Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) for Pakistan

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) for Pakistan"

Transcription

1 3 November 2010 Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) for Pakistan What is a NAMA A Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) aims to mitigate the impact of climate change. NAMAs will be undertaken by developing countries, given adequate financial and technological support. The term NAMA emerged from the 2007Bali Action Plan, which recognized the importance of developing country participation in efforts to reduce global emissions. Even though voluntary in nature, it is assumed that all countries will undertake such nationally appropriate actions as part of their contribution to the wider challenge of climate change. Over the past three years, however, the debate around NAMAs has become exceedingly complex, politically driven and economically motivated. Developed countries believe that NAMAs should pave the way for comparable efforts by b o t h d eve l o p e d a n d d eve l o p i n g countries. Author: Farrukh Iqbal Khan Lead Negotiator for Pakistan For their part, developing countries do not feel any such obligation. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) principle is one of common but differentiated responsibility for climate change, recognising that many industrialized nations have been emitting greenhouse gases (GHGs) for two centuries. Developing countries, including Pakistan, believe that there should be comparability in mitigation efforts amongst developed countries, rather than comparability between developed and developing countries. Pakistan was instrumental in negotiating the definition of NAMAs set out in the Bali Action Plan, as Chair of the Group of 77 and China. The Bali Action Plan defines NAMAs as: An integral part of sustainable development. This implies that NAMAs will not only be evaluated for their impact on emissions, but for additional development benefits, such as economic development, capacity building, infrastructure. Supported and enabled by technology, financing and capacity building. This implies that a NAMA is not restricted to national policies and climate action plans, but also includes concrete mitigation projects and programmes, such as energy efficiency, green transport a n d t h e u s e o f re n ewa b l e technology. Measurable, reportable and verifiable (MRV). MRV implies that NAMAs will have to meet a harmonized international standard Policy Brief November 2010

2 of certification and/or registration, in addition to reporting national GHG inventories. MRV systems could be nationally owned and consistent with international guidelines and/or open to international audit. Alternatively, MRV could be an international system of registration. Three years of negotiations have, unfortunately, been unable define what may, or may not, constitute a NAMA. Views still differ on the institutional structure needed to support NAMAs and on how to measure, report and verify their results. While the debate has remained somewhat vague, there has been a proliferation of types of NAMAs: The state of play Any agreement on NAMAs is tied to a global agreement on mitigation and emissions reduction. The crucial piece of this negotiation is the level of ambition on emissions reduction to be assumed by developed countries. It makes little sense for developing countries like Pakistan to agree on a NAMA framework without an agreement on quantified economy-wide emission reduction targets for the developed world; setting the level of ambition in emission reduction by major polluters; or predictable finance and technological support. Targets remain the most contentious aspect of climate change Unilateral NAMAs: mitigation actions undertaken by talks, exacerbated by the Copenhagen Accord, which is developing countries on their own voluntary and has eliminated the notion of binding obligation Supported NAMAs: mitigation actions in developing on the part of developed countries to reduce emissions. The countries supported by direct climate finance from goals submitted by the developed countries under the developed countries (known as 'directly supported Copenhagen Accord are far below what is required by science, NAMAs') or the need to limit global temperature rise to 1.5 or 2 degrees Credited NAMAs: mitigation actions in developing Celsius above pre-industrial levels. countries that generate credits to be sold on the carbon market (e.g. sectoral crediting). Many developed countries, particularly Japan, are also seeking to scrap the Kyoto protocol, the only international instrument that imposes binding emissions obligations upon them. The European Union (EU) has tied its acceptance of the second commitment period under Kyoto to strong actions by the developing countries via NAMAs. At the same time, it is unwilling to commit to a deeper target on emission reduction in the absence of similar commitment from the US. ee.swstatic.co.uk The Pakistan context In its policy statement, Pakistan has expressed its keenness in contributing to global mitigation efforts and be a part of the solution to climate change. The country at present contributes only 0.8% of total global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but this is projected to double by The country's economic potential and its resulting energy needs are likely to surge its emission trajectory by At present, Pakistan's enormous energy needs and the high cost of cleaner sources of energy reinforce its reliance on cheap fossil fuels and its natural resources. The Government of Pakistan also recognizes that moving towards cleaner, renewable energy is both desirable and necessary. However, Pakistan has categorically stated that any international mitigation framework agreed to in Cancun or in the future should not constrain economic growth, given that Pakistan's first and overriding priority remains social development and poverty eradication. Put simply, the countries that must undertake the deepest cuts in emissions are asking others to do the same. Canada and the EU have said that they do not want to increase their targets until the US sets significant reductions. The EU is unlikely to revise its targets, given the changing political environment in the US. The US, however, wants a firm agreement on reductions from major emerging economies, especially China. The overall result is a lowering of targets. The individual targets set by developed countries are likely to total around 13%. Even the highest targets, of 19%, fall short of the 25-40% reduction thought to be necessary by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to hold the global temperature rise to 2 degrees Celsius. This state of play bears heavily on a NAMA agreement. Developing countries feel that any agreement on NAMAs with a low level of ambition from the developed countries would merely shift the burden of mitigation on to them, with the provision of finance used to coerce developing countries to reduce emissions, and an adverse effection their economic growth and development. This state of play suggests that Cancun is unlikely to result in an outcome on mitigation in general, or NAMAs in particular. What is likely is the crystallization of some elements pertaining to NAMAs and continued negotiations in the future. 2

