information

3. What does it mean to be democratic? a government in which the people govern themselves, fair elections

3. What does it mean to be democratic? a government in which the people govern themselves, fair elections Civics FINAL EXAM Study Guide Name Class EXAM DATE Topics Covered w/ Textbook location: Citizenship CH3 Types/Forms of Government CH3 Foundations of American Govt. CH4 U.S. Government then and now CH5

More information

Ch 7 Test Review. The Revolutionary War

Ch 7 Test Review. The Revolutionary War Ch 7 Test Review The Revolutionary War Abigail Adams She was the wife of John Adams. She asked him to Remember the Ladies. She pressed him to give women equal status with men when forming the new government.

More information

Underpinnings of the Constitution

Underpinnings of the Constitution Underpinnings of the Constitution A constitution is a nations basic laws creates political institutions assigns and divides power in government provides certain guarantees to citizens includes unwritten

More information

Chapter 2 The Constitution and the Founding. Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Chapter 2 The Constitution and the Founding. Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Chapter 2 The Constitution and the Founding A Republic At the close of the Constitutional Convention of 1787, Ben Franklin was queried as he left Independence Hall on the final day of deliberation. In

More information

Name: Date: Block: Notes:

Name: Date: Block: Notes: Chapter 2 Origins of American Government Section 1 a. Our Political Beginnings B. Basic Concepts of a. English brought idea of political system to America i. Ordered Government ii. iii. Restrict Government

More information

The States: Experiments in Republicanism State constitutions served as experiments in republican government The people demand written constitutions

The States: Experiments in Republicanism State constitutions served as experiments in republican government The people demand written constitutions The States: Experiments in Republicanism State constitutions served as experiments in republican government The people demand written constitutions provide clear definition of rights describe clear limits

More information

CHAPTER 2: REVOLUTION AND THE EARLY REPUBLIC

CHAPTER 2: REVOLUTION AND THE EARLY REPUBLIC CHAPTER 2: REVOLUTION AND THE EARLY REPUBLIC COLONIAL RESISTANCE AND REBELLION SECTION 1 England s Parliament and Big Ben The Proclamation of 1763 sought to halt the westward expansion of the colonist,

More information

Unit 2 Assessment The Development of American Democracy

Unit 2 Assessment The Development of American Democracy Unit 2 Assessment 7 Unit 2 Assessment The Development of American Democracy 1. Which Enlightenment Era thinker stated that everyone is born equal and had certain natural rights of life, liberty, and property

More information

and France in North America between 1754 and The French and Indian War was the American phase

and France in North America between 1754 and The French and Indian War was the American phase 1 Vocabulary Unit 2: New Beginnings United States: French & Indian War: French and Indian War definition. A series of military engagements between Britain and France in North America between 1754 and 1763.

More information

causes of internal migration and patterns of settlement in what would become the United States, and explain how migration has affected American life.

causes of internal migration and patterns of settlement in what would become the United States, and explain how migration has affected American life. MIG-2.0: Analyze causes of internal migration and patterns of settlement in what would become the United States, and explain how migration has affected American life. cooperation, competition, and conflict

More information

Creating a Republic. Loose Confederation Constitutional Convention Ideas Behind the Constitution Ratification & Bill of Rights

Creating a Republic. Loose Confederation Constitutional Convention Ideas Behind the Constitution Ratification & Bill of Rights Creating a Republic Loose Confederation Constitutional Convention Ideas Behind the Constitution Ratification & Bill of Rights 7-1: Loose Confederation States Constitutions Articles of Confederation Weaknesses

More information

CHAPTER 9 The Confederation and the Constitution,

CHAPTER 9 The Confederation and the Constitution, CHAPTER 9 The Confederation and the Constitution, 1776 1790 A. Checklist of Learning Objectives After mastering this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Explain the broad movement toward social and political

More information

Oklahoma C 3 Standards for the Social Studies THE FOUNDATION, FORMATION, AND TRANSFORMATION OF THE AMERICAN SYSTEM OKLAHOMA STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION

Oklahoma C 3 Standards for the Social Studies THE FOUNDATION, FORMATION, AND TRANSFORMATION OF THE AMERICAN SYSTEM OKLAHOMA STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION Oklahoma C 3 Standards for the Social Studies THE FOUNDATION, FORMATION, AND TRANSFORMATION OF THE AMERICAN SYSTEM P R E - K I N D E R G A R T E N T H R O U G H H I G H S C H O O L OKLAHOMA STATE BOARD

More information

Section 1 Quiz: Government and Party Politics *Please respond to all questions on your separate answer sheet.

