Undergraduate Program in Central European Studies (UPCES) The Rise and Fall of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe

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1 Undergraduate Program in Central European Studies (UPCES) CERGE-EI and the School of Humanities at Charles University Politických vězňů 7, Prague 1, Czech Republic Tel. : , , , Fax : Website: The Rise and Fall of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe Lecturer: Keith Crawford Outline of the course: Why did the Communist regimes establish themselves with such apparent ease throughout Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) in the late 1940s. Why did they seemingly remain so strong, and yet collapse so suddenly. This course will examine the basis of communist ideology, why and how the Communists managed to take over power in the immediate post-war period throughout CEE, how they managed to remain in power for so long, and, finally, why such regimes collapsed so completely and suddenly between 1989 and The following topics will be analyzed in detail: Communist ideology; the various stages of the Communists salami tactics in their take-over of power; the mechanisms the Communists used to maintain control, externally and internally - folklore, religion, economy, political trials, attempted control of most aspects of private, as well as public life, politicization of education, socialistic realism and cult of communist heroes, among others; the reasons for the sudden collapse in 1989 plus. Guest speakers will also talk about their own experience with communism and communist ideology. There will be four guest speakers each with very different experiences of the Communist regime. Assessment and Grading 1. Active class participation - 25% 2. Mid-term exam - 25% 3. Term paper - 25% 4. Final exam 25% Term papers are due in Week 12.

2 Recommended Reading Texts H. Arendt, (1994, [1948]) The Origins of Totalitarianism, Harvest Books, Houghton Mifflin Hardcourt ISBN: , , K. Crawford, (1996) East Central European Politics Today, Manchester Univ. Press. ISBN (hdk), X (pbk)] K. Crawford, (2013) Central and Eastern European Politics Today, Manchester Univ. Press, (forthcoming 2013 edition - NYU Handout). R. Dahrendorf, (1990) Reflections on the Revolution in Europe, Crown Publishers, ISBN: , ISBN: S. Drakulic, (1993) How We Survived Communism and Even Laughed, Harper Collins. ISBN: (pbk) C. J. Friedrich & Z. K. Brzezinski, (1967 [1956]) Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy, Harvard Univ. Press. C. J. Friedrich, M. Curtis & B. R. Barber, (2008 [1969]) Totalitarianism in Perspective: Three Views, Praeger. T. Garton Ash, (1993) The Magic Lantern: The Revolution of '89 Witnessed in Warsaw, Budapest and Prague, Vintage. ISBN: , ISBN: T. Garton Ash, (1999 [1990]) We The People, Penguin/Granta Books. ISBN: , ISBN: M. Glenny, (1993 [1990]) The Rebirth of History: Eastern Europe in the Age of Democracy, Penguin Books. ISBN: , ISBN: Vaclav Havel, The Power of the Powerless, in John Keane (ed.) (1985) The Power of the Powerless, Hutchinson. ISBN: (ebk), M. Kundera, (1992) The Joke, Faber and Faber. ISBN: ISBN: J. J. Linz, (2000) Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes, Lynne Rienner. ISBN: , K. Marx and F. Engels, Manifesto of the Communist Party, 1848, available on-line at: J. Elster, C. Offe & U.K. Preuss, (1998) Institutional Design in Post-communist Societies: Rebuilding the Ship at Sea, Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN: , George Orwell, (1996) Animal Farm, Signet Classics, 50th Anniversary edition. ISBN: J. Rothschild, (2007) Return to Diversity: A Political History of East Central Europe Since World War II, Oxford University Press. ISBN: , ISBN: J. Rupnik, (1989) The Other Europe, Schocken. ISBN: , ISBN: G. Schöpflin, The Political Traditions of Eastern Europe, in Stephen R. Graubard (ed.) (1991) Eastern Europe Central Europe Europe. (Handout: UPCES) G. Schöpflin, (1993) Politics in Eastern Europe, Blackwell. ISBN: , ISBN: J. Simpson, (1990) Despatches from the Barricades, Hutchinson. ISBN: , ISBN: 978-

3 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, (1995) One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN: , ISBN: J. Szucs, The Historical Regions of Europe, in J. Keane, (ed.) (1988) Civil Society and the State, Verso. ISBN: , ISBN: Time Magazine, January 1940, Time Magazine, January 1943, V. Tismaneanu, (1992) Reinventing Politics: Eastern Europe from Stalin to Havel, The Free Press. ISBN (hbk) S. Tormey, (1995) Making Sense of Tyranny, Manchester Univ. Press. ISBN: , ISBN: Course Outline: Week 1: Background to Communism: where did it come from and why? Introduction of the course and course assignments, plus expectations. The writings of Karl Marx as a critique of capitalism. The writings of Karl Marx as a proponent of an alternative to capitalism (i.e. communism). Why did communism take root in Russia? Countries where there was a short communist-style revolution after World War I. The state of the Communist Parties in Central and Eastern Europe during the inter-war. Who supported these parties in the interwar period The role of Communist Parties throughout Europe during the Second World. The liberation of Central and Eastern Europe in How the world viewed Stalin and communism in 1945 at the conclusion of World War Two. Back-drop to the post-war rise of communism: political traditions in CEE K. Crawford (2013), Chapters 3 & 4 (Handout) Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Manifesto of the Communist Party, 1848, available on-line at: Time Magazine, January 1940 & January George Orwell, (1996) Animal Farm. Or watch the movie Animal farm ( G. Schöpflin, (1991) The Political Traditions of Eastern Europe, (Handout: UPCES) J. Szucs, (1988) The Historical Regions of Europe Week 2: The Rise of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe as a whole and in Czechoslovakia in particular. Immediate takeovers (Yugoslavia, Bulgaria & Albania). Otherwise the salami tactics to be applied throughout the buffer countries of CEE.