3 NAMA issues in Cancun carbon space in the context of sustainable development. Pakistan's NAMA could focus on transformative change, such as a Feed-in-Tariffs programme, that will not only reduce emissions in the future, but help the country leap frog technologically and direct emission reduction actions such as wind farms and energy efficient infrastructure. Pakistan should not rule out the possibility of a unilateral mitigation action, with the costs borne by the Government. While such unilateral actions should be consistent with the UNFCCC, it is important for Pakistan to maintain the distinction NAMAs and unilateral actions. As a first step, Pakistan's unilateral mitigation actions can be policy-based such as laws, regulations, standards, subsidies and the creation of fiscal and trade incentives necessary to undertake NAMAs. Pakistan should also express its willingness to negotiate a framework for the recognition of unilateral actions, including those done retrospectively until Potential NAMAs for Pakistan are outlined in Box 1. Some of the key issues that COP16 will consider are: Should developing countries agree to a NAMA framework in the absence of an agreement under the Kyoto Protocol How should developing country mitigation actions since 2009 be captured Should there be enhanced reporting for developing countries Should there be a provision of international consultation and analysis for non- supported or unilateral mitigation actions Should there be a Registry to match NAMAs with sources of support, or should this have an advisory role to assist countries in securing support And where should this registry be place: under mitigation or the financial mechanism Pakistan's policy approach for Cancun Pakistan has expressed its firm commitment to undertake NAMAs as agreed under the Bali Plan of Action. In its policy statements, Pakistan has clearly stated that the term NAMA is applicable only to actions by developing country Parties that are supported by technology, financing and capacity-building. It has underlined that such actions will be voluntary in nature and will be a part of sustainable development. Pakistan has agreed that developing countries might undertake mitigation actions beyond those supported by developed countries. However, such unilateral action should be a sovereign choice made on the basis of national circumstances and capacities. These would, in its view, constitute unilateral actions that are distinct from NAMAs. Measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) In its policy statement, Pakistan has supported the establishment of an MRV mechanism comprising National Communication, a registry and an international verification audit mechanism. During the 16th Conference of Parties (COP), Pakistan's approach to MRV could comprise the following: The MRV mechanism for developing countries should be distinct from the MRV of emission reduction commitments by developed countries. The MRV for developed countries will aim at compliance and comparability, while the one for developing country NAMAs will aim at transparency in actions and abatement of GHG. There should also be a distinction between the MRV of Given Pakistan's low emission status and its economic challenges, Pakistan has stated that it is not in favour of an agreement to impose an overall emission reduction target be it voluntary in nature - for developing countries. Pakistan does not support a scenario whereby it must undertake actions on a par with those of major emerging economies, such as Brazil, China, India or South Africa. In authors view, there are six key elements for a Pakistan NAMA. NAMAs should aim to reduce emissions by the developing countries. Ideally, they should be a part of broader strategy, such as a Low Carbon Development Strategy. Pakistan should ensure that the NAMA framework remains flexible, with provisions for standalone actions that could reduce emissions. The development and implementation of NAMAs should depend on developed countries delivering on their UNFCCC commitments in terms of financial resources and technology transfers. Economic and social development and poverty eradication remain the priorities, and NAMAs must support these. NAMAs should be consistent with the UNFCCC. An agreement on a NAMA should only take place once the international community has determined the principles of burden sharing and equitable access to footprints.pbworks.com 3

4 supported mitigation actions and the MRV for unsupported mitigation actions by developing countries. If some developing countries seek recognition for their unsupported or unilateral mitigation actions at the international level, Pakistan should consider and domestic verification process distinct from MRV of supported actions. Only supported NAMAs should be subject to international MRV requirements. The National Communication should form the measurement and reporting (M&R)part of the MRV process, with verification conducted through an international audit. Guidelines and operational details for M&R could be redesigned while the guidelines and operational details for the verification process could be developed by 17th COP. A verification mechanism could comprise an Expert Panel established as a part of a Registry mechanism. This would have separate sections for supported and unsupported actions, and a verification panel to conduct technical assessment prior to registering the NAMAs. The Registry should come under the financial mechanism of the UNFCCC to ensure that the provision of finance and technology becomes automatic once a NAMA has been registered. Full guidelines and Terms of Reference could be elaborated between COP 16 and COP 18. Pakistan should express its willingness to discuss the process of recognizing unsupported actions, including the notion of international consultation and analysis. Overall policy approach for Cancun While there is an urgent need to cut global emissions rapidly, Pakistan's emissions are not likely to grow at a higher rate until after It is important, therefore, that the long-term perspective is not neglected. Pakistan should maintain its position to support NAMAs as an instrument that delivers strategic, long-term, transformational measures that are unlikely to be achieved through other mechanisms such as the carbon market. As such Pakistan's policy towards NAMAs could be guided by the following key concepts. Maintain the definition of NAMAs as contained in the Bali Plan of Action: NAMAs are actions that are supported. Draw distinction between domestically funded or the so called unilateral actions and NAMAs. In this regard, Pakistan should not support formalization of Appendix-II of the Copenhagen Accord which does not distinguish between the two. Maintain that emission reduction resulting from NAMAs should not count as part of the mitigation obligations of the developed countries or to offset their quantified emission reduction commitments. It should count as part of developing countries own efforts to hold temperature increases to a maximum of 2 C. This position is critical, given the extremely low level of emission reduction commitments on the part of developed countries. Any option of offset is likely to pass the burden of mitigation to the developing countries alone. 4

5 Express willingness to discuss the notion of international consultation and analysis, provided such a process does not impinge upon national sovereignty. Ensure that the proposed registry to record NAMAs should not be a matchmaking facility alone. It should rather be an advisory body to ensure provision of necessary finance and technology. Pakistan should maintain its position that Registry should be placed under the financial mechanism. The development of NAMAs requires a close cooperation and coordination between various ministries and institutions at a national, regional and municipal level. To warrant a full and sustainable implementation of measures, a strong ownership of all related institutions needs to ensured. In this regard, Pakistan should consider the option to establish a Agree to a Institutional framework for NAMAs dedicated national body to coordinate communication and comprising National Communication and a registry to processes related to NAMAs and their submission to the MRV supported NAMAs. However, Pakistan should UNFCCC. ensure that such a framework remains distinct from the MRV of quantified emission reduction by the developed country parties. Call for periodicity in reporting cycles of National Communication based on the levels of economic development and emissions in the developing countries. 5