Section 1 Quiz: Government and Party Politics *Please respond to all questions on your separate answer sheet. U.S. History 1 CP Mr. Mulry Chapter 6: The New Republic 1789-1816 Section Quizzes Section 1 Quiz: Government and Party Politics Directions: From I below, choose the term that best fits each description.

More information

GRADE 8 United States History Growth and Development (to 1877)

GRADE 8 United States History Growth and Development (to 1877) GRADE 8 United States History Growth and Development (to 1877) Course 0470-08 In Grade 8, students focus upon United States history, beginning with a brief review of early history, including the Revolution

More information

Period 3 Content Outline,

Period 3 Content Outline, Period 3 Content Outline, 1754-1800 The content for APUSH is divided into 9 periods. The outline below contains the required course content for Period 3. The Thematic Learning Objectives are included as

More information

United States History I

United States History I PEABODY VETERANS MEMORIAL HIGH SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES DEPARTMENT United States History I Mid Year Exam Review Packet 2013-14 Exam Overview The Mid Year Exam serves as a summative assessment to measure your

More information

Rat in the Bucket review game Unit 2. Foundations of American Government

Rat in the Bucket review game Unit 2. Foundations of American Government Rat in the Bucket review game Unit 2 Foundations of American Government QUESTION 1 We mutually pledge our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honor This quote from the Declaration of Independence is considered.

More information

LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying Chapter 2, you should be able to: 1. Discuss the importance of the English philosophical heritage, the colonial experience, the Articles of Confederation, and the character

More information

CHAPTER 113. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS (TEKS) FOR SOCIAL STUDIES Subchapter B. Middle School Social Studies, Grade 8.

CHAPTER 113. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS (TEKS) FOR SOCIAL STUDIES Subchapter B. Middle School Social Studies, Grade 8. CHAPTER 113. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS (TEKS) FOR SOCIAL STUDIES Subchapter B. Middle School 113.24. Social Studies, Grade 8. Correlated to HISTORY OF OUR NATION: 2005 4201 Woodland Road Circle

More information

Chapter 6: The Constitution and the New Republic,

Chapter 6: The Constitution and the New Republic, Chapter 6: The Constitution and the New Republic, 1787-1800 1. The United States Under the Articles, 1781-1787 a. Foreign Problems i. failed to uphold the Treaty of Paris, did not return Loyalist property

More information

FORMING A NEW GOVERNMENT

FORMING A NEW GOVERNMENT FORMING A NEW GOVERNMENT These questions are in random order. They will be in a different order in class tomorrow. Seven Principles Checks & Balances Federalism Individual Rights Limited Government Popular

More information

U.S. History, Constitution, and Government

U.S. History, Constitution, and Government 2005 Sandy Garrett State Superintendent of Public Instruction Oklahoma State Department of Education Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Oklahoma Core Curriculum Tests Multiple-Choice Release Item Book U.S. History,

More information

Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)

Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) 113.24. Social Studies, Grade 8. Category Student Expectation Strategy/Assessment (a) Introduction (1) In Grade 8, students study the history of the United States

More information

1- England Became Great Britain in the early 1700s. 2- Economic relationships Great Britain imposed strict control over trade.

