The Age of Exploration. The Age of Imperialism. The American Revolution. The Cold War. The Cuban Missile Crisis

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1 The Age of Exploration The time period from the s when many Europeans set sail across the Atlantic because they wanted the 3 Gs: god, glory, and goods. Also, The Age of Discovery. The Age of Imperialism Western civilization reached the high point of its long-standing global expansion. This expansion in this period took many forms. There was, first of all, economic expansion. Europeans invested large sums of money abroad, building railroads and ports, mines and plantations, factories and public utilities. Trade between nations grew greatly and a world economy developed. Between 1750 and 1900 the gap in income disparities between industrialized Europe and America and the rest of the world grew at an astounding rate. The American Revolution A war for independence waged between the 13 American colonies and the mother country- Great Britain. Fought in America between central rule and local self-government revolving around "no taxation with representation." George Washington led his troops and eventually forced the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown with the assistance of the French. The Cold War refers to the period following WWII until the collapse of the Soviet Union in the 1990s.This was a period when much of the world was divided by the communist/non-communist battle for military and political superiority. While the USA and the USSR were unquestionably the world's two superpowers, they avoided direct military conflict. Instead, they sought to bring other countries into their fold. The Cuban Missile Crisis When Kruchev tried to build nuclear bases in Cuba, the two superpowers were brought to the brink of war. This base was just 90 miles away from Florida and was a threat to the US. In 1962, President Kennedy declared a naval blockade of Cuba. In the end, Kruchev agreed to remove the missiles from Cuba.

2 Discovery of the New World Europe's discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus in The leaders of the conquest of the Aztec Empire were Hernán Cortés and Pedro de Alvarado. Francisco Pizarro led the conquest of the Incan Empire. The Enlightenment A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Main Points: Democratic approach to knowledge, education, opinions, Everyone is equal in society (in principle), Science and reasoning should explain the universe. Fall of the Berlin Wall Beginning of the fall of communism and the Soviet Union - symbolized the failure of communism and massive socialism. After years from being separated from the rest of Germany the people of Berlin start to tear down the Berlin Wall which had for the most part of the Cold War completely separated themselves from the rest of the world by the Soviet Union. The city of Berlin was given to the Soviet Union by the Allied Powers at the end of WWII. The French Revolution In 1789, the French Revolution was where the French people rebelled against their King to overthrow him. Afterwards, a republic was started, where revolutionists began to controversially cut the heads off of nobles. The Republican party was formed because of the French Revolution, and brought much inspiration to the U.S. at first. However, this didn't last long, as Federalists became afraid of the possibility of such extremes that were shown in France. The Haitian Revolution Toussaint L'Ouverture, and educated slave on a sugar plantation, forged the rebellious slaves into an army able to defeat British forces seeking to seize the island and then an expedition hoping to reestablish French authority. The slave uprising led to the establishment of Haiti as an independent nation in 1804.

3 Holocaust A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non- Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled during WWII. The Industrial Revolution It began in England from the late 1700's to the middle 1800's when new power driven machines replaced hand tools. Britain innovates mass production of textiles using machines, new energy sources (coal, steam), factories, cheap and urbanized labor, and capital. Technology and transportation (trains, canals) made possible industrial commerce across Europe. Korean War ( ) A conflict between UN forces led primarily US and S Korea (Democracy) against North Korea, and later China (Communist). Resulted in Korea remaining divided at the 38th parallel. The Protestant Reformation 16th century religious movement led by Martin Luther that sought to reform the Roman Catholic Church and led to the formation of Protestantism, Using his 95 Thesis Main Reasons: clerical immorality, ignorance, indulgences, bible translation, and church corruption. The Renaissance "Rebirth" time period from People studied literature from ancient Greece and Rome, paintings, plays, poems, musical compositions, and scientific inventions. Artists and inventors were taking more credit for their work.

4 September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the united states that killed thousands of people at the twin towers and the pentagon The Sinking of the Lusitania a British passenger liner, which was also carrying arms and munitions, that was sunk by a German submarine. More than 1,000 lives were lost, including 139 Americans American protests forced the Germans to temporarily halt unrestricted submarine warfare. Space Race Many scientists and military leaders believed that control of space would be very important. Consequently, the USA and USSR (Soviet Union) invested billions of dollars in developing satellites, space stations, rockets, etc. This investment led to great scientific advances, but also caused hostility and insecurities between the USA and USSR. Sputnik First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race. Vietnam War a prolonged war ( ) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States

5 World War I From this armed conflict was caused by the assassination of the Archduke of Austria-Hungary. The Allies Powers won the conflict, which led to the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in World War II War fought Between Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan) and Allied Powers (U.S., France, U.S.S.R., and U.K.); Single largest war in the history of U.S.; Introduced Age of Nuclear Weapons; New system of international diplomacy developed as a result; 1939 to 1945, but U.S. involved from The Zimmerman Note The German telegram decoded and published in newspapers nationally in March 1917 that suggested that Mexico would be able to reclaim lost territory if it declared war on the United States. It turned the public against Germany, contributing to the idea of the "German menace," which caused the US to enter WWI.

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