6

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Towards 2015 Agreement Bahrain May 05, 2015 1 Overview I. Key messages II. III. IV. Background Key Issues to be Resolved Status of Negotiations

More information

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE BUENOS AIRES PLAN OF ACTION: ADOPTION OF THE DECISIONS GIVING EFFECT TO THE BONN AGREEMENTS

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE BUENOS AIRES PLAN OF ACTION: ADOPTION OF THE DECISIONS GIVING EFFECT TO THE BONN AGREEMENTS UNITED NATIONS Distr. LIMITED FCCC/CP/2001/L.28 9 November 2001 Original: ENGLISH CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES Seventh session Marrakesh, 29 October - 9 November 2001 Agenda item 3 (b) (i) IMPLEMENTATION

More information

Decision 1/CP.6 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE BUENOS AIRES PLAN OF ACTION. Recalling the provisions of the Convention and its Kyoto Protocol,

Decision 1/CP.6 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE BUENOS AIRES PLAN OF ACTION. Recalling the provisions of the Convention and its Kyoto Protocol, Decision 1/CP.6 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE BUENOS AIRES PLAN OF ACTION The Conference of the Parties, Recalling the provisions of the Convention and its Kyoto Protocol, Further recalling its decision 1/CP.4,

More information

KYOTO PROTOCOL TO THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

KYOTO PROTOCOL TO THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE KYOTO PROTOCOL TO THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE The Parties to this Protocol, Being Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, hereinafter referred

More information

What Cancun can deliver for the climate

What Cancun can deliver for the climate What Cancun can deliver for the climate Greenpeace briefing Greenpeace on-call phone in Cancun: +(52 1) 998 202 6181 Cindy Baxter: +52 1 998 216 1099 Over the course of 2010 we've seen international climate

More information

COP23: main outcomes and way forward. LEONARDO MASSAI 30 November 2017

COP23: main outcomes and way forward. LEONARDO MASSAI 30 November 2017 COP23: main outcomes and way forward LEONARDO MASSAI 30 November 2017 CONTENTS Paris Agreement COP23 Way forward 2 3 PARIS AGREEMENT: Objective, Art. 2 aims to strengthen the global response to the threat

More information

Topics for the in-session workshop

Topics for the in-session workshop 11 September 2006 ENGLISH ONLY UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE AD HOC WORKING GROUP ON FURTHER COMMITMENTS FOR ANNEX I PARTIES UNDER THE KYOTO PROTOCOL Second session Nairobi, 6 14

More information

KYOTO PROTOCOL TO THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATECHANGE

KYOTO PROTOCOL TO THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATECHANGE KYOTO PROTOCOL TO THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATECHANGE The Parties to this Protocol, Being Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, hereinafter referred

More information

FCCC/CP/2015/10/Add.1 Annex Paris Agreement

FCCC/CP/2015/10/Add.1 Annex Paris Agreement Annex Paris Agreement The Parties to this Agreement, Being Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, hereinafter referred to as the Convention, Pursuant to the Durban Platform

More information

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT. accompanying the

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT. accompanying the EN EN EN EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels, 9.3.2010 SEC(2010) 261 COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT accompanying the COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN

More information

UN FCCC: COP 18/CMP 8

UN FCCC: COP 18/CMP 8 CoP 101: An Informal Newcomers Guide to the UNFCCC Climate Change Meeting Process UN FCCC: COP 18/CMP 8 Norine Kennedy Doha CoP 18, CMP 8 Brian Flannery December 4, 2012 Nick Campbell 1 Background and

More information

SBI: Financial shortfall confronts Secretariatmandated activities, key issues deferred to Paris

SBI: Financial shortfall confronts Secretariatmandated activities, key issues deferred to Paris 122 SBI: Financial shortfall confronts Secretariatmandated activities, key issues deferred to Paris Kuala Lumpur, 16 June (Hilary Chiew) The 42 nd session of the Subsidiary Body on Implementation (SBI)

More information

Priorities for Nairobi: Charting the course for a safe climate post-2012

Priorities for Nairobi: Charting the course for a safe climate post-2012 Priorities for Nairobi: Charting the course for a safe climate post-2012 WWF Position Paper November 2006 At this UN meeting on climate change governments can open a new chapter in the history of the planet.

More information

International treaty examination of the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol

International treaty examination of the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol International treaty examination of the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol Report of the Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Committee Contents Recommendation 2 What the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol

More information

The Principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDR&RC) and the Compliance Branch of the Paris Agreement

The Principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDR&RC) and the Compliance Branch of the Paris Agreement The Principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDR&RC) and the Compliance Branch of the Paris Agreement Estefanía Jiménez Climate Change and the Paris Agreement

More information

From Paris to Marrakech: 7th - 18th November 2016 Marrakech, Morocco. GUIDANCE NOTE COP22

From Paris to Marrakech: 7th - 18th November 2016 Marrakech, Morocco. GUIDANCE NOTE COP22 From Paris to Marrakech: 7th - 18th November 2016 Marrakech, Morocco. GUIDANCE NOTE COP22 Pacific Islands Development Forum Secretariat 56 Domain Road, Nasese, P.O Box 2050, Government Buildings, Suva,

More information

REPUBLIC OF THE MARSHALL ISLANDS Submission to the Ad-hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP) October 2014

REPUBLIC OF THE MARSHALL ISLANDS Submission to the Ad-hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP) October 2014 REPUBLIC OF THE MARSHALL ISLANDS Submission to the Ad-hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP) October 2014 AMBITION IN THE ADP AND THE 2015 AGREEMENT 1. This submission responds

More information

Council of the European Union Brussels, 14 September 2017 (OR. en)

Council of the European Union Brussels, 14 September 2017 (OR. en) Conseil UE Council of the European Union Brussels, 14 September 2017 (OR. en) 11529/1/17 REV 1 LIMITE PUBLIC CLIMA 221 ENV 701 ONU 110 DEVGEN 183 ECOFIN 669 ENER 335 FORETS 27 MAR 149 AVIATION 105 NOTE