1- England Became Great Britain in the early 1700s. 2- Economic relationships Great Britain imposed strict control over trade. 1- England Became Great Britain in the early 1700s 2- Economic relationships Great Britain imposed strict control over trade. Great Britain taxed the colonies after the French and Indian War Colonies traded

More information

Standards Content Skills/Competency Suggested Assessment Civics D: Summarize the basic

Standards Content Skills/Competency Suggested Assessment Civics D: Summarize the basic 8 th Grade: Course Title: US History II (1776 1860) Duration: September - November 8/29/13 MAP Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings People have natural rights and governments are created to protect those

More information

Civics (History and Government) Questions for the Naturalization Test

Civics (History and Government) Questions for the Naturalization Test (rev. 01/17) Civics (History and Government) Questions for the Naturalization Test The 100 civics (history and government) questions and answers for the naturalization test are listed below. The civics

More information

Foundations of the American Government

Foundations of the American Government Foundations of the American Government 1600s-1770s Each colony was loyal to Great Britain but was responsible for forming its own government, taxing and defending itself. The government and constitution

More information

A. True or False Where the statement is true, mark T. Where it is false, mark F, and correct it in the space immediately below.

A. True or False Where the statement is true, mark T. Where it is false, mark F, and correct it in the space immediately below. AP U.S. History Mr. Mercado Name Chapter 10 Launching the New Ship of State, 1789-1800 A. True or False Where the statement is true, mark T. Where it is false, mark F, and correct it in the space immediately

More information

A. As You Read. B. Reviewing Key Terms. Section 1 Guided Reading and Review Government and the State

A. As You Read. B. Reviewing Key Terms. Section 1 Guided Reading and Review Government and the State 1 Section 1 Guided Reading and Review Government and the State As you read Section 1, fill in the answers to the following questions. 1. What are the four characteristics of a state? a. b. c. d. 2. What

More information

Test - STAAR SS E 0

Test - STAAR SS E 0 Test - STAAR 04 2013 08 SS E 0 1. Which of the following best replaces the question mark in the diagram above? A. Former Mexican territory B. Dependent on slavery C. Settled by Mormons D. Large coal deposits

More information

INTRODUCTION TO UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT: Foundations of U.S. Democracy. Constitutional Convention: Key Agreements and the Great Compromise

INTRODUCTION TO UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT: Foundations of U.S. Democracy. Constitutional Convention: Key Agreements and the Great Compromise Constitutional Convention: Key Agreements and the Great Compromise Virginia Plan proposed on May 29, 1787 This plan was also known as the Randolph Resolution, since it was proposed by Edmund Randolph of

More information

Chapter 9 - The Constitution: A More Perfect Union

Chapter 9 - The Constitution: A More Perfect Union Chapter 9 - The Constitution: A More Perfect Union 9.1 - Introduction When the delegates left Independence Hall in September 1787, they each carried a copy of the Constitution. Their task now was to convince

More information

Social Studies: 8 th Grade

Social Studies: 8 th Grade Social Studies: 8 th Grade Unit: Unit 1: American and Wisconsin Native Cultures Unit Sub-Topics: Origin of Native Americans Native American Cultures Time Line: 2-4 weeks Wisconsin State Standards: A.8.1,

More information

The Constitution. Chapter 2 O Connor and Sabato American Government: Continuity and Change

The Constitution. Chapter 2 O Connor and Sabato American Government: Continuity and Change The Constitution Chapter 2 O Connor and Sabato American Government: Continuity and Change The Constitution In this chapter we will cover 1. The Origins of a New Nation 2. The Declaration of Independence

More information

Name: Section: Date:

Name: Section: Date: Directions: Answer the following multiple choice questions. 1. In 1774, the first Continental Congress took place in what city? a. New York City b. Jamestown c. Philadelphia d. Boston I. The deteriorating

More information

9.1 Introduction When the delegates left Independence Hall in September 1787, they each carried a copy of the Constitution. Their task now was to

9.1 Introduction When the delegates left Independence Hall in September 1787, they each carried a copy of the Constitution. Their task now was to 9.1 Introduction When the delegates left Independence Hall in September 1787, they each carried a copy of the Constitution. Their task now was to convince their states to approve the document that they

More information

The Constitutional Convention

The Constitutional Convention Early United States I can describe how thirteen colonies evolved into the United States. 4 I can make inferences that go beyond what was taught in class or connect and explain the 3.0 learning targets

More information

Test Use the quotation to answer the question.

