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1 BOOK OF ABSTRACT BOOK OF ABSTRACT Compiled by: Nik Nor Suhaida Ali Siti Zubaidah Ismail Laila Suriya Ahmad Apandi

2 Parallel Sessions Schedule Parallel Session 1 Panel 1: International Economic Collaboration/ Public Administration Room: AV 9 Time & Date: a.m. (August 20, 2016) Chairperson: Dr. Laila Suriya Ahmad Apandi, PAPER 1 Malaysia and Its Free Trade Agreements Laila Suriya Ahmad Apandi, Nurhaizal Azam Ariff and Mohd Shariffuddin, Dino Khairri PAPER 2 Attitude Toward Foreign Investment in ASEAN Economic Community/ ASEAN Investment Area: Comparative Study in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam Guido Benny, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia PAPER 3 Articulating the Motions of Reciprocity in China s Trade Relations with United States and European Union Sivasegaran Nadarajan, PAPER 4 Integrity among Royal Malaysia Police Ahmad Shamil Abu Bakar and Mashitah Mohd Udin, PAPER 5 Compiled by: Nik Nor Suhaida Ali Siti Zubaidah Ismail Laila Suriya Ahmad Apandi Administrative Reforms A Malaysian Perspective Mashitah Mohd Udin, Rusdi Omar, Abd. Rahim Romle and Kamarul Zaman Yusoff, 1

3 Panel 2: Cross Culture Studies Room: AV 10 Time & Date: a.m. (August 20, 2016) Chairperson: Dr. Mohd Azwardi Md. Isa, PAPER 1 Masculinity versus Femininity: Its Relationship Towards Conspicious Consumption Behaviour Wan Nurisma Ayu Wan Ismail, Norhayati Zakaria and Asmat Nizam Abdul Talib, PAPER 2 Conceptualization of Influence of Ethnicity in Destination Image Formation and the Choice of Destination Shankar Chelliah, Mohammad Jamal Khan, Mahmood Sabri Haron and Sahrish Ahmed, Universiti Sains Malaysia PAPER 3 The Influence Factors of Consumer Ethnocentrism on Brand Consideration among Government Servant Mohd Azwardi Md. Isa, Fawad Hussain, Fitratul Huda Abdul Rashid and Mohammad Basir Saud, 2

4 Panel 3: Logistics and Supply Chain Room: AV 11 Time & Date: a.m. (August 20, 2016) Chairperson: Dr. Sabariah Yaakub, PAPER 1 Employee s and Manager s Capabilities: The Application of Resource-Based View in Evaluating Malaysian Port Competitiveness Salwani Arbak and Aminurraasyid Yatiban, PAPER 2 Classification and Functions of Third Party Logistics Service Providers: A Literature Review Sabariah Yaakub, 3

5 Parallel Session 2 Panel 1: International Business Strategy Room: AV 9 Time & Date: p.m. (August 20, 2016) Chairperson: Dr. Mohd Haniff Jedin, PAPER 1 Effect of IFRS Adoption and Corporate Governance Practices on Performance: A Study on Listed Companies in Dubai Abbas Alkhuzaie and Noraza Mat Udin, PAPER 2 Assessing the Impact of Product Factors on the Satisfaction of Smartphone Consumers: Evidence from North Malaysia Norsafinas Saad and Faiz Masnan, PAPER 3 The Influence of Service Marketing Mix (7 P) on Customer Service Satisfaction in Malaysia Edutainment Services Mohd Haniff Jedin and Indra Balachandran, PAPER 4 Pengaruh Kemanjuran Diri (Self-Efficacy) Terhadap Tingkah Laku Innovatif di kalangan Pekerja-Pekerja Eksekutif di Syarikat Multinasional Asing Yang Beroperasi Di Malaysia Hartini Husin, Fakhrorazi Ahmad and Nik Ab Halim Nik Abdullah, Universiti Utara Malaysia 4

6 Panel 2: Peace and Conflict Resolution Room: AV 10 Time & Date: p.m. (August 20, 2016) Chairperson: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Fuad Othman, PAPER 1 Anti Terrorism Education: An Effort to Enhance Nationalism and Preserving the Unity of Indonesia Aditya Cleverina and Salieg Munestri, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia PAPER Libyan Uprising and NATO Intervention: A Critical Analysis Basiru Musa, Bayero University Nigeria, Che Mohd Aziz Yaacob and Rusdi Omar, PAPER 3 Ethnicity, Culture and Political Instability in Guinea Conakry Toure Cheick Ahmed Median, Russli Kamaruddin, Sity Daud, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia PAPER 4 Pengurusan Konflik Palestin-Israel: Analisis Perjanjian Damai Rusnawati Ismail, Paper 5 Model Pengurusan Konflik Parti Politik Ke Arah 1Malaysia Muhammad Fuad Othman, Zaheruddin Othman and Mohd Foad Sakdan, Universiti Utara Malaysia PAPER 6 Kepimpinan Politik Pemangkin Kepada Perkongsian Komprehensif Antara Malaysia-Amerika Syarikat Pasca 9/11 Mas Juliana Mukhtaruddin, 5