More information

WHAT IS KYOTO PROTOCOL ANNEX A & B ARTICLE 25, 26: RATIFICATION KYOTO THERMOMETER POST KYOTO

WHAT IS KYOTO PROTOCOL ANNEX A & B ARTICLE 25, 26: RATIFICATION KYOTO THERMOMETER POST KYOTO International Law and China : Treaty system Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) WHAT IS KYOTO PROTOCOL ANNEX A & B ARTICLE 25, 26: RATIFICATION KYOTO THERMOMETER POST

More information

Summary report on the workshop on scope, structure and design of the 2015 agreement ADP 2, part 1 Bonn, Germany, 29 April 2013

Summary report on the workshop on scope, structure and design of the 2015 agreement ADP 2, part 1 Bonn, Germany, 29 April 2013 Summary report on the workshop on scope, structure and design of the 2015 agreement ADP 2, part 1 Bonn, Germany, 29 April 2013 Note by the facilitator 21 May 2013 I. Introduction A. Mandate 1. By decision

More information

GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF MALAWI

GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF MALAWI GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF MALAWI STATEMENT BY HONOURABLE CATHERINE GOTANI HARA, M.P., MINISTER OF ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE MANAGEMENT (LEADER OF DELEGATION) AT THE 18 th SESSION OF THE CONFERENCE

More information

Work of the ADP contact group

Work of the ADP contact group AD HOC WORKING GROUP ON THE DURBAN PLATFORM FOR ENHANCED ACTION Second session, part eleven 19-23 October 2015 Bonn, Germany Work of the ADP contact group This document integrates views of Parties on the

More information

The Paris Climate Agreement 2015

The Paris Climate Agreement 2015 March 2016 The Paris Climate Agreement 2015 An analysis of its conclusions: Introduction COP 21 was billed as a landmark moment in international environmental politics, with tens of thousands of government

More information

Linking Heterogeneous Climate Policies (Consistent with the Paris Agreement) Faculty Research Working Paper Series

Linking Heterogeneous Climate Policies (Consistent with the Paris Agreement) Faculty Research Working Paper Series Linking Heterogeneous Climate Policies (Consistent with the Paris Agreement) Faculty Research Working Paper Series Michael A. Mehling Massachusetts Institute of Technology Gilbert E. Metcalf Tufts University

More information

CEPS Side Event COP16 - Cancún, Mexico Comments on key messages #2,6,7,and 8

CEPS Side Event COP16 - Cancún, Mexico Comments on key messages #2,6,7,and 8 CEPS Side Event COP16 - Cancún, Mexico Comments on key messages #2,6,7,and 8 Ulla Blatt Bendtsen & Assar Qureshi Danish Energy Agency Disclaimer: These views may not necessarily reflect the official Danish

More information

The web version of this document will be updated with links to new documents as they become available.

The web version of this document will be updated with links to new documents as they become available. THIRTY-SEVENTH SESSION OF THE IPCC Georgia, 14-18 October 2013 IPCC-XXXVII/Doc. 1, Add.1 (17.VII.2013) Agenda Item: 1 ENGLISH ONLY PROVISIONAL ANNOTATED AGENDA (Submitted by the IPCC Secretariat) The web

More information

Taking stock of Copenhagen: outcomes on REDD+ and rights *

Taking stock of Copenhagen: outcomes on REDD+ and rights * Taking stock of Copenhagen: outcomes on REDD+ and rights * Francesco Martone January 2010 1. Introduction When parties and observers arrived in Copenhagen last December (2009), for two weeks of intense

More information

W O M E N D E M A N D A G E N D E R - J U S T T R A N S I T I O N

W O M E N D E M A N D A G E N D E R - J U S T T R A N S I T I O N W O M E N D E M A N D A G E N D E R - J U S T T R A N S I T I O N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Adopt a robust gender action plan Deliver on finance Plan for real ambition via the 2018

More information

Legitimacy in an Era of Fragmentation: The Case of Global Climate Governance. Sylvia I. Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen and Jeffrey McGee*

Legitimacy in an Era of Fragmentation: The Case of Global Climate Governance. Sylvia I. Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen and Jeffrey McGee* Legitimacy in an Era of Fragmentation: The Case of Global Climate Governance Sylvia I. Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen and Jeffrey McGee* Abstract Studies grounded in regime theory have examined the effectiveness

More information

Trade and Public Policies: NTMs in the WTO

Trade and Public Policies: NTMs in the WTO Trade and Public Policies: NTMs in the WTO Xinyi Li Trade Policies Review Division, WTO Secretariat 12 th ARTNeT Capacity Building Workshop December 2016 1 Disclaimer The views and opinions expressed in

More information

Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol

Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol Article 1: Amendment A. Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol The following table shall replace the table in Annex B to the Protocol: 1 2 3 4 5 6 (2008 2012) base year or (2013

More information

AGREEMENT on the Environment between Canada and The Republic of Panama

AGREEMENT on the Environment between Canada and The Republic of Panama AGREEMENT on the Environment between Canada and The Republic of Panama AGREEMENT ON THE ENVIRONMENT BETWEEN CANADA AND THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA PREAMBLE CANADA and THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA ( Panama ), hereinafter

More information

Climate change, migration, and displacement: impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation options. 6 February 2009

Climate change, migration, and displacement: impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation options. 6 February 2009 SUBMISSION by the INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR MIGRATION (IOM), THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES (UNHCR), THE UNITED NATIONS UNIVERSITY (UNU), THE NORWEGIAN REFUGEE COUNCIL (NRC) AND

More information

PRELIMINARY TEXT OF A DECLARATION OF ETHICAL PRINCIPLES IN RELATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE

PRELIMINARY TEXT OF A DECLARATION OF ETHICAL PRINCIPLES IN RELATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE Intergovernmental Meeting for the Preparation of a Declaration of Ethical Principles in relation to Climate Change Paris, UNESCO Headquarters / Siège de l UNESCO Room XII / Salle XII 27-30 June 2017 /

More information

Open Dialogue Between the Parties and Non-Party Stakeholders

Open Dialogue Between the Parties and Non-Party Stakeholders Open Dialogue Between the Parties and Non-Party Stakeholders FIJIAN PRESIDENCY'S REPORT The Fijian Presidency presided over the first Open Dialogue between Parties and Non- Party Stakeholders (NPS), conducted

More information

Vision for Paris: Building an Effective Climate Agreement

Vision for Paris: Building an Effective Climate Agreement Vision for Paris: Building an Effective Climate Agreement July 2015 The Toward 2015 dialogue brought together senior officials from more than 20 countries to discuss options for a 2015 climate agreement.

