DEMOCRATIC LEGITIMACY BEYOND THE NATION-STATE

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "DEMOCRATIC LEGITIMACY BEYOND THE NATION-STATE"

Transcription

1 DEMOCRATIC LEGITIMACY BEYOND THE NATION-STATE Kåre Toft-Jensen CPR: XXXXXX - XXXX Political Science Midterm exam, Re-take 2014 International Business and Politics Copenhagen Business School Tutorial Class: XD 10 th January 2014 Word-count: XXXX STU-count: XXXXX Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction Key Concepts Democratic Legitimacy and the European Union Democratic legitimacy beyond the Nation-state Conclusion List of References 10

2 1.0 Introduction Due to the globalisation, political and economic affairs are more complex than ever before. The political dimension of globalization, has led to a continuing relocation of decision-making authority from national government to international organizations (Heywood 2013: 143). Nationstates have agreed to give up sovereignty and authority, because they realize that not all challenges can be handled at a domestic level any longer. Challenges such as, global climate change, economic crises, and the growing threat from terrorism force the nation-states do some part of their decision-making at a supranational level and create a process of global governance (Heywood 2013: 74-75). As a result, international organizations have received more power in order to deal with the new challenges more efficiently. One example is the European Union. An increasingly number of decisions is made by the EU institutions; particularly with regards to monetary policy and agriculture and fisheries policy (Heywood 2013: 75). This transfer of authority and power from the member states to the European Union has raised questions about legitimacy. Is the International organization, such as the European Union democratic legitimate? From where do they receive their legitimacy and is it after all desirable to have democratic legitimacy at supranational organizations? This assignment revolves around democratic legitimacy at a supranational level, with a focus on the European Union. The research question for the assignment is: Can the European Union, as a governing institution, be characterized as democratic legitimate according to David Beetham s theory of legitimacy and Robert Dahl s democratic principles of information accessibility and effective participation and is it desirable to strive after democratic legitimacy at a supranational level? The assignment concludes that, the European Union is not a democratic legitimate governing institution. Furthermore, the assignment argues that it is not unconditionally desirable for international organization to strive for democratic legitimacy. To reach the conclusion I will firstly define three key concepts; democratic legitimacy, EU as a governing institution and supranational governance. Secondly, I will investigate if the European Union can be characterized as democratic legitimate, the argument will be supported by empirical evidence. Finally, I will study UN and WTO in relation to the concept of democratic legitimacy and assess if it is desirable to have democratic legitimacy at a supranational level. 1 P a g e

3 2.0 Key Concepts 2.1 Democratic Legitimacy Since ancient Greece the concept of legitimacy has been a fundamental debate in political theory. Why do citizens accept the authority of a government and what gives the government the right to exercise power over the citizens? (Heywood 2013: 81) The English social theorist David Beetham has investigated which criteria that required before an authority can be seen as legitimate. His theory is on the theoretical basis of Weber s idea about ideal types of authorities. However, Beetham denies Marx Weber s idea of legitimacy is nothing more than the belief in it (Beetham 1991: 11). According to Beetham three conditions needs to be fulfilled before an authority can be characterized as legitimate (Beetham 1991: 15-16; Heywood 2013: 83) 1. Power must be exercised according to established rules, whether these are embodied in formal legal codes or in informal conventions. 2. These rules must be justified in terms of shared beliefs of the government and the governed. 3. Legitimacy must be demonstrated by an expression of consent on the part of the governed. Beetham emphasises that a lack or deficit of one of these conditions will cause a reduced legitimacy. In addition, an authority needs to fulfil all the conditions before it can be characterized as a fully legitimate for power to be fully legitimate, then, three conditions are required (Beetham 1991: 15). Beetham s theory of legitimacy has a shared paradigm with Robert Dahl s theory of an ideal democracy, particularly Dahl s democratic principles of information accessibility and effective participation (Dahl, 1989). Dahl s criterion of information accessibility is close linked with Beetham s first condition of legitimacy. Without access to information about the decision-making process, the citizens are not able to ensure that the power is exercised according to both the informal and the formal rules. Effective participation is linked to Beetham s third condition of legitimacy. Effective political participation and voting by the citizens gives the government the consent to govern. (Heywood 2013: 83). 2 P a g e

4 The democratic legitimacy in this assignment is thus referring to three conditions and is a linkage between Robert Dahl s democratic principles of effective participation and information accessibility and Beetham s definition of legitimacy. First, power from the authorities must be exercised according to both informal and formal rules, where the information about decisionmaking process is accessible to the citizens. Secondly, there must be a shared belief between the government and the citizens. Thirdly, the authority must receive consent from the citizens in shape of voting and political participation to be characterized as democratic legitimate. Heywood is acknowledging the relationship between democracy and legitimacy. He is arguing that democratic legitimacy is the most broadly accepted form of legitimacy. (Heywood 2013: 86). On that background, I choose to combine the two complex terms, even though it might seem undermining for the complexity associated with the concepts of legitimacy and democracy. 2.4 Supranational governance Supranational governance refers to the fact that due to the political globalization some governing authority has shifted from nation-states to international organization and thereby created a process of global governance. The nation-states have accepted to transfer some authority to the international organizations, because global challenges and economic competition has produced a pressure on national governments to create more efficient policies, in order to overcome the global challenges and increase competitiveness s. (Heywood 2013: 73). Supranational governance can be been describe as a collection of governance-related activities, rules and mechanisms, formal and informal, existing at a variety of levels in the world today (Heywood 2013: 433) Examples of supranational governance are found in the international organizations such as, the European Union, UN and WTO, where there is dealt with governancerelated activities at a transnational level. The European Union will mostly be cover in regards to democratic legitimacy, but the assignment will also cover the concept of legitimacy in relation to UN and WTO. 3 P a g e

