Post War Politics and the beginning of the Cold War and the East-West split. Morgan Fleming Mr. Beck IB History of the Americas February 15, 2017

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1 VIDEO STALIN POLICY

2 Post War Politics and the beginning of the Cold War and the East-West split Morgan Fleming Mr. Beck IB History of the Americas February 15, 2017

3 Ending of WWII

4 - WWII September 1, September 2, Locations: Europe, Pacific, Atlantic, SouthEast Asia, China, Middle East, Mediterranean and Northern Africa - -Generals/Commanders: Allies Joseph Stalin, F.D.R., Winston Churchill, Chiang Kai-shek and Charles de Gaulle - -Axis: Adolf Hitler, Hirohito, and Benito Mussolini Casualties: Allies (over 60 million dead) Axis (over 12 million dead)

5 The Surrender of Germany

6 In the spring of 1945, the Soviets were approaching the German capital (Berlin) from the east and the Western Allies were approaching from the west. Understanding that they would be defeated Hitler committed suicide leaving Karl Donitz to carry out the surrender of the Nazis. A week after Hitler committed suicide, Germany surrendered. A crowd gathers in Times Square celebrating with a newspaper announcing the surrender of Germany. The surrender was made official on May 8 which was declared Victory-in-Europe (V-E) Day (which is still celebrated as a public holiday in some countries)

7 A sailor kisses a nurse passionately in Manhattan's Times Square as New York City celebrates the surrender of Japan on August 14, Kissing strangers was a common elated reaction to the news in Times Square.

8 After WWII Ended After WWII, Europe was divided between its Democratic West and Soviet Union-controlled East West- Looked to halt the spread of communism and the growing power of the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) East- Dominated by USSR and Stalin diplomacy; spread of Communism United States looked to monitor and limit the expansion of the Soviet Union as well as its communist ideology Growing fear of the Soviet Union

9 Yalta and Potsdam Conference The Yalta Conference was a meeting of British Prime minister (Winston Churchill & Soviet Premier (Joseph Stalin) and President (Franklin D. Roosevelt) -Early February 1945 as WWII was coming to an end (This was the second wartime meeting of the three leaders) -They agreed to demand Germany s unconditional surrender and began plans for a post-war world Three Leaders -Stalin agreed to permit free elections in Eastern Europe and to enter the Asian war against Japan

10 Cont. - This meant they promised to return lands lost to Japan in the Russian - Japanese War of Almost of these agreements were kept secret - Stalin broke his promise of free elections in Eastern Europe and installed governments dominated by the Soviet Union - Many believed that Roosevelt had sold out to yalta and the Soviets

11 Cont. - The three leaders also agreed that Germany should assume some, but not all responsibility for reparations following the war - France was also to govern Germany in the postwar - The Americans and the British generally agreed that future governments of the Eastern European nations bordering the Soviet Union should be friendly to the Soviet regime - Declaration on Poland provided inclusion of Communists in the postwar national Government

12 In the end... - The death of F.D.R. harry S. Truman became the 33rd President - By the end of April the new administration with the Soviets crashed over their influence in Eastern Europe and over the United Nations - Many Americans criticized Roosevelt s handling of the Yalta negotiations - Many blame him for handing over Eastern Europe and Northeast Asia to the Soviet Union at Yalta

13 Potsdam Conference with Truman and Stalin -President Truman informed Stalin that the U.S. had successfully indicated the first atomic bomb on July 16, The leaders of the U.S., Great Britain and the Soviet Union remained allies throughout the war, but didn t meet again to discuss postwar reconstruction Potsdam Conference From July 17 to August 2, 1945 in Potsdam Germany to negotiate terms for the end of WWII -Once again, the Three Leaders - After the Yalta Conference they had agreed to meet following the surrender of Germany and determine the postwar borders in Europe -Germany surrendered on May 8, 1945 and the Allied leaders agreed to meet over the summer at Potsdam

14 Post War Views

15 FDR In Office st term: ( ): 1st and 2nd New deal 2nd term: ( ): March of dimes and pre war policy 3rd term: ( ): Attack on pearl harbor, WWII Tehran conference, united nations, D-day, GI bill 4th term: (1945): Yalta conference, declining health and death Initial reaction to the Yalta agreements was celebratory u Roosevelt and many other Americans viewed it as proof that the spirit of U.S.- Soviet wartime cooperation would carry over into the postwar period

16 Stalin Like other leaders was suspicious of the former allies intentions Tightened domestic control justified repression by the fear of war with the West People who were abroad during WWII were executed or sent to prison camps Wanted to expand into neighboring European countries Used aggressive policies after World War II - provoking strong Western reaction