4 The various stages of the takeover. The 1946 totally free election in Czechoslovakia. The salami tactics as they were applied in Czechoslovakia. The 1948 coup. Benes, Masaryk and the leading politicians. Why was the Communist takeover so easy? Link with fist lecture: in what types of societies had communism succeeded. K. Crawford (2013), Chapters 3 & 4 (Handout) George Orwell, (1996) Animal Farm. Week 3: Early communism in Central and Eastern Europe. The Main instruments of external Soviet control. 1. COMECON & the Warsaw Pact 2. The Brezhnev Doctrine The Main instruments of internal control: 1. Economic: Collectivization, nationalization, ownership under socialism; 2. Attempts to control all aspects of both private and public life. 3. In particular, the politicization of education. 4. The cult of the leader Who suffered most? Film: Vsechni Dobri Rodaci, (All Our Good Countrymen) K. Crawford (2013), Chapters 3 & 4 (Handout) Milan Kundera, (1992) The Joke George Orwell, (1996) Animal Farm. Week 4: Revolts against Soviet control: East Berlin 1953; Budapest and Poland 1956; The Prague Spring 1968; Kosovo Why did these revolts take place, what did they seek to achieve and why did they fail? First Guest Lecture: Jan Sokol: The History & Evolution of Dissent. K. Crawford (2013), Chap. 3 (Handout) Week 5 CEE : Totalitarian or Authoritarian? Meaning of totalitarian.

5 Characteristic of totalitarian societies. Post-totalitarian societies: the difference between the two. Differences between the various countries of Central and Eastern Europe. H. Arendt, (1994, [1948]) The Origins of Totalitarianism, Part 3, Chaps , pp K. Crawford (2013), Chap. 4 (Handout) C. J. Friedrich & Z. K. Brzezinski, (1967 [1956]) Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy, Harvard Univ. Press. (The original classic volume re. totalitarianism) C. J. Friedrich, M. Curtis & B. R. Barber, (2008 [1969]) Totalitarianism in Perspective: Three Views, Praeger, 1969, Chap 1 pp. 3-52, Part 3 by Friedrich also of interest. J. J. Linz, (2000) Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes, Chap. 2, pp Week 6: How these regimes kept themselves in power (1) Economically: the control of work and the workplace Politically: political trials, imprisonment, Party membership, Secret Police. K. Crawford (2013), Chap. 3 (Handout) Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, (1995) One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich Film showing: German film about the work of the Stasi Week 7: How these regimes kept themselves in power (2) Socially: everyday compromises with the regime. The role of the everyday citizen. The extent of dissidence throughout CEE. Second Guest Lecture: Tomas Brezina - My life running a restaurant under communism K. Crawford (2013), Chaps. 3 & 4 (Handout) S. Drakulic, (1993) How We Survived Communism and Even Laughed Vaclav Havel, (1985) The Power of the Powerless, Chap. 1 pp Week 8: CEE under communism: an Assessment

6 One-hour tutorial-type discussion of students impressions of CEE during communism. Two-hour Mid-term Examination. Required Reading for Exam: K. Crawford (1996), Chapters 2 4 (Handout UPCES) S. Drakulic, (1993) How We Survived Communism and Even Laughed Vaclav Havel, The Power of the Powerless, Chap. 1 pp Joseph Rothschild, (2007) Return to Diversity, Chaps. George Schopflin, (1993) Politics in Eastern Europe, Chaps. V. Tismaneanu, (1992) Reinventing Politics: Eastern Europe from Stalin to Havel, Chaps. Week 9: The Beginnings of Real Dissent The end of the 1970s and the Helsinki Accords Poland 1981 & Solidarnosc: consequences for communism The arrival of Gorbachev Communism in the 1980s: power for power s sake. K. Crawford (1996), Chapters 2 4 (Handout UPCES) S. Drakulic, (1993) How We Survived Communism and Even Laughed Vaclav Havel, The Power of the Powerless, Chap. 1, pp Week 10 Were these really revolutions? What happened in 1989: how & where : the domino theory in reverse. Common features of all revolutions throughout Central & Eastern Europe: suddenness, completeness and non-violence. Were they revolutions or refolutions? K. Crawford (1996), Chaps. 5 & 6 (Handout UPCES) T. Garton Ash, (1993) The Magic Lantern Week 11 Why 1989?: what had come about to make these revolutions successful? Political illegitimacy, Economic Bankruptcy and Social Change. Third Guest Lecture: Jan Urban, Thoughts on the Velvet Revolution in Prague

7 Required Reading K. Crawford (1996), Chaps. 5 & 6 (Handout UPCES) T. Garton Ash, (1993) The Magic Lantern J. Simpson, (1990) Despatches from the Barricades, Week 12: The Differences between the various countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The Baltics, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia and Serbia (1999). Film: The Revolution in Serbia Required Reading for Exam: K. Crawford (1996), Chaps. 5 & 6 (Handout UPCES) T. Garton Ash, (1993) The Magic Lantern J. Simpson, (1990) Despatches from the Barricades, Week 13: Post-communism: A New Beginning Freedom. Ideological Flight to the West The New Capitalists. The New Europe Corruption. Fear of participation. Refusal to take responsibility K. Crawford (1996), Chaps. 8 & 13 (Handout UPCES) J. Simpson, (1990) Despatches from the Barricades, Week 14 Post-communism: with communistic mind-sets The Legacy of Communism Fourth Guest Lecture: Martin Stransky: Today s Legacy of communism. K. Crawford (1996), Chaps. 8 & 13 (Handout UPCES)

8 Martin Stransky, Why the Czechs Don t Want Democracy! Week 15 Final Examination

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