More information

Disclaimer: All translations of official Ecuadorian documents were made by personnel of the Defensoría del Pueblo del Ecuador.

Disclaimer: All translations of official Ecuadorian documents were made by personnel of the Defensoría del Pueblo del Ecuador. Disclaimer: All translations of official Ecuadorian documents were made by personnel of the Defensoría del Pueblo del Ecuador. 1.Please describe, in your view, the relationship between climate change and

More information

The African Ministerial Conference on the Environment Gaborone, Botswana, 17 October 2013

The African Ministerial Conference on the Environment Gaborone, Botswana, 17 October 2013 The African Ministerial Conference on the Environment Gaborone, Botswana, 17 October 2013 Statement by John Kilani Director of Sustainable Development Mechanisms programme United Nations Framework Convention

More information

15076/16 MS/iw 1 DGE 1B

15076/16 MS/iw 1 DGE 1B Council of the European Union General Secretariat Brussels, 2 December 2016 (OR. en) 15076/16 INFORMATION NOTE From: To: General Secretariat of the Council Delegations CLIMA 166 ENV 752 ONU 135 DEVGEN

More information

International Climate Policy Leadership after COP23

International Climate Policy Leadership after COP23 Introduction International Climate Policy Leadership after COP23 The EU Must Resume Its Leading Role, But Cannot Do So Alone Susanne Dröge and Vijeta Rattani Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik German Institute

More information

SAY YES TO JOBS & FAIR TRADE! SAY NO TO MES FOR CHINA!

SAY YES TO JOBS & FAIR TRADE! SAY NO TO MES FOR CHINA! SAY YES TO JOBS & FAIR TRADE! SAY NO TO MES FOR CHINA! INTRODUCTION Is China a market economy? That is the question facing the European Commission which is currently deciding whether to grant China Market

More information

FCCC/CP/2015/1. United Nations. Provisional agenda and annotations. I. Provisional agenda

FCCC/CP/2015/1. United Nations. Provisional agenda and annotations. I. Provisional agenda United Nations FCCC/CP/2015/1 Distr.: General 11 September 2015 Original: English Conference of the Parties Twenty-first session Paris, 30 November to 11 December 2015 Item 2(c) of the provisional agenda

More information

Key Issues on Green Economy at Rio+20

Key Issues on Green Economy at Rio+20 IGES Discussion Paper-EE-2011-01 Key Issues on Green Economy at Rio+20 February 2012 Institute for Global Environmental Strategies Copyright 2012 Institute for Global Environmental Strategies. All rights

More information

NGO and CSO Closing Statement Climate Action Pacific Partnerships (CAPP) Event, Grand Pacific Hotel, Suva, Fiji 04 July 2017

NGO and CSO Closing Statement Climate Action Pacific Partnerships (CAPP) Event, Grand Pacific Hotel, Suva, Fiji 04 July 2017 NGO and CSO Closing Statement Climate Action Pacific Partnerships (CAPP) Event, Grand Pacific Hotel, Suva, Fiji 04 July 2017 Your Excellencies, Ladies and Gentleman My name is Genevieve Jiva from the,

More information

Unconstructive Ambiguity in the Durban Climate Deal of COP 17 / CMP 7

Unconstructive Ambiguity in the Durban Climate Deal of COP 17 / CMP 7 Sustainable Development Law & Policy Volume 12 Issue 2 Winter 2012: Climate Law Reporter Article 3 Unconstructive Ambiguity in the Durban Climate Deal of COP 17 / CMP 7 Remi Moncel Follow this and additional

More information

Working-paper for the tenth session of the SBI and SBSTA, Bonn, 31 May - 11 June 1999.

Working-paper for the tenth session of the SBI and SBSTA, Bonn, 31 May - 11 June 1999. Working-paper for the tenth session of the SBI and SBSTA, Bonn, 31 May - 11 June 1999. JOINT WORKING GROUP COMPLIANCE ON THE KYOTO PROTOCOL: AN OVERVIEW OF SUGGESTIONS ON COMPLIANCE dr. G.H. Addink, May

More information

Earth Negotiations Bulletin

Earth Negotiations Bulletin ADP 2-10.......................... A Reporting Service for Environment and Development Negotiations Online at http://www.iisd.ca/climate/unfccc/adp2-10/ FINAL Vol. 12 No. 644 Published by the International

More information

WORKING PAPERS IN ECONOMICS. No 491. Common ground for effort sharing? Preferred principles for distributing climate mitigation efforts

WORKING PAPERS IN ECONOMICS. No 491. Common ground for effort sharing? Preferred principles for distributing climate mitigation efforts WORKING PAPERS IN ECONOMICS No 491 Common ground for effort sharing? Preferred principles for distributing climate mitigation efforts Mattias Hjerpe, Åsa Löfgren, Björn-Ola Linnér, Magnus Hennlock, Thomas

More information

EU-CELAC ACTION PLAN

EU-CELAC ACTION PLAN EU-CELAC ACTION PLAN This Action Plan includes a number of initiatives consistent with the priorities established at the VI EU-LAC Summit as encompassed in its Final Declaration as well as in new areas