5 2.2 The European Union as a governing institution The European Union started in 1951 as organization of six members, with the purpose of governing coal and steel production. The organization has developed since and the EU now has 28 members and is a governing institution with extensive executive, legislative and judicial powers (Hix 2008: 574). By being a part of the European Union, the member-states have reduced their ability to operate as self-governing states and thereby given some of their sovereignty away to the EU. This opens up for the possibility of pooled sovereignty, which gives the member-states access to a larger form of sovereignty and facilitate the member-states to do decision-making at a supranational level. (Heywood 2013: 75) The pooled sovereignty and the fact that politicians can operate at a supranational level, enables the national governments to deal with global challenges more efficient. As a governing institution, the European Union is complex and separated into seven different institutions. Each of the institution is a part of the decision-making process. However some of the institutions are more powerful than others. Fundamentally the European Commission is the executive power, which is responsible for implementation and proposes of laws. The EU council of Ministers and the European Parliament share the legislative power and the judiciary power is managed by the European Court of Justice. (Heywood 2013: 393) This assignment investigates democratic legitimacy between international organization and the citizens. An investigating of the European Union s legitimacy in regards to the member-states is not chosen to be a part of the assignment. In addition is legitimacy at a nation-state perspective not the focus of this assignment. 3.0 Democratic Legitimacy and the European Union Having clarified the concepts of the democratic legitimacy, EU as a governing institution and supranational governance, I am now going to see if the European Union can be characterized as a democratic legitimate institution. It is done by taking each condition of democratic legitimacy elaborated previously and analyse if the European Union fulfil these. The European Union is actively creating emotionally symbols such as an anthem, a flag and speaks about the common European heritage to appear as a legitimate authority (Steffek 2003: 4 P a g e

6 271), but according to the first conditions of democratic legitimacy, elaborated in the key concept, the European Union cannot be characterized as fully democratic legitimate. The European Commission has established more than 1200 expert-groups to help with the decisionmaking process. A report made by Alter-EU in 2008, found that the members of the expertgroups, proceedings and the agenda of the meetings are kept secret (Vassalos 2008). This secrecy compromises the criterion of information accessibility. In addition, the low of media coverage of EU and the European Parliament elections is also an example on the lack of information accessibility. In 2009 a media study was analysing three newspapers and two television evening news in each EU country three weeks before the European Parliament election. In total news were analysed and the study concluded, among other things, that the news about EU were generally underrepresented (EES 2009). With regards to the principle of power exercised according to informal rules and formal, the European Union is also lacking democratic legitimacy. Brussels is about to pass Washington as the city with the largest number of Lobbyist, the number of lobbyist in Brussels is at the moment around (Lipton and Hakim 2013). The high number lobbyists are influencing the law initiative process in such a way, that it is not in accordance with the European Commission s initiate legislation role established by law (Vassalos 2008). The second condition of democratic legitimacy requires that there must be a shared belief between the government and the citizens. This can be secure by referendums and elections. Every fifth year there is EP-election and referendums also happen occasionally, it was the case with the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 where France, Ireland and Denmark had referendums and with the proposal of a European Constitution in 2005, which failed because of referendum defeat in Holland and France. On that background, it can be argued that there is a shared belief between the European Union as a governing institution and the European Union. However, referendums are rare and with the implementation of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009, only Ireland chose to call for a referendum. In addition referendums have showed that there is not always a shared belief between the politicians and the citizens. This was seen when the Danish citizens in 2000 voted against the EMU and said no to euro as their currency. A majority of the Danish politicians were in favour, but it was rejected by the Danish citizens. With regards to 5 P a g e

7 elections, the European Parliament is the only body where the members are directly elected and the principle of representation is secured. The European citizens do not have direct influence on the members of the European Commission and European Council of Ministers. Even though the Lisbon Treaty has increased the power of European Parliament, it is still a relative weak political body. The fact that the European citizens only have direct representation through the European Parliament, which is a relative weak political body and the fact that referendums are rare, and in some cases shows dissimilar beliefs between the politicians and the citizens, is compromising the second condition of democratic legitimacy. Thus, can the European Union not be characterized as fully democratic legitimate according to the second condition of democratic legitimacy. However, the fact that European Parliament Elections and referendums exists establish some sort of democratic legitimacy. The third condition is that the authority must receive consent from the citizens to govern. One way of the citizens to give consent is through the act of voting (Heywood 2013: 86). The last European Parliament election was in The average voter turnout for Europe was 43 %. The national voter turnout for Germany was 43.3 %, the United Kingdom had a national voter turnout of 34.7 % while Sweden s national voter turnout was at 45.5 %. Compared with the countries general elections, the voter turnout for the European Parliament is very low. Sweden s general election voter turnout in 2011 was at 84.4%, whiles Germany s and UK s voter turnout for last general election was at 71 % and 65 % (European Election Database 2013). The trend is similar in other European countries and illustrates the European Union s scarcity of consent from the European Citizens. The lower voter turnout at the EU election is thereby undermining the third condition of democratic legitimacy. The investigation has showed that the European Union is not democratic legitimate, according to Beetham s definition of legitimacy and Dahl s democratic principles of effective participation and information accessibility. The European Union has a lack of democratic legitimacy in regards to all three conditions. The first condition was compromised by the secrecy of expert-groups, low media coverage of EU and lobbyists role in the law initiative process. The second condition was not fulfilled, mainly due to the fact that the European Parliament is the only EU institution where direct representation existed. The third condition was compromised by the low voter turnout at European Parliament elections. 6 P a g e

8 4.0 Democratic legitimacy beyond the nation-state is it desirable? Having determined that the European Union have a of lack democratic legitimacy, the assignment is now going to access if UN and WTO. Afterwards the assignment will access if it is desirable to have democratic legitimacy at a supranational level. The idea of an international trade organization started in the late 1940s, with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, GATT. Its purpose was to liberalize the international trade and reduce trade barriers. In 1995 GATT was replaced by WTO, an organization drawing on the ideas of neoliberalism (Steffek 2003: 268; Heywood 2013: 436). In WTO that developing countries are often excluded from meetings and important negations in WTO are often in informal a setting (Steffek 2003: 270). This violates the condition of information accessibility. Having clarified that, WTO cannot be characterized as a democratic legitimate organization. UN was established in 1945 after the world had suffering from two ruinous wars, with the aim to uphold peace and security, increase global standards of life and secure human rights and international laws. Today the organization has 193 members (Heywood 2013: ). UN receives its legitimate authority consent through the General Assembly, which consist of each member of the UN. But the General Assembly is a weak political body of UN, without any actual power. The power in UN is placed in the Security Council and particular among at the five permanent members, China, UK, France, Russia and USA. The fact that 188 countries are without any actual power in organization, violates the condition of consent from the citizens, because it is only ensure through the general assembly. UN cannot on that background be characterized as democratic legitimate according to the second condition. The fact that European Union, UN and WTO are not democratic legitimate, according to the conditions elaborated in the key concept, strongly indicates that todays world does not have democratic legitimacy at a supranational level. Dahl puts it this way International decisionmaking will never be democratic (Dahl, 1999: 22). However, it might not be desirable to have a democratic legitimacy at a supranational level. With regards to check and balances, which secure that power is exercised according to formal rules and public consent through representation, the US political system has a higher democratic 7 P a g e