7 Panel 3: International Entrepreneurship Room: AV 11 Time & Date: p.m. (August 20, 2016) Chairperson: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Asmat Abdul Talib, PAPER 1 A One-To-One Ratio between Family Directors and Independent Directors: A View From Malaysia Public-Listed Family Firms and Its Policy Implication Lynn Yew Hua Ling, Curtin University, Malaysia, John Evans, Curtin University, Australia, and Shibley Sadique, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh PAPER 2 Preferences of Students in Their Buying Decisions of Foreign Products Mohammad Basir Saud, Fawad Hussain,, Khairul Hisham Zainuddin, Kolej Professional MARA Seri Iskandar, Malaysia, and Mohd Azwardi Md Isa, PAPER 3 Entrepreneurial Behavior and Performance: A Study on Students Intention at the School of International Studies, Mohd Najib Mansor, Abdul Rahim Jaguli and Muhammad Fuad Othman, Universiti Utara Malaysia 6

8 Institutional Panel Session: Selected Issues in International Politics Room: AV 15 Time & Date: p.m. (August 20, 2016) Chairperson: Dr. Knocks Tapiwa Zengeni, PAPER 1 Accounting Ethics and Its Impact on Corporate Governance in A Globalizing World Denson Muvandi, University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa PAPER 2 The Ethical Dilemma on the Imposition of Sanctions as a Deterrent Tool Against a Sovereign State: The Case of Zimbabwe Peter Muchakazi, University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, and Michael Tedzani Moyo, National Defence College, Zimbabwe PAPER 3 The United Nations Force Intervention Brigade: Any Need for Synchronized Peace Support Efforts in the Eastern Congo Recurring Conflict? Engelbert Rugeje, University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, and Sadiki Maeresera, Zimbabwe National Defence College s Institute of Strategic Research and Analysis/ University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa PAPER 4 The SADC Intervention in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo Recurring Conflict: Constraints and Prospect Sadiki Maeresera, University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, and Knocks Tapiwa Zengeni, 7

9 Parallel Session 3 Panel 1: Global Business Management Room: AV 9 Time & Date: a.m. (August 21, 2016) Chairperson: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nik Ab Halim Nik Abdullah, PAPER 1 Knowledge Acquisition through Inter-Firm Collaboration and Firm s Innovation Performance Tamma Elhachemi, Abdul Rahim Jaguli and Fakhrorazi Ahmad, PAPER 2 Globalization of Trade Firms: Lessons from ASEAN Firms Mohamad Hanapi Mohamad, PAPER 3 The Impact of Workplace Environment and Workplace Diversity on Employee s Motivation and Firm s Performance: A Study of a MNC Subsidiary in Malaysia Nik Ab Halim Nik Abdullah, Mazatul Nadiah Sahiri and Fakhrorazi Ahmad, Universiti Utara Malaysia PAPER 4 Factors Influencing the Relationship between Malaysia Exporting SMEs and Export Intermediaries Norliza Hamir Basah and Asmat Nizam Abdul Talib, 8

10 Panel 2: Kelantan Flood Disaster Room: AV 10 Time & Date: a.m. (August 21, 2016) Chairperson: Dr. Nazariah Osman, PAPER 1 The Roles and Contributions of the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in the Post-2014 Kelantan Flood Disaster Nazariah Osman, Norafidah Ismail, Mohamad Zaki Ahmad, Mohamad Hanapi Mohamad and Muhammad Fuad Othman, PAPER 2 Kelantan Flood vs. Hurricane Katrina: Home Building for Disaster Victims During Post-Flood Reconstruction Norafidah Ismail and Nazariah Osman, PAPER 3 Post-Hurricane Katrina Disaster Management Regime: Lesson Learned for Malaysia s Post-Flood Reconstruction Initiatives Mohamad Zaki Ahmad and Muhammad Fuad Othman, 9

11 Panel 3: Security Room: AV 11 Time & Date: a.m. (August 21, 2016) Chairperson: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Azizuddin Mohd Sani, PAPER 1 International Organization Against the Islamic State in Iraq: An Neoliberal Institutionalist Analysis Suror Shaba Polus and Guido Benny, National University of Malaysia PAPER 2 Women as Irregular Migrants: Indonesia s Challenges for Human Security Karina Utami, Universitas Islam Indonesia PAPER 3 ISIL Threat and Deradicalisation in Malaysia Mohd Azizuddin Mohd Sani and Muhammad Saleh Tajuddin, PAPER 4 Perubahan Dasar Pertahanan Malaysia: Era Mahathir Mohamad Rodziah Md Zin and Mohd Kamarulnizam Abdullah, 10