More information

EU-Brazil Summit Lisbon, 4 July Joint Statement

EU-Brazil Summit Lisbon, 4 July Joint Statement COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Brussels, 4 July 2007 11531/07 (Presse 162) EU-Brazil Summit Lisbon, 4 July 2007 Joint Statement 1. Mr. José Sócrates, Prime Minister of Portugal, in his capacity as President

More information

Nigel Purvis Scholar on Environment, Development and Global Issues, The Brookings Institution

Nigel Purvis Scholar on Environment, Development and Global Issues, The Brookings Institution Remarks of Nigel Purvis Scholar on Environment, Development and Global Issues, The Brookings Institution To the INSTITUTE FOR GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES AND THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL

More information

Understanding Human Rights and Climate Change 1

Understanding Human Rights and Climate Change 1 Understanding Human Rights and Climate Change 1 Table of Contents Key Messages on Human Rights and Climate Change... 2 Part I. Human Rights and Climate Change... 5 Why integrate human rights in climate

More information

Debating sustainable development in global climate change policy: The Cancún agreements v. the People s agreement of Cochabamba

Debating sustainable development in global climate change policy: The Cancún agreements v. the People s agreement of Cochabamba Via Sapientiae: The Institutional Repository at DePaul University College of Liberal Arts & Social Sciences Theses and Dissertations College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences 8-2012 Debating sustainable

More information

2. CONTINUING KYOTO: Extending Absolute Emission Caps to Developing Countries. Joanna Depledge. Introduction

2. CONTINUING KYOTO: Extending Absolute Emission Caps to Developing Countries. Joanna Depledge. Introduction Continuing Kyoto 31 2. CONTINUING KYOTO: Extending Absolute Emission Caps to Developing Countries Joanna Depledge Introduction The climate change regime, consisting of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol and its parent

More information

JCM_MN_GL_TPE_ver01.0

JCM_MN_GL_TPE_ver01.0 Joint Crediting Mechanism Guidelines for Designation as a Third-Party Entity CONTENTS 1. Objectives... 2 2. Scope and applicability... 2 3. Normative references... 2 4. Terms and definitions... 2 5. Requirements

More information

Harnessing trade for sustainable development and a green economy

Harnessing trade for sustainable development and a green economy Harnessing trade for sustainable development and a green economy World Trade Organization Centre William Rappard Rue de Lausanne 154 CH-1211 Geneva 21 Switzerland Tel: +41 (0)22 739 51 11 Fax: +41 (0)22

More information

JAPAN-CANADA ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK. The Government of Japan and the Government of Canada, hereinafter referred to as Japan and Canada respectively,

JAPAN-CANADA ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK. The Government of Japan and the Government of Canada, hereinafter referred to as Japan and Canada respectively, JAPAN-CANADA ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK The Government of Japan and the Government of Canada, hereinafter referred to as Japan and Canada respectively, Recognizing their longstanding friendship and important trade

More information

Table of Contents. Both petitioners and EPA are supported by numerous amici curiae (friends of the court).

Table of Contents. Both petitioners and EPA are supported by numerous amici curiae (friends of the court). Clean Power Plan Litigation Updates On October 23, 2015, multiple parties petitioned the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals to review EPA s Clean Power Plan and to stay the rule pending judicial review. This

More information

Submission by the. Canadian Labour Congress. to the. Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Regarding

Submission by the. Canadian Labour Congress. to the. Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Regarding Submission by the to the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Regarding Consultations on Potential Free Trade Agreement Negotiations with Trans-Pacific Partnership Members February 14,

More information

FROM BALI TO MARRAKECH:

FROM BALI TO MARRAKECH: FROM BALI TO MARRAKECH: A DECADE OF INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE NEGOTIATIONS As told by the Earth Negotiations Bulletin Edited by Jennifer Allan, Rishikesh Ram Bhandary, Alice Bisiaux, Pamela Chasek, Natalie

More information

Human Rights and International Climate Politics

Human Rights and International Climate Politics study Human Rights and International Climate Politics Human Rights into Climate Actions After Paris: Opportunities for the UNFCCC, the Human Rights Institutions and the G-20 Sébastien Duyck, Yves Lador

More information

URGENT NEED FOR AN ALTERNATIVE INTERNATIONAL AGENDA FOR CHANGE (Beyond 2015)

URGENT NEED FOR AN ALTERNATIVE INTERNATIONAL AGENDA FOR CHANGE (Beyond 2015) Olivier Consolo, director of CONCORD Brussels, August 2011 INTRODUCTION URGENT NEED FOR AN ALTERNATIVE INTERNATIONAL AGENDA FOR CHANGE (Beyond 2015) What could be a post-mdg agenda? Option1: The simple

More information

MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS THE URUGUAY ROUND

MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS THE URUGUAY ROUND MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS THE URUGUAY ROUND RESTRICTED MTN.GNG/12 15 August 1988 Special Distribution \ Group of Negotiations on Goods (GATT) GROUP OF NEGOTIATIONS ON GOODS Eleventh meeting: 25 and

More information

A leader in a changing world? Welsh climate change policy

A leader in a changing world? Welsh climate change policy A leader in a changing world? Welsh climate change policy Elin Royles Institute of Welsh Politics Department of International Politics Aberystwyth University Wales ear@aber.ac.uk Paper presented at 63

More information

This document relates to item 4.5 of the provisional agenda

This document relates to item 4.5 of the provisional agenda This document relates to item 4.5 of the provisional agenda Sixth Session of the Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, 13-18 October 2014, Moscow FCA Policy Briefing

More information

Ethiopia. Strategy for Sweden s development cooperation with MFA

Ethiopia. Strategy for Sweden s development cooperation with MFA MINISTRY FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS, SWEDEN UTRIKESDEPARTEMENTET Strategy for Sweden s development cooperation with Ethiopia 2016 2020 MFA 103 39 Stockholm Telephone: +46 8 405 10 00, Web site: www.ud.se Cover:

More information

TST Issue Brief: Global Governance 1. a) The role of the UN and its entities in global governance for sustainable development

TST Issue Brief: Global Governance 1. a) The role of the UN and its entities in global governance for sustainable development TST Issue Brief: Global Governance 1 International arrangements for collective decision making have not kept pace with the magnitude and depth of global change. The increasing interdependence of the global

More information

Trade unions at the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFCCC - COP14. Report and Assessment

Trade unions at the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFCCC - COP14. Report and Assessment ITUC INTERNATIONAL TRADE UNION CONFEDERATION CSI CONFÉDÉRATION SYNDICALE INTERNATIONALE CSI CONFEDERACIÓN SINDICAL INTERNACIONAL IGB INTERNATIONALER GEWERKSCHAFTSBUND Bd. du Roi Albert II, 5, Bte 1, B

More information

Kyoto. BDO Dunwoody/Chamber Weekly CEO/Business Leader Poll by COMPAS in the Financial Post for Publication February 6th, 2005

Kyoto. BDO Dunwoody/Chamber Weekly CEO/Business Leader Poll by COMPAS in the Financial Post for Publication February 6th, 2005 Kyoto BDO Dunwoody/Chamber Weekly CEO/Business Leader Poll by COMPAS in the Financial Post for Publication February 6th, 2005 COMPAS Inc. Public Opinion and Customer Research February 6, 2005 1.0 Introduction

More information

ATTACHMENT B ARTICLE XIII. LIGHT AND POWER UTILITY

ATTACHMENT B ARTICLE XIII. LIGHT AND POWER UTILITY ARTICLE XIII. LIGHT AND POWER UTILITY Sec. 178. Creation, purpose and intent. (a) The city council, at such time as it deems appropriate, subject to the conditions herein, is authorized to establish, by

More information

A SHARED AGENDA DENMARK S ACTION PLAN FOR POLICY COHERENCE FOR DEVELOPMENT

A SHARED AGENDA DENMARK S ACTION PLAN FOR POLICY COHERENCE FOR DEVELOPMENT A SHARED AGENDA DENMARK S ACTION PLAN FOR POLICY COHERENCE FOR DEVELOPMENT June 2014 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 3 PART I DENMARK S STRATEGIC PRIORITY AREAS FOR POLICY COHERENCE FOR DEVELOPMENT 5 STRATEGIC PRIORITY:

More information

ICCD/COP(1)/11/Add.1 Page 50. Decision 15/COP.1. The Conference of the Parties,

ICCD/COP(1)/11/Add.1 Page 50. Decision 15/COP.1. The Conference of the Parties, Page 50 Decision 15/COP.1 Terms of reference of the Committee on Science and Technology The Conference of the Parties, Recalling article 24, paragraph 1, of the Convention, which provides that the Conference

More information

The World Trade Organization s Doha Development Agenda The Doha Negotiations after Six Years Progress Report at the End of 2007 TRADE FACILITATION

The World Trade Organization s Doha Development Agenda The Doha Negotiations after Six Years Progress Report at the End of 2007 TRADE FACILITATION The World Trade Organization s Doha Development Agenda The Doha Negotiations after Six Years Progress Report at the End of 2007 TRADE FACILITATION LAW OFFICES OF STEWART AND STEWART 2100 M STREET NW WASHINGTON,

More information

A reform agenda for Europe's future

A reform agenda for Europe's future A reform agenda for Europe's future EPP GROUP PRIORITIES 2014-2019 The European Union is facing enormous challenges after the European elections. Millions unemployed, increasing migration levels, tough

More information

Chairman s Statement of the 4 th East Asia Summit Cha-am Hua Hin, Thailand, 25 October 2009

Chairman s Statement of the 4 th East Asia Summit Cha-am Hua Hin, Thailand, 25 October 2009 Chairman s Statement of the 4 th East Asia Summit Cha-am Hua Hin, Thailand, 25 October 2009 1. The 4 th East Asia Summit (EAS) chaired by H.E. Mr. Abhisit Vejjajiva, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Thailand,

More information

Committee on International Trade Committee on Women s Rights and Gender Equality

Committee on International Trade Committee on Women s Rights and Gender Equality European Parliament 2014-2019 Committee on International Trade Committee on Women s Rights and Gender Equality 2017/2015(INI) 19.9.2017 DRAFT REPORT on gender equality in EU trade agreements (2017/2015(INI))

More information

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL A CITIZENS AGENDA

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL A CITIZENS AGENDA COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES Brussels, 10.5.2006 COM(2006) 211 final COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL A CITIZENS AGENDA DELIVERING RESULTS FOR EUROPE EN EN COMMUNICATION

More information

ANNEX I PROVISIONAL AGENDAS Conference of the Parties at its seventh session

ANNEX I PROVISIONAL AGENDAS Conference of the Parties at its seventh session UNFCCC/CCNUCC Page 2 ANNEX I PROVISIONAL AGENDAS Conference of the Parties at its seventh session The provisional agenda for the seventh session of the Conference of the Parties has been drafted by the

More information

Cancún: Crisis or Catharsis? Bernard Hoekman, World Bank 1. September 20, 2003

Cancún: Crisis or Catharsis? Bernard Hoekman, World Bank 1. September 20, 2003 Cancún: Crisis or Catharsis? Bernard Hoekman, World Bank 1 September 20, 2003 During September 10-14, 2003, WTO members met in Cancún for a mid-term review of the Doha Round of trade negotiations, launched

More information

Global climate adaptation governance: what is governed and why?

Global climate adaptation governance: what is governed and why? Global climate adaptation governance: what is governed and why? Åsa Persson, Stockholm Environment Institute asa.persson@sei-international.org Nina Hall, Hertie School of Governance hall@hertie-school.org

More information

The agricultural negotiations as part of the Doha Development Agenda progress or stagnation?