9 legitimacy than the European Union. The political system in US has representative officials in both champers of the legislative branch and in the executive branch. This gives the legislative branch and executive branch the option to work against each other and thereby create a government gridlock and as a result, paralysing the decision-making process (Heywood 2013: 266). The inefficiency of the US government due to gridlock, was seen in the fall of 2013, where the US experienced a government shutdown, because the republicans and democrats was not able to reach an agreement in congress (Lawrey 2013). From efficiency point of it is not clearly desirable to have high democratic legitimacy. Even though UN was not characterized as democratic legitimate, gridlock often happen in the Security Council. One of the latest examples is Syrian civil war where the world is passively watching genocide made by Bashar Al-Assad s regime, because the permanent members of the Security Council are paralysing the decision-making by their veto privilege (Held & Hale 2013). If more countries were in position of power and the ability to paralyse the decision-making process, there is a risk that UN would collapse due to its inefficiency. With the Treaty of Nice in 2011, qualified majority voting was implemented in the European Council of Ministers. A report made in 2013 by Simon Hix and Christophe Crombez, found that after qualified majority voting was introduced in the Council, the legislative activities grew significant and the gridlock intervals were lowered (Hix & Crombez 2013). However qualified majority voting will in some cases, reduce the Council s degree of consent and reduce the shared belief between the citizens and thereby the democratic legitimacy. With the three examples in mind, this assignment argues that it is not unconditionally desirable for organizations at a supranational level to strive for a high degree of democratic legitimacy, because it can reduce the decision-making effectiveness, increase governmental inefficiency and create gridlock as seen in political system in US. 8 P a g e

10 5.0 Conclusion The assignment has investigated if the European Union, as a governing institution, can be characterized as a democratic legitimate governing institution, according to Beetham s theory of legitimacy and Robert Dahl s democratic principles of effective participation and information accessibility. The assignment found that the European Union is not democratic legitimate. The first condition, which required that power must be exercised according to both informal and formal rules, where information about the decision-making process is accessible for the citizens, is violated by the secrecy of expert groups, low media coverage of the European Union and the lobbyist role in the law initiative process. The second condition, which required shared belief between the government and the citizens, is not fulfilled because the European Parliament is the only body of the European Union where representation exits. The third condition which required that the authority must receive consent from the citizens in shape of voting and political participation is undermined by the low voter turnout at the European Parliament elections. Furthermore, the assignment is arguing that neither UN nor WTO can be characterized as democratic legitimate. This strongly indicates that democratic legitimacy does not exist at a supranational level. Finally, the paper argues that it is not unconditionally desirable for international organizations at a supranational level to strive for democratic legitimacy, because it might undermine their capacity to do decision-making effectively and can create gridlock as seen in the political system in US, in the Security Council of UN and in the European Council of Ministers before qualified majority voting was introduced. 9 P a g e

11 6.0 List of References Beetham, David (1991): The Legitimation of Power, Macmillan Education. Beetham, David and Lord, Christopher (1998): Legitimacy and the European Union, Addison Wesley Longman Ltd. Dahl, Robert (1989): Democracy and its Critics, Yale University Press. Dahl, Robert (1999): Can International Organizations be Democratic? A Sceptic s View, in Democracy s Edges, Cambridge University Press. URL: (First accessed 5 January) EES (2009): European Parliament Election Study 2009, Media Study Data, Advance Release, 31 March URL: (First accessed 4 January 2014) European Election Database (2013): Parliamentary elections and EP elections, URL: (First accessed 4 January 2014 Heywood, Andrew (2013): Politics, Palgrave Macmillan (4th Ed.) Held, D. & Hale, T. (2013): The Syrian Crisis and Gridlock of Global Security Governance, Social Europe Journal, published 28 June URL: (First accessed 5 January 2014) Hix, Simon (2008): The EU as a new political system, in the book Comparative politics, Oxford University Press (1 st ed.) edited by Daniele Caramani: Hix, Simon & Crombez, Christophe (2013): Legislative Activity and Gridlock in the European Union, published 5 May 2013, London School of Economics and Political Science. Lipton, Eric and Hakim, Danny (2013): Lobbying Bonanza as Firms Try to Influence European Union, New York Times, published 18 October Lowrey, Annie (2013): Gridlock Has Cost U.S. Billions, and the Meter Is Still Running, the New York Times, Published 16 October Steffek, Jens (2003): The Legitimation of International Governance: A Discourse Approach, European Journal of International Relations, published by Sage, 1 st June 2003, Vassalos, Yiorgos (2008): Secrecy and corporate dominance a study on the composition and transparency of the European Commission, Alter-EU, URL: (First accessed 4 January 2014) 10 P a g e

The Empowered European Parliament

The Empowered European Parliament The Empowered European Parliament Regional Integration and the EU final exam Kåre Toft-Jensen CPR: XXXXXX - XXXX International Business and Politics Copenhagen Business School 6 th June 2014 Word-count:

More information

What is The European Union?

What is The European Union? The European Union What is The European Union? 28 Shared values: liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law. Member States The world s largest economic body.

More information

Economic Globalization and its link to the. BSc. International Business and Politics

Economic Globalization and its link to the. BSc. International Business and Politics Economic Globalization and its link to the EU integration process Political Science BSc. International Business and Politics Final Exam 2012 2012-12-19 STU counts: 14032 1.1 Introduction After suffering

More information

Globalization and the nation- state

Globalization and the nation- state Introduction Economic globalization is growing rapidly and the national economies are more interconnected and interdependent than ever. Today, 30 % of the world trade is based on transnational corporations

More information

National self-interest remains the most important driver in global politics

National self-interest remains the most important driver in global politics National self-interest remains the most important driver in global politics BSc. International Business and Politics Copenhagen Business School 2014 Political Science Fall 2014 Final Exam 16-17 December

More information

Economics Level 2 Unit Plan Version: 26 June 2009

Economics Level 2 Unit Plan Version: 26 June 2009 Economic Advantages of the European Union An Inquiry into Economic Growth and Trade Relationships for European Union Member States Resources 1. A brief history Post-World War II Europe In 1945, a great

More information

List of topics for papers

List of topics for papers General information List of topics for papers The paper has to consist of 5 000-6 000 words (including footnotes). Please consider the formatting requirements. The deadline for submission will generally

More information

The 2014 elections to the European Parliament: towards truly European elections?