12 Panel 4: Global Politics Room: AV 15 Time & Date: a.m. (August 21, 2016) Chairperson: Dr. Rie Nakamura, PAPER 1 Iran s Strategy in Iraq and Syria Sherko Kimanj, PAPER 2 Why Does Thai Military Intervene into Politics? Sathid Boonmuang, Ahmad Bashawir Abdul Ghani,, Chumphon Kaewsom, Maejo University and Emil Mahyudin, PAPER 3 Understanding Hiep Hoi Giao Vietnam (The Association of Muslim Cham in Vietnam) Rie Nakamura, PAPER 4 Cohabitation in the Occupied Palestine s Political System Aminurraasyid Yatiban, Ramzi Odah, Sivaperegasam P. Rajenthiran, Universiti Utara Malaysia PAPER 5 The Importance of Building Strategic Alliance Between Indonesia and Malaysia for Countering ISIS Ideology and Movement M. Syafi i Anwar, 11

13 Parallel Session 4 Panel 1: Maritime and Southeast Asia Room: AV 9 Time & Date: p.m. (August 21, 2016) Chairperson: Dr. Mohamad Zaki Ahmad, PAPER 1 Securing the Maritime Supply Chains: The Challenge of Piracy and Armed Robbery in Southeast Asian Waters Nik Nor Suhaida Ali and Laila Suriya Ahmad Apandi, PAPER 2 Maritime Silk Road: Past Picture and Future Challenges Wahyu Wardhana, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia PAPER 3 The Maritime Security Architecture in Southeast Asia Irawan Jati, Universitas Islam Indonesia PAPER 4 The Contribution of Track Two to Track One Diplomacy: An Analyzes of Indonesian Efforts in Managing the South China Sea Ignatius Satyawan, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia 12

14 Panel 2: Foreign Policy Room: AV 10 Time & Date: p.m. (August 21, 2016) Chairperson: Dr. Bakri Mat, PAPER 1 Malaysia-Singapore Relations Under Najib Razak: Malaysian Perspectives Rusdi Omar, Muhammad Muda and Che Mohd Aziz Yaacob, PAPER 2 Yemen-China Relations: History and Development in Bilateral Relations Yahya Yahya Yahya Al-Awd, PAPER 3 Malaysian Peacekeeping Contribution in the Post-Mahathir Era and the Middle Power Motivation Muhammad Afifi Abdul Razak, Kamarul Azman Khamis and Rusdi Omar, Universiti Utara Malaysia PAPER 4 Shiite Ideology and Its Implication for Malaysia s Domestic and Foreign Policy Nor Azizan Idris, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bakri Mat,, and Zarina Othman, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 13

15 PAPER 1 Panel 3: Politics of Malaysia Room: AV 11 Time & Date: p.m. (August 21, 2016) Chairperson: Dr. Ummu Atiyah Ahmad Zakuan, Landskap Politik Kampus: Satu Tinjauan di Mohd Dino Khairri Shariffuddin and Laila Suriya Ahmad Apandi, Universiti Utara Malaysia PAPER 2 Mahathiriskonomism: Peranan Tun Dr Mahathir Dalam Pengurusan Krisis Ekonomi 1997/98 Md Shukri Shuib, Mohamad Hanapi Mohamad, Nazariah Osman, Universiti Utara Malaysia PAPER 3 Discourse Analysis on the Budgetary Debates among the Female MPs in the 13 th Dewan Rakyat: Issues, Motivation and Style of Debating Ummu Atiyah Ahmad Zakuan and Nor Azura A Rahman, PAPER 4 The Process of National Building among the Youth in Malaysia: A Case Study of the National Service Programme (NSP) in Northern Region of Peninsular Malaysia Mohamad Ainuddin Iskandar Lee Abdullah, Yahya Don, Fairol Halim and Sivaperegasam P. Rajanthiran, PAPER 5 Party-Political (In)Congruence and Federal-State Fiscal Relations: The Case of Kelantan and Trengganu ( ) Siti Zubaidah Ismail and Laila Suriya Ahmad Apandi, 14

16 Panel 4: The ASEAN Community Room: AV 15 Time & Date: p.m. (August 21, 2016) Chairperson: Dr. Muhammad Subhan, PAPER 1 ASEAN Community: An Integration Favourable for American s Pacific Century Salieg Munestri, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia PAPER 2 ASEAN Summit: A Driver of ASEAN Community-Building? Siti Darwinda Mohamed Pero and Rusdi Omar, PAPER 3 Re-Thinking of ASEAN Regional Integration: People-Oriented Towards Communitarianism Approaches Ahmad Bashawir Abdul Ghani, Mohammad Fajar Ikhsan and Muhammad Subhan Ishak, PAPER 4 The ASEAN Community: Are the Malaysian Youths Aware and Prepared? Kamarulnizam Abdullah,, Guido Benny, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Yahya Don, Mohd Sofian Omar Fauzee, Universiti Utara Malaysia, and Zahrul Akmal Damin, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn 15