17 Churchill 5 years as prime minister Thought voters would be loyal Lost in 1945 right man for war wrong man for peace Lost his job and his way of life Became homeless Cut off from the veins of power Faced politics like he faced the war head on

18 DeGaulle Bitter for not being invited to conferences at Potsdam and Yalta Wanted France to return to its former glory and power - became obsessed 1944: de Gaulle s provisional government took over liberated France primary accomplishment: building morale Resigned in because of a political dispute u De Gaulle wanted a strong presidency independent from the general assembly A stronger general assembly won u attempted a comeback in 1947 but was never able to achieve the majority he needed

19 Churchill Announcing the end of WWII in Europe

20 FDR to Truman

21 FDR s Last Days The war caused stress and strain that wore Roosevelt out. In 1944 a full medical exam showed serious heart and circulatory problems His physicians placed him on a strict diet and medication, But the pressures of war and domestic politics weighed heavily on him On April 12, 1945, during a vacation at Warm Springs, Georgia, he suffered a massive stroke and died two and a half hours later (63 years old) He died on the eve of complete military victory in Europe and within months of victory over Japan in the Pacific President Roosevelt was buried in the Rose Garden of his estate at Hyde Park, New York

22 Truman had rather large shoes to fill Truman FDR: 4 terms, the Great Depression and most of World War II Truman, who previously was unaware of the Manhattan project, was also left with the decision of whether or not to continue to develop and, ultimately, use the atomic bomb. Containment policy toward Soviet expansion Marshal plan European Recovery Program: channeled over $13 billion to finance the economic recovery of Europe between

23 NATO Stands for - North Atlantic Treaty Organization Treaty signed on April 4, 1949 Formation was sparked by the Soviet Union s refusal to take part in the Marshall Plan as well as the overthrow of the Czechoslovakian government by the Soviets Need for the organization reached a climax when the Soviet Union cut off ground access to Berlin in June 1948 States that an attack on any one member was an attack on them all Original members: Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the United States

24 NATO and The USSR After the USSR responded to NATO with the Warsaw Pact, NATO had to resort to more aggressive threats Massive Retaliation Doctrine As the Cold War progressed NATO deviated from military defense to monitors of peace and tension between Eastern and Western Europe

25 The Warsaw Pact Treaty signed on May 14, 1955 by the USSR and seven of its aligned countries: Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria Designated control of the armed forces of these countries to the USSR Stated that should one country of the alliance be attacked, it would be seen as an attack on them all Direct rebuttal to the formation of NATO and its allowing West Germany to remilitarize Alliance of friendship Remained intact until 1991

26

27 Stalin Policy Censorship of the media Elimination of oppositions and threats through arrests and executions; rigged elections Free speech was eliminated Stalin s brutality evoked fear; people were afraid to let the world know of his true crimes

28 OPCVL

29 The Iron Curtain The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in A term symbolizing the efforts by the Soviet Union to block itself and its satellite states from open contact with the West and non-soviet-controlled areas.

30 Origin/Purpose Origin - Political cartoon published in 1947 by Jay Ding Darling for the New York Herald Tribune Purpose - To demonstrate how difficult removing the Iron Curtain would be as well as its success in concealing the actions of the Soviet Union from the rest of the world (Hence the women trying to pull up the curtain but struggling and tools along the ground)

31 Value/Limitation Value - The cartoon shows the frustration and fear the Western alliance felt regarding the Soviet Union and its sly actions Limitation - The cartoon is rather simplistic and leaves out the more complex details regarding the subject. It is also swayed to favor only one perspective of the Iron Curtain

32 Works Cited (MLA) " End of World War II." Khan Academy. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Mar "Yalta and Potsdam." Yalta and Potsdam. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Mar "What Is NATO?" What Is NATO? N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Mar "Germany Surrenders Unconditionally to the Allies at Reims." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 24 Mar "Google." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Mar History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 24 Mar Network, The Learning. "May 7, 1945 Nazi Germany Surrenders in World War II." The New York Times. The New York Times, 07 May Web. 24 Mar

33 Works Cited (MLA) "Diplomacy." Simon & Schuster. Simon & Schuster, n.d. Web. 26 Mar The New York Times. The New York Times, n.d. Web. 26 Mar U.S. Department of State. U.S. Department of State, n.d. Web. 26 Mar "Log in." Britannica Packs. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar Potsdam Conference Video: Formation of NATO:

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