The 2014 elections to the European Parliament: towards truly European elections? ARI ARI 17/2014 19 March 2014 The 2014 elections to the European Parliament: towards truly European elections? Daniel Ruiz de Garibay PhD candidate at the Department of Politics and International Relations

More information

EU Main economic achievements. Franco Praussello University of Genoa

EU Main economic achievements. Franco Praussello University of Genoa EU Main economic achievements Franco Praussello University of Genoa 1 EU: the early economic steps 1950 9 May Robert Schuman declaration based on the ideas of Jean Monnet. He proposes that France and the

More information

From Europe to the Euro

From Europe to the Euro From Europe to the Euro 2012 Euro Challenge Student Orientation Florida International University December 6 th, 2011 Kasper Zeuthen Delegation of the European Union Washington, DC www.euro-challenge.org

More information

Evolution of the European Union, the euro and the Eurozone Sovereign Debt Crisis

Evolution of the European Union, the euro and the Eurozone Sovereign Debt Crisis Evolution of the European Union, the euro and the Eurozone Sovereign Debt Crisis Brexit? Dr. Julian Gaspar, Executive Director Center for International Business Studies & Clinical Professor of International

More information

The European Parliament Campaign

The European Parliament Campaign FIFTH FRAMEWORK RESEARCH PROGRAMME (1998-2002) Democratic Participation and Political Communication in Systems of Multi-level Governance The European Parliament Campaign Fredrik Langdal Swedish Institute

More information

EUROPEAN UNION CURRENCY/MONEY

EUROPEAN UNION CURRENCY/MONEY EUROPEAN UNION S6E8 ANALYZE THE BENEFITS OF AND BARRIERS TO VOLUNTARY TRADE IN EUROPE D. DESCRIBE THE PURPOSE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEMBER NATIONS. VOCABULARY European Union

More information

A state- centric approach is best able to explain the dynamics in and of the international system. Discuss.

A state- centric approach is best able to explain the dynamics in and of the international system. Discuss. A state- centric approach is best able to explain the dynamics in and of the international system. Discuss. Paper: Political Science Final Name: CPR no.: Name of programme: International Business & Politics

More information

Question 1: How rising nationalism increases the relevance of. state- centric realist theory. Political Science - Final exam - 22/12/2016

Question 1: How rising nationalism increases the relevance of. state- centric realist theory. Political Science - Final exam - 22/12/2016 Question 1: How rising nationalism increases the relevance of state- centric realist theory Political Science - Final exam - 22/12/2016 International Business and Politics, Copenhagen Business School 2016

More information

From Europe to the Euro. Delegation of the European Union to the United States

From Europe to the Euro. Delegation of the European Union to the United States From Europe to the Euro Delegation of the European Union to the United States www.euro-challenge.org What is the European Union? A unique institution Member States voluntarily cede national sovereignty

More information

Brexit. Alan V. Deardorff University of Michigan. For presentation at Adult Learning Institute April 11,

Brexit. Alan V. Deardorff University of Michigan. For presentation at Adult Learning Institute April 11, Brexit Alan V. Deardorff University of Michigan For presentation at Adult Learning Institute April 11, 2017 Brexit Defined: The exit of the United Kingdom from the European Union What that actually means

More information

A timeline of the EU. Material(s): Timeline of the EU Worksheet. Source-

A timeline of the EU. Material(s): Timeline of the EU Worksheet. Source- A timeline of the EU Source- http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3583801.stm 1948 Plans for a peaceful Europe In the wake of World War II nationalism is out of favour in large parts of continental Europe

More information

CHAPTER 7: International Organizations and Transnational Actors

CHAPTER 7: International Organizations and Transnational Actors 1. Which human rights NGO publicized the arrest of an outspoken critic of Gaddafi s rule in Libya and later provided much of the information relied upon by international media and governments? a. Medicins

More information

From Europe to the Euro Student Orientations 2014 Euro Challenge

From Europe to the Euro Student Orientations 2014 Euro Challenge From Europe to the Euro Student Orientations 2014 Euro Challenge www.euro-challenge.org 1 What is the European Union? A unique institution Member States voluntarily cede national sovereignty in many areas

More information

Comparative Economic Geography

Comparative Economic Geography Comparative Economic Geography 1 WORLD POPULATION gross world product (GWP) The GWP Global GDP In 2012: GWP totalled approximately US $83.12 trillion in terms of PPP while the per capita GWP was approx.

More information

National Quali cations

National Quali cations H 2017 X758/76/11 National Quali cations Politics FRIDAY, 2 JUNE 1:00 PM 3:15 PM Total marks 60 SECTION 1 POLITICAL THEORY 20 marks Attempt Question 1 and EITHER Question 2(a) OR Question 2(b). SECTION

More information

The rhetoric of the Lisbon treaty, where

The rhetoric of the Lisbon treaty, where The case for pan-european referenda To strengthen the EU s democratic credentials while also ensuring that Europe as a whole can t be held hostage by national plebiscites, Richard Rose puts the arguments

More information

TESTOF KNOWLEDGE ACQUIRED

TESTOF KNOWLEDGE ACQUIRED TESTOF KNOWLEDGE ACQUIRED HISTORY 1. In 1952 six EUROPEAN countries met in Paris to sign The Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). It can be considered) the treaty starting

More information

From a continent of war to one of and prosperity

From a continent of war to one of and prosperity peace From a continent of war to one of and prosperity The European Union was constructed from the devastation of two world wars. Today, after decades of division, both sides of the European continent,

More information

THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND THE EURO. Policy paper Europeum European Policy Forum May 2002

THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND THE EURO. Policy paper Europeum European Policy Forum May 2002 THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND THE EURO Policy paper 1. Introduction: Czech Republic and Euro The analysis of the accession of the Czech Republic to the Eurozone (EMU) will deal above all with two closely interconnected

More information

Ensuring the future of the EU

Ensuring the future of the EU European Office Ensuring the future of the EU VDMA suggestions for reforming the EU Registration number in the register of representative bodies: 976536291-45 January 2017 1. Introduction The EU finds

More information

Danish Politics. Carsten Jensen. Department of Political Science University of Aarhus. Aspects of Denmark: Department of Political Science,