The agricultural negotiations as part of the Doha Development Agenda progress or stagnation? Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture 46 (2007), No. 3: 199-204 The agricultural negotiations as part of the Doha Development Agenda progress or stagnation? Harald Grethe Humboldt-Universität

More information

TRADE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

TRADE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Disclaimer: the negotiations between EU and Japan on Economic Partnership Agreement are not concluded yet, therefore the published texts should be considered provisional and not final. In particular, the

More information

Political-Security Pillar of ASEAN

Political-Security Pillar of ASEAN Overview Political-Security Pillar of ASEAN Promoting peace and stability in Southeast Asia and the surrounding region, based on the development of peaceful relations and mutually beneficial cooperation

More information

Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid Universiteit Gent Academiejaar

Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid Universiteit Gent Academiejaar Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid Universiteit Gent Academiejaar 2010-11 THE LEGAL ARCHITECTURE FOR THE POST-KYOTO CLIMATE CHANGE REGIME Masterproef van de opleiding Master in de rechten Ingediend door Lara

More information

G8 Research Group. Compliance Unit Commitment Interpretive Guidelines CONTENTS

G8 Research Group. Compliance Unit Commitment Interpretive Guidelines CONTENTS G8 Research Group Compliance Unit 2007-08 Interpretive Guidelines CONTENTS 1. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PROTECTION [21] 2 2. FIGHTING CLIMATE CHANGE [35] 4 3. ENERGY: TECHNOLOGY [36] 6 4. ENERGY: EFFICIENCY

More information

PES Strategy A Mandate for Change

PES Strategy A Mandate for Change 28 January 2010 PES Strategy 2010-2014 A Mandate for Change Adopted by the PES Presidency on 4 February 2010 As long as Europe s citizens are facing monumental challenges, as long as their jobs and livelihoods

More information

CENTRE FOR POLICY RESEARCH

CENTRE FOR POLICY RESEARCH CENTRE FOR POLICY RESEARCH Premier Think Tank Shaping Policy Debates Since 1973 Making climate look like trade? Questions on incentives, flexibility and credibility Arunabha Ghosh* CPR POLICY BRIEF MARCH

More information

STATEMENT. H.E. Ms. Laila Freivalds Minister for Foreign Affairs of Sweden

STATEMENT. H.E. Ms. Laila Freivalds Minister for Foreign Affairs of Sweden STATEMENT by H.E. Ms. Laila Freivalds Minister for Foreign Affairs of Sweden 2005 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons United Nations New York 3 May

More information

Draft report of the Conference of the Parties on its twenty-third session

Draft report of the Conference of the Parties on its twenty-third session United Nations FCCC/CP/2017/L.3 Distr.: Limited 15 November 2017 Original: English Conference of the Parties Twenty-third session Bonn, 6 17 November 2017 Agenda item 21 Conclusion of the session Adoption

More information

Report on 56th session of the United Nations General Assembly Second Committee

Report on 56th session of the United Nations General Assembly Second Committee Report on 56th session of the United Nations General Assembly Second Committee Panel on High-Level Panel on Globalization and the State 2 November 2001 A panel discussion on Globalization and the State

More information

Introduction to the A-BBPP Draft Program Agreement December 19, 2017 updated January 8, 2018

Introduction to the A-BBPP Draft Program Agreement December 19, 2017 updated January 8, 2018 Introduction to the A-BBPP Draft Program Agreement December 19, 2017 updated January 8, 2018 Background On August 14, 2017, the Minister of the Environment and Climate Change sent a letter to the Resource

More information

Malmö Högskola. Possibilities and Constraints Facing the International Cooperation in Negotiating Global Climate Change Regimes

Malmö Högskola. Possibilities and Constraints Facing the International Cooperation in Negotiating Global Climate Change Regimes Malmö Högskola School of International Migration and Ethnic Relations (IMER) Faculty of Culture and Society Department of Global Political Studies Master Programme in Global Political Studies International

More information

2018 Facilitative Dialogue: A Springboard for Climate Action

2018 Facilitative Dialogue: A Springboard for Climate Action 2018 Facilitative Dialogue: A Springboard for Climate Action Memo to support consultations on the design of the FD2018 during the Bonn Climate Change Conference, May 2017 1 The collective ambition of current

More information

Annex 1 Eligible programme areas Norwegian Financial Mechanism

Annex 1 Eligible programme areas Norwegian Financial Mechanism Annex 1 Eligible programme areas Norwegian Financial Mechanism 2009-2014 The overall objectives of the Norwegian Financial Mechanism 2009-2014 are to contribute to the reduction of economic and social

More information

Biodiversity and the Global Market Economy

Biodiversity and the Global Market Economy Biodiversity and the Global Market Economy Report on the informal strategic workshop to explore the challenges and opportunities of implementing the biodiversity-related MEAs within the global market economy

More information

Proposals for CETA-amendments No. 4 out of

Proposals for CETA-amendments No. 4 out of Protocol on Dispute Settlement and Institutional Mechanisms for Chapter Twenty-Two (Trade and Sustainable Development) and Twenty-Three (Trade and Labour) 1. This Protocol constitutes an integral part

More information

United States Panama Trade Promotion Agreement

United States Panama Trade Promotion Agreement United States Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Objectives The objectives of this Agreement, as elaborated more specifically through its principles and rules, including national treatment, most-favored-nation

More information

National self-interest remains the most important driver in global politics

National self-interest remains the most important driver in global politics National self-interest remains the most important driver in global politics BSc. International Business and Politics Copenhagen Business School 2014 Political Science Fall 2014 Final Exam 16-17 December

More information

Options for a Compliance Mechanism in a 2015 Climate Agreement

Options for a Compliance Mechanism in a 2015 Climate Agreement brill.com/clla Options for a Compliance Mechanism in a 2015 Climate Agreement Sebastian Oberthür Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Institute for European Studies Sebastian.Oberthuer@vub.ac.be Abstract As parties

More information