Test Use the quotation to answer the question. Test 1 1. Why did the Founding Fathers separate the power to make, enforce, and interpret laws between different branches of government? A. to prevent one branch of government from becoming too powerful

More information

Constitutional Underpinnings of the U.S. Government

Constitutional Underpinnings of the U.S. Government U.S. Government What is the constitutional basis of separation of powers? It can be found in several principles, such as the separation of government into three branches, the conception that each branch

More information

Grade 8 Social Studies Assessment. Eligible Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills

Grade 8 Social Studies Assessment. Eligible Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills Grade 8 Social Studies Assessment Eligible Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills STAAR Grade 8 Social Studies Assessment Based on Revised Curriculum Reporting Category 1: History The student will demonstrate

More information

Eighth Grade Social Studies United States History Course Outline

Eighth Grade Social Studies United States History Course Outline Crossings Christian School Academic Guide Middle School Division Grades 5-8 Eighth Grade Social Studies Chapter : Early Exploration of the Americas How do new ideas change the way people live? Why do people

More information

American Government. Unit 2 Study Guide

American Government. Unit 2 Study Guide American Government Unit 2 Study Guide Events leading up the Declaration of Independence: 1) Stamp Act- a tax placed on all printed material a. An attempt to earn money lost in the French and Indian War

More information

The Making of a Nation: James Monroe, Part 1

The Making of a Nation: James Monroe, Part 1 The Making of a Nation: James Monroe, Part 1 President James Madison retired after eight years in office. His Republican Party chose another Virginian, James Monroe, as its next presidential candidate.

More information

Case Studies Articles of Confederation

Case Studies Articles of Confederation Name Case Studies Articles of Confederation Directions: Read the Case Study given to your group, and answer the questions below. Whose interests were pitted against each other is asking you to think about

More information

TEKS Snapshot - Grade 8 Social Studies

TEKS Snapshot - Grade 8 Social Studies Process Standards (Social Studies Skills and Processes) 8.29 Social Studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies

More information

CREATING A GOVERNMENT

CREATING A GOVERNMENT Let us not be afraid to view with a steady eye the dangers with which we are surrounded. Are we not on the eve of a war, which is only to be prevented by the hopes from this convention? CREATING A GOVERNMENT

More information

SOCIAL STUDIES GRADE 8. I Can Checklist U.S. STUDIES FROM 1492 TO 1877: EXPLORATION THROUGH RECONSTRUCTION

SOCIAL STUDIES GRADE 8. I Can Checklist U.S. STUDIES FROM 1492 TO 1877: EXPLORATION THROUGH RECONSTRUCTION SOCIAL STUDIES U.S. STUDIES FROM 1492 TO 1877: EXPLORATION THROUGH RECONSTRUCTION GRADE 8 I Can Checklist 2015-2016 Aligned with Ohio s New Learning Standards for Social Studies Office of Teaching and

More information

Bill of Rights. 1. Meet the Source (2:58) Interview with Whitman Ridgway (Professor, University of Maryland, College Park)

Bill of Rights. 1. Meet the Source (2:58) Interview with Whitman Ridgway (Professor, University of Maryland, College Park) Interview with Whitman Ridgway (Professor, University of Maryland, College Park) Bill of Rights 1. Meet the Source (2:58) Well, the Bill of Rights, in my opinion, is a very remarkable document because

More information

Global: Spiraling essential questions, concepts and skills, and standards. Grade 5

Global: Spiraling essential questions, concepts and skills, and standards. Grade 5 History and Geography (H,G) Geography- Why do people move?, How does a region s geography, climate, and natural resources affect the way people live? What information and stories do maps and globes tell?

More information

Grade 8 Social Studies STAAR and STAAR-M Fall 2012 by Objective

Grade 8 Social Studies STAAR and STAAR-M Fall 2012 by Objective Grade 8 Social Studies and -M Fall 2012 by Objective TEKS: 8.2: History. The student understands the causes of exploration and colonization eras. Objective: 1(A) Identify reasons for European exploration

More information

British policy of ignoring the colonies. a replacement of a government by the people of that government. No government/chaos mob rule

British policy of ignoring the colonies. a replacement of a government by the people of that government. No government/chaos mob rule 1. Define revolution 2. Define tyranny 3. Define anarchy 4. Define salutary neglect a replacement of a government by the people of that government Total loss of freedom/absolute government power No government/chaos

More information

The American Revolution

The American Revolution Main Idea The American Revolution Enlightenment ideas led to revolution, independence, and a new government for the United States. Content Statement 6/Learning Goal Describe how Enlightenment thinkers

More information

THE CONSTITUTION. How do societies balance individual and community rights? How does social change influence government?