Danish Politics. Carsten Jensen. Department of Political Science University of Aarhus. Aspects of Denmark: Department of Political Science, Aspects of Denmark: Danish Politics Carsten Jensen Department of Political Science, University of Aarhus Slide 1 Topics 1. The basics: The Danish constitution Democracy in Denmark 2. The political parties:

More information

From Europe to the Euro Student Orientations 2013 Euro Challenge

From Europe to the Euro Student Orientations 2013 Euro Challenge From Europe to the Euro Student Orientations 2013 Euro Challenge www.euro-challenge.org 1 What is the European Union? A unique institution Member States voluntarily cede national sovereignty in many areas

More information

Marco Scalvini Book review: the European public sphere and the media: Europe in crisis

Marco Scalvini Book review: the European public sphere and the media: Europe in crisis Marco Scalvini Book review: the European public sphere and the media: Europe in crisis Article (Accepted version) (Refereed) Original citation: Scalvini, Marco (2011) Book review: the European public sphere

More information

EU INSTITUTIONS AND THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS PART ONE

EU INSTITUTIONS AND THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS PART ONE EU INSTITUTIONS AND THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS PART ONE Course Code: Language of Instruction: English Course tutor(s) Dr. Grzegorz POŻARLIK Dr. Grzegorz Pożarlik is senior lecturer and former deputy director

More information

FACULTY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. Master Thesis,,THE EUROPEAN UNION S ENLARGEMENT POLICY SINCE ITS CREATION CHAELLENGES AND ACHIEVEMENTS

FACULTY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. Master Thesis,,THE EUROPEAN UNION S ENLARGEMENT POLICY SINCE ITS CREATION CHAELLENGES AND ACHIEVEMENTS FACULTY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Master Thesis,,THE EUROPEAN UNION S ENLARGEMENT POLICY SINCE ITS CREATION CHAELLENGES AND ACHIEVEMENTS Mentor: Prof.ass.Dr. Dashnim ISMAJLI Candidate: Fatmire ZEQIRI Prishtinë,

More information

Regional Economic Integration : the European Union Process.

Regional Economic Integration : the European Union Process. INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS Regional Economic Integration : the European Union Process. IAE - Paris, April 21 st 2015 Marie-Christine HENRIOT 1 INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS United in diversity 2 INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

More information

N o t e. The Treaty of Lisbon: Ratification requirements and present situation in the Member States

N o t e. The Treaty of Lisbon: Ratification requirements and present situation in the Member States DIRECTORATE-GENERAL FOR INTERNAL POLICIES POLICY DEPARTMENT C CITIZENS' RIGHTS AND CONSTITUTIONAL AFFAIRS 16 January 2008 N o t e The Treaty of Lisbon: Ratification requirements and present situation in

More information

The EU debate #1: Identity

The EU debate #1: Identity The EU debate #1: Identity Q: Britain is a European nation. A: Geography has given Britain a shared cultural history with continental Europe. From the Roman Empire, to the Renaissance, and now through

More information

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY Department of Politics. V COMPARATIVE POLITICS Spring Michael Laver Tel:

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY Department of Politics. V COMPARATIVE POLITICS Spring Michael Laver Tel: NEW YORK UNIVERSITY Department of Politics V52.0500 COMPARATIVE POLITICS Spring 2007 Michael Laver Tel: 212-998-8534 Email: ml127@nyu.edu COURSE OBJECTIVES We study politics in a comparative context to

More information

EU East-West tensions a marriage of convenience?

EU East-West tensions a marriage of convenience? EU East-West tensions a marriage of convenience? March 25th, 2018 Frank Lünemann Senior Research Fellow, Europe Programme frank.lunemann@cgsrs.org Centre for Geopolitics & Security in Realism Studies 20-22

More information

Flash Eurobarometer 431. Report. Electoral Rights

Flash Eurobarometer 431. Report. Electoral Rights Electoral Rights Survey requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Justice and Consumers and co-ordinated by the Directorate-General for Communication This document does not represent

More information

Building on Global Europe: The Future EU Trade Agenda

Building on Global Europe: The Future EU Trade Agenda Karel De Gucht European Commissioner for Trade Building on Global Europe: The Future EU Trade Agenda House of German Industries Berlin, 15 April 2010 Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen. It is a pleasure

More information

CEEP CONTRIBUTION TO THE UPCOMING WHITE PAPER ON THE FUTURE OF THE EU

CEEP CONTRIBUTION TO THE UPCOMING WHITE PAPER ON THE FUTURE OF THE EU CEEP CONTRIBUTION TO THE UPCOMING WHITE PAPER ON THE FUTURE OF THE EU WHERE DOES THE EUROPEAN PROJECT STAND? 1. Nowadays, the future is happening faster than ever, bringing new opportunities and challenging

More information

The EU and its democratic deficit: problems and (possible) solutions

The EU and its democratic deficit: problems and (possible) solutions European View (2012) 11:63 70 DOI 10.1007/s12290-012-0213-7 ARTICLE The EU and its democratic deficit: problems and (possible) solutions Lucia Vesnic-Alujevic Rodrigo Castro Nacarino Published online:

More information

EUROBAROMETER 62 PUBLIC OPINION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

EUROBAROMETER 62 PUBLIC OPINION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION Standard Eurobarometer European Commission EUROBAROMETER 62 PUBLIC OPINION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AUTUMN 2004 NATIONAL REPORT Standard Eurobarometer 62 / Autumn 2004 TNS Opinion & Social IRELAND The survey

More information

OLLI 2012 Europe s Destiny Session II Integration and Recovery Transformative innovation or Power Play with a little help from our friends?

OLLI 2012 Europe s Destiny Session II Integration and Recovery Transformative innovation or Power Play with a little help from our friends? OLLI 2012 Europe s Destiny Session II Integration and Recovery Transformative innovation or Power Play with a little help from our friends? Treaties The European Union? Power Today s Menu Myth or Reality?

More information

The European Union: Politics and Political Economy (PS 338)

The European Union: Politics and Political Economy (PS 338) The European Union: Politics and Political Economy (PS 338) Fall 2006 Professor Nils Ringe TR 2:30-3:45 pm Office: 201B North Hall 1325 Computer Science & Statistics Office Hours: TR, 11:30-12:30 Email:

More information

EU into the Future: Swedish Voices on EU Information, Enlargement and the EU s Future Political Direction

EU into the Future: Swedish Voices on EU Information, Enlargement and the EU s Future Political Direction EUROBAROMETER SPECIAL BUREAUX (2002) EU into the Future: Swedish Voices on EU Information, Enlargement and the EU s Future Political Direction Survey carried out for the European Commission s Representation

More information

Regional Cooperation and Integration

Regional Cooperation and Integration Regional Cooperation and Integration Min Shu Waseda University 2018/6/19 International Political Economy 1 Term Essay: analyze one of the five news articles in 2,000~2,500 English words Final version of

More information

Autumn 2018 Standard Eurobarometer: Positive image of the EU prevails ahead of the European elections

Autumn 2018 Standard Eurobarometer: Positive image of the EU prevails ahead of the European elections European Commission - Press release Autumn 2018 Standard Eurobarometer: Positive image of the EU prevails ahead of the European elections Brussels, 21 December 2018 According to a new Eurobarometer survey

More information

Comparing European Democracies

Comparing European Democracies Winter Semester 2018/2019 Tuesday, 12:00-13:30 (Seminargebäude, 106 Seminarraum S11) Prof. Sven-Oliver Proksch Cologne Center for Comparative Politics (CCCP) E-mail: so.proksch@uni-koeln.de Office Hours:

More information

Message by the Head of Delegation

Message by the Head of Delegation Message by the Head of Delegation The Delegation of the European Union in Riyadh, which is accredited to Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman and Qatar, is Europe s diplomatic mission to the region. It

More information

Political Science Final Exam -

Political Science Final Exam - PoliticalScienceFinalExam2013 Political Science Final Exam - International and domestic political power Emilie Christine Jaillot 1 PoliticalScienceFinalExam2013 Table of Contents 1 Introduction 1-2 International

More information

ISC340: An Introduction to the European Union Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday

ISC340: An Introduction to the European Union Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday ISC340: An Introduction to the European Union Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday Harris Mylonas E- mail: harris.mylonas@gmail.com Homepage: http://home.gwu.edu/~mylonas Office hours: By appointment

More information

POLICYBRIEF EUROPEAN. Searching for EMU reform consensus INTRODUCTION

POLICYBRIEF EUROPEAN. Searching for EMU reform consensus INTRODUCTION EUROPEAN POLICYBRIEF Searching for EMU reform consensus New data on member states preferences confirm a North-South divide on various aspects of EMU reform. This implies that the more politically feasible

More information

Bachelorproject 2 The Complexity of Compliance: Why do member states fail to comply with EU directives?

Bachelorproject 2 The Complexity of Compliance: Why do member states fail to comply with EU directives? Bachelorproject 2 The Complexity of Compliance: Why do member states fail to comply with EU directives? Authors: Garth Vissers & Simone Zwiers University of Utrecht, 2009 Introduction The European Union

More information

Capitalizing on Global and Regional Integration. Chapter 8

Capitalizing on Global and Regional Integration. Chapter 8 Capitalizing on Global and Regional Integration Chapter 8 Objectives Importance of economic integration Global integration Regional integration Regional organizations of interest Implications for action

More information

The Constitutional Principle of Government by People: Stability and Dynamism

The Constitutional Principle of Government by People: Stability and Dynamism The Constitutional Principle of Government by People: Stability and Dynamism Sergey Sergeyevich Zenin Candidate of Legal Sciences, Associate Professor, Constitutional and Municipal Law Department Kutafin

More information

PS489: Federalizing Europe? Structure and Behavior in Contemporary European Politics

PS489: Federalizing Europe? Structure and Behavior in Contemporary European Politics PS489: Federalizing Europe? Structure and Behavior in Contemporary European Politics Time: M, W 4-5:30 Room: G168 Angel Hall Office: ISR (426 Thompson St.), Room 4271 Office Hours: Tuesday, 2-4 or by appointment

More information

From Europe to the Euro

From Europe to the Euro From Europe to the Euro Presentation ti by Eva Horelová Deputy Spokesperson, Deputy Head of Press and Public Diplomacy Delegation of the European Union to the United States Florida Student Orientation,

More information

WORKING PAPER. Lower Voter Turnouts in Europe: Does it really matter?

WORKING PAPER. Lower Voter Turnouts in Europe: Does it really matter? WORKING PAPER Lower Voter Turnouts in Europe: Does it really matter? Yalcin Diker yalcin_diker@carleton.ca Dec 10, 2014 Lower Voter Turnouts in Europe: Does it really matter? Introduction Elections are

More information

Democracy, Sovereignty and Security in Europe

Democracy, Sovereignty and Security in Europe Democracy, Sovereignty and Security in Europe Theme 2 Information document prepared by Mr Mogens Lykketoft Speaker of the Folketinget, Denmark Theme 2 Democracy, Sovereignty and Security in Europe The

More information

Political Participation under Democracy

Political Participation under Democracy Political Participation under Democracy Daniel Justin Kleinschmidt Cpr. Nr.: POL-PST.XB December 19 th, 2012 Political Science, Bsc. Semester 1 International Business & Politics Question: 2 Total Number

More information

Civic Participation of immigrants in Europe POLITIS key ideas and results

Civic Participation of immigrants in Europe POLITIS key ideas and results Civic Participation of immigrants in Europe POLITIS key ideas and results European Parliament, 16 May 2007 POLITIS: Building Europe with New Citizens? An inquiry into civic participation of naturalized

More information

EUROBAROMETER 72 PUBLIC OPINION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

EUROBAROMETER 72 PUBLIC OPINION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION Standard Eurobarometer European Commission EUROBAROMETER 72 PUBLIC OPINION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AUTUMN 2009 COUNTRY REPORT SUMMARY Standard Eurobarometer 72 / Autumn 2009 TNS Opinion & Social 09 TNS Opinion

More information

Lectures on European Integration History. G. Di Bartolomeo

Lectures on European Integration History. G. Di Bartolomeo Lectures on European Integration History G. Di Bartolomeo Early post war period: War ruins Early post war period: War ruins Early Post War Period: The horrors of the war The economic set-back effect of

More information

Christian KEUSCHNIGG. Europe after Brexit

Christian KEUSCHNIGG. Europe after Brexit Christian KEUSCHNIGG Europe after Brexit Executive MBL-HSG & HSG Alumni, Zürich, 13. September 2016 Wirtschaftspolitisches Zentrum Wien St. Gallen www.wpz-fgn.com, office@wpz-fgn.com Plan of Talk Brexit

More information

EUROBAROMETER 71 PUBLIC OPINION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION SPRING