THE CONSTITUTION. How do societies balance individual and community rights? How does social change influence government? CHAPTER 5 THE CONSTITUTION NGSSS SS.7.C.1.7 Describe how the Constitution limits the powers of government through separation of powers and checks and balances. ESSENTIAL QUESTION Why do people create,

More information

Warm Up Review: Mr. Cegielski s Presentation of Origins of American Government

Warm Up Review: Mr. Cegielski s Presentation of Origins of American Government Mr. Cegielski s Presentation of Origins of American Government Essential Questions: What political events helped shaped our American government? Why did the Founding Fathers fear a direct democracy? How

More information

Chapter 8 Section Review Packet

Chapter 8 Section Review Packet Name: Date: Section 8-1: The Articles of Confederation Chapter 8 Section Review Packet 1. Constitution 2. Republicanism 3. Limited government 4. Suffrage 5. Articles of Confederation 6. Ratification 7.

More information

1. Recall what you know about the American Revolution. Describe why the colonists went to war against the British.

1. Recall what you know about the American Revolution. Describe why the colonists went to war against the British. 1.2 The American Revolution 1. Recall what you know about the American Revolution. Describe why the colonists went to war against the British. Witness History: A Voice for Freedom 2. Why do you think Patrick

More information

APUSH Period Review Guides: Period 3 ( )

APUSH Period Review Guides: Period 3 ( ) APUSH Period Review Guides: Period 3 (1754-1800) Description: British imperial attempts to reassert control over its colonies and the colonial reaction to these attempts produced a new American republic,

More information

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Chapter 2: The Constitution The Origins of the Constitution The Government That Failed: 1776 1787 Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention Critical Issues at the Convention The Madisonian System

More information

Constitutional Convention

Constitutional Convention Constitutional Convention I INTRODUCTION Constitutional Convention, meeting during the summer of 1787 at which delegates from 12 states wrote the Constitution of the United States. At the convention in

More information

Confederation and the Constitution

Confederation and the Constitution Confederation and the Constitution American leaders created the Constitution as a blueprint of government for the United States. WHY IT MATTERS NOW More than 200 years after its creation, the Constitution

More information

LOREM IPSUM. Book Title DOLOR SET AMET

LOREM IPSUM. Book Title DOLOR SET AMET LOREM IPSUM Book Title DOLOR SET AMET Chapter 8 The Federalist Era With a new constitution in place, George Washington would take the reigns of a fledgling nation. He, along with John Adams and Thomas

More information

CONSTITUTIONAL UNDERPINNINGS

CONSTITUTIONAL UNDERPINNINGS What Is Government? A government is composed of the formal and informal institutions, people, and used to create and conduct public policy. Public policy is the exercise doing those things necessary to

More information

8th Grade U.S. History STAAR Study Packet.

8th Grade U.S. History STAAR Study Packet. 8th Grade U.S. History STAAR Study Packet. NAME: HISTORY TEACHER: Complete the activities using your STAAR Review Sheet. Once you finish an assignment, check your answers by using the answer key provided

More information

End DO NOW: To Do: (1) Write your homework in your Agenda book. (2) Read the daily schedule to get prepared for class.

End DO NOW: To Do: (1) Write your homework in your Agenda book. (2) Read the daily schedule to get prepared for class. End DO NOW: 2.12.2013 To Answer in your journal: To Do: (1) Write your homework in your Agenda book. (2) Read the daily schedule to get prepared for class. The Constitution of the United States of America

More information

We the People: The Role of the Citizen in the United States

We the People: The Role of the Citizen in the United States We the People: The Role of the Citizen in the United States In the United States, the government gets its power to govern from the people. We have a government of the people, by the people, and for the

More information