EUROBAROMETER 71 PUBLIC OPINION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION SPRING Standard Eurobarometer European Commission EUROBAROMETER 71 PUBLIC OPINION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION SPRING 2009 Standard Eurobarometer 71 / SPRING 2009 TNS Opinion & Social Standard Eurobarometer NATIONAL

More information

International Summer Program

International Summer Program page 1 International Summer Program 1 July 2010 page 2 Agenda European Union Introduction EU EU History EU Institutions EU (Monetary) Integration: Advantages/Problems Conclusion 1 page 3 CIA - The World

More information

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY Department of Politics V COMPARATIVE POLITICS Spring Michael Laver. Tel:

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY Department of Politics V COMPARATIVE POLITICS Spring Michael Laver. Tel: NEW YORK UNIVERSITY Department of Politics V52.0510 COMPARATIVE POLITICS Spring 2006 Michael Laver Tel: 212-998-8534 Email: ml127@nyu.edu COURSE OBJECTIVES The central reason for the comparative study

More information

History Over the past decades, US relations have been mostly positive either with the EU and its predecessors or the individual countries of western E

History Over the past decades, US relations have been mostly positive either with the EU and its predecessors or the individual countries of western E US EU Relations: redefining win-win By Frank Owarish, Ph.D., International Business, Ph.D., Computer Science, Executive Director International Institute for Strategic Research and Training (think tank)

More information

HOW TO NEGOTIATE WITH THE EU? THEORIES AND PRACTICE

HOW TO NEGOTIATE WITH THE EU? THEORIES AND PRACTICE HOW TO NEGOTIATE WITH THE EU? THEORIES AND PRACTICE In the European Union, negotiation is a built-in and indispensable dimension of the decision-making process. There are written rules, unique moves, clearly

More information

The European Union in a Global Context

The European Union in a Global Context The European Union in a Global Context A world player World EU Population 6.6 billion 490 million http://europa.eu/abc/index_en.htm Land mass 148,940,000 000 sq.km. 3,860,137 sq.km. GDP (2006) $65 trillion

More information

EUROBAROMETER 61 PUBLIC OPINION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION NATIONAL REPORT

EUROBAROMETER 61 PUBLIC OPINION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION NATIONAL REPORT Standard Eurobarometer European Commission EUROBAROMETER 61 PUBLIC OPINION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION SPRING 2004 Standard Eurobarometer 61 / Spring 2004 - European Opinion Research Group EEIG NATIONAL REPORT

More information

ATTITUDES TOWARDS EU INTEGRATION AND EURO ADOPTION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

ATTITUDES TOWARDS EU INTEGRATION AND EURO ADOPTION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC 93 Čábelková, I., Mitsche, N., Strielkowski, W. (2015), Attitudes Towards EU Integration and Euro Adoption in the Czech Republic, Economics and Sociology, Vol. 8, No 2, pp. 93-101. DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X.2015/8-2/7

More information

East-West and North-South: Northern Ireland s relationship with the UK and Ireland

East-West and North-South: Northern Ireland s relationship with the UK and Ireland East-West and North-South: Northern Ireland s relationship with the UK and Ireland Professor Tom Mullen School of Law 21 st June 2017 Outline of presentation 1 The basic question 2 The changing context

More information

A HISTORY of INTEGRATION in EUROPE

A HISTORY of INTEGRATION in EUROPE A HISTORY of INTEGRATION in EUROPE FROM COAL AND STEEL TO MONETARY UNION Timothy Hellwig Assistant Professor Department of Political Science Indiana University Bloomington History of European Integration

More information

Baseline study on EU New Member States Level of Integration and Engagement in EU Decision- Making

Baseline study on EU New Member States Level of Integration and Engagement in EU Decision- Making Key findings: The New Member States are more optimistic about the EU, while the Old Member States are more engaged in EU matters. Out of 4 NMS Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Latvia, Poland the citizens of Bulgaria

More information

INTERNAL SECURITY. Publication: November 2011

INTERNAL SECURITY. Publication: November 2011 Special Eurobarometer 371 European Commission INTERNAL SECURITY REPORT Special Eurobarometer 371 / Wave TNS opinion & social Fieldwork: June 2011 Publication: November 2011 This survey has been requested

More information

European and External Relations Committee. The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) STUC

European and External Relations Committee. The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) STUC European and External Relations Committee The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) 1 Introduction STUC The STUC welcomes this opportunity to provide written evidence to the Committee in

More information

European Parliament Eurobarometer (EB79.5) ONE YEAR TO GO UNTIL THE 2014 EUROPEAN ELECTIONS Institutional Part ANALYTICAL OVERVIEW

European Parliament Eurobarometer (EB79.5) ONE YEAR TO GO UNTIL THE 2014 EUROPEAN ELECTIONS Institutional Part ANALYTICAL OVERVIEW Directorate-General for Communication Public Opinion Monitoring Unit Brussels, 21 August 2013. European Parliament Eurobarometer (EB79.5) ONE YEAR TO GO UNTIL THE 2014 EUROPEAN ELECTIONS Institutional

More information

The final exam will be closed-book.

The final exam will be closed-book. Class title The Government and Politics of Britain Course number (s) POLS 34440 Semester Spring 2014 Teacher(s) Points of contact Professor Richard Heffernan Email: r.a.heffernan@open.ac.uk Course Overview:

More information

EUROBAROMETER The European Union today and tomorrow. Fieldwork: October - November 2008 Publication: June 2010

EUROBAROMETER The European Union today and tomorrow. Fieldwork: October - November 2008 Publication: June 2010 EUROBAROMETER 66 Standard Eurobarometer Report European Commission EUROBAROMETER 70 3. The European Union today and tomorrow Fieldwork: October - November 2008 Publication: June 2010 Standard Eurobarometer

More information

Denmark: Uniting local and European perspectives

Denmark: Uniting local and European perspectives FIFTH FRAMEWORK RESEARCH PROGRAMME (1998-2002) Democratic Participation and Political Communication in Systems of Multi-level Governance Denmark: Uniting local and European perspectives Palle Svensson

More information

Overview and Objectives

Overview and Objectives STV 4030B European Union: Government, Politics, and Policies Spring 2012 Instructor: Prof. Bjørn Høyland Time and Location: Tuesdays and Thursdays 12:15-14:00, Room 847 Email: bjorn.hoyland@stv.uio.no

More information

Political Institutions and Policy-Making in the European Union. Fall 2007 Political Science 603

Political Institutions and Policy-Making in the European Union. Fall 2007 Political Science 603 Political Institutions and Policy-Making in the European Union Fall 2007 Political Science 603 Helen Callaghan & Anne Rasmussen helen.callaghan@eui.eu anne.rasmussen@eui.eu Class meetings: Thursdays, 10

More information

Directorate General for Communication Direction C - Relations avec les citoyens PUBLIC OPINION MONITORING UNIT 27 March 2009

Directorate General for Communication Direction C - Relations avec les citoyens PUBLIC OPINION MONITORING UNIT 27 March 2009 Directorate General for Communication Direction C - Relations avec les citoyens PUBLIC OPINION MONITORING UNIT 27 March 2009 EUROPEANS AND THE ECONOMIC CRISIS Standard Eurobarometer (EB 71) Population:

More information

Running Head: DIRECTIVE (FICTITIOUS) OF EU

Running Head: DIRECTIVE (FICTITIOUS) OF EU 1 Running Head: DIRECTIVE (FICTITIOUS) OF EU Your topic: In 2009, the EU enacted a directive (fictitious) which required that Member States statutory provisions for state benefits be applied to all EU

More information

The Commission ceased to play a pivotal role since the time of Jacques Delors.

The Commission ceased to play a pivotal role since the time of Jacques Delors. Dr. Ulrike Guerot DGAP Political Leadership for the European Union When we talk about political leadership in the EU, we first have to define what the concept means. To be effective, leadership requires:

More information

International Summer Program June 26 th to July 17 th, 2006

International Summer Program June 26 th to July 17 th, 2006 International Summer Program June 26 th to July 17 th, 2006 Economic Integration By Matthias Kirbach Main elements of this session What is economic integration? Why should we be interested in the process

More information

We all love ourselves Why national self-interest remains the main driver of global politics

We all love ourselves Why national self-interest remains the main driver of global politics We all love ourselves Why national self-interest remains the main driver of global politics Author: Anonymous CPR: XXXXXX-XXXX Study programme: B.Sc. International Business and Politics Course: Political

More information

What happens next? Legal Consequences of Brexit FABIAN AMTENBRINK ANASTASIA KARATZIA RENÉ REPASI

What happens next? Legal Consequences of Brexit FABIAN AMTENBRINK ANASTASIA KARATZIA RENÉ REPASI REFERENDUM IN THE UNITED KINGDOM TO LEAVE THE EUROPEAN UNION European Research Centre for Economic and Financial Governance euro-cefg.eu What happens next? Legal Consequences of Brexit FABIAN AMTENBRINK

More information

The European Elections Studies: Objectives and Accomplishments

The European Elections Studies: Objectives and Accomplishments The European Elections Studies: Objectives and Accomplishments Mark N. Franklin Stein Rokkan Professor of Comparative Politics European University Institute, Fiesole, near Florence, Italy APSA Short Course,

More information

1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework & Key Concepts

1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework & Key Concepts Analyse the salient points of the Services (Bolkenstein) Directive (2006) and the reactions to the original Commission proposal by the main political and social actors. Is there a theory that can explain

More information

THE EUROPEAN UNION CLIL MATERIA:GEOGRAFIA CLASSE: SECONDA SCUOLA: I.C.COMO-LORA-LIPOMO AUTORI: CRISTINA FONTANA, ANGELA RENZI, STEFANIA POGGIO

THE EUROPEAN UNION CLIL MATERIA:GEOGRAFIA CLASSE: SECONDA SCUOLA: I.C.COMO-LORA-LIPOMO AUTORI: CRISTINA FONTANA, ANGELA RENZI, STEFANIA POGGIO THE EUROPEAN UNION CLIL MATERIA:GEOGRAFIA CLASSE: SECONDA SCUOLA: I.C.COMO-LORA-LIPOMO AUTORI: CRISTINA FONTANA, ANGELA RENZI, STEFANIA POGGIO WHAT FLAG IS THIS? THE EUROPEAN UNION, E.U How many stars

More information

Italian Report / Executive Summary

Italian Report / Executive Summary EUROBAROMETER SPECIAL BUREAUX (2002) Italian Report / Executive Summary Survey carried out for the European Commission s Representation in ITALY «This document does not reflect the views of the European

More information

QUO VADIS EUROPEAN UNION?

QUO VADIS EUROPEAN UNION? EVALUATION NOTE April2010 N201010 tepav Economic Policy Research Foundation of Turkey Nilgün ARISAN ERALP 1 Director, TEPAV European Union Institute The challenging process European Union has been going

More information

Cambridge Model United Nations 2018 WTO: The Question of Free Trade Agreements in a Changing World

Cambridge Model United Nations 2018 WTO: The Question of Free Trade Agreements in a Changing World 1 Study Guide: The Question of Free Trade Agreements in a Changing World Committee: World Trade Organisation Topic: The Question of Free Trade Agreements in a Changing World Introduction: The WTO aims

More information

The European Citizens Initiative: A Solution to the Democratic Deficit? Erik E. Chömpff. Leiden University

The European Citizens Initiative: A Solution to the Democratic Deficit? Erik E. Chömpff. Leiden University The European Citizens Initiative: A Solution to the Democratic Deficit? Erik E. Chömpff Leiden University Public Administration: International and European Governance Master Thesis Date: 29.06.2016 Supervisor:

More information

The big question we are trying to answer is What has the European Project tried to do to make Europe more stable?

The big question we are trying to answer is What has the European Project tried to do to make Europe more stable? The big question we are trying to answer is What has the European Project tried to do to make Europe more stable? More stable? less war less unrest no revolutions less economic problems more cooperation

More information

1 Rethinking EUROPE and the EU. By Bruno Amoroso

1 Rethinking EUROPE and the EU. By Bruno Amoroso 1 Rethinking EUROPE and the EU. By Bruno Amoroso The questions posed to us by Antonio Lettieri do not concern matters of policy adjustment or budget imbalances, but the very core problems of the EU`s goals

More information

York University Department of Political Science. Course: AS/POLS (Section A) Governing the New Europe Thursday 11:30am - 2:30pm Ross N146

York University Department of Political Science. Course: AS/POLS (Section A) Governing the New Europe Thursday 11:30am - 2:30pm Ross N146 York University Department of Political Science Course: AS/POLS 3520 3.0 (Section A) Governing the New Europe Thursday 11:30am - 2:30pm Ross N146 Prof: Heather MacRae Office: Kaneff Tower 710 Email: hmacrae@yorku.ca

More information