17 ABSTRACTS 16

18 PARALLEL SESSION 1 PANEL 1: INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COLLABORATION/ PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION MALAYSIA AND ITS FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS Laila Suriya Ahmad Apandi Nurhaizal Azam Ariff Mohd Dino Khairri Shariffuddin Malaysia has signed several free trade agreements with the aim to achieve deeper liberalization and to gain better access into the global economy. At bilateral level, Malaysia so far has concluded agreements with Australia, Chile, India, New Zealand, Pakistan and Turkey. Besides, Malaysia also concluded several free trade agreements at regional level within the framework of ASEAN such as the ASEAN-China and ASEAN-Australia/New Zealand. Similarly, Malaysia also participates in several negotiations as a member state of ASEAN such as the ASEAN-EU free trade agreement and Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership. It is suggested that the concluded free trade agreements also cater the needs of Malaysia in terms of facilitating strategic economic development and dispersing political values. Keywords: Free Trade Agreements, Malaysia, Strategic Economic Development 17

19 ATTITUDE TOWARD FOREIGN INVESTMENT IN ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY/ ASEAN INVESTMENT AREA: COMPARATIVE STUDY IN INDONESIA, MALAYSIA, THAILAND AND VIETNAM Guido Benny Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia ASEAN has set its objective to forge further regional economic integration among member countries under the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) and ASEAN Investment Area (AIA) to be established effectively at the end of Nation and business leaders have voiced its optimism on this initiative; however, support and acceptance of the public for this integration or to FDIs has never been revealed. The main objective of this study was to investigate the opinion of young citizens in Malaysia, Indonesia, and Vietnam on the AEC and AIA. Data from questionnaires of 1,471 young professionals, with approximately equal distribution from each country were collected between June and November Quantitative methods and statistical tests were employed to achieve three research objectives. The finding suggests that, firstly, the respondents had moderate level of awareness on AEC and AIA, perceived that it will be beneficial to the region and countries, and showed strong support for it. In addition, they also showed negative sentiment toward foreign investments, but had positive sentiments towards FDIs from ASEAN countries. Secondly, the study made it evident the relationship between awareness and perceived benefits; awareness, perceived benefits and supports; and perceived benefits and sentiments toward FDIs. Finally, the study found that positive sentiment toward intra-asean investment was positively influenced by the perception of benefits from AEC/AIA. Keywords: ASEAN, Foreign Investment, Opinion, Free Trade, ASEAN Investment Area 18

20 ARTICULATING THE MOTIONS OF RECIPROCITY IN CHINA S TRADE RELATIONS WITH UNITED STATES AND EUROPEAN UNION Sivasegaran Nadarajan In general, reciprocity emphasised on the norm of mutual exchange between countries that will enable common understanding and benefits for each sides. Specific to trade relations, reciprocity provides the fundamental background for the negotiation of trade concessions especially in regard to the reduction of protectionism as to promote fair trade between nations. Stimultaneously, in spite of its core assumption of mutually beneficial trade relation, reciprocity only serves as a guiding principle rather than a binding enforcement, it depends on a country s intention whether to adhere reciprocity in a good manner or to use it only as a mean of exploiting others for its own benefits. Augmenting from this, China engagement in global trade has beem categorised as exploitative, aimed in gaining upper-hand over other nations. Since joining the World Trade Organization (WTO), China, while in principle agrees to open up its market to promote fair trade, in practice, its commitmenrt remained questionable. In regard to this, concerns have been raised by China s trading partners particularly the United States (US) and European Union (EU); inquiring its reciprocal commitment in upholding the WTO s principle of trade liberalisation. This is because, by being a member of WTO, China has gained freer access in penetrating the market of these countries while at the same time limiting the opportunities in its domestic markets through the practice of currency manipulation, non-tariff barriers applications, and infringement of intellectual property rights that further resulted in trade deficits and job losses in these countries. This further provides doubt in the sustainability of reciprocal trade relations involving China with US and also China with EU. However, deliberating the notion above as the conventional understanding of reciprocity, this paper intends to demarcate the comprehension of reciprocity from a broader set of thinking; forwarding that despite being exploitative, nations will continuously engage in reciprocal commercial activities regardless of the trade related issues that occur among them. This is because trade relations by nature are mutually dependenct relationships that coexist between countries in which one could not successfully participate in global trade without other. Nevertheless, at the same time, the coexistence of trade relations between countries are also relied on what each other can offer in order to maintain the longevity of such relationships in which commercial engagement will continue to reciprocally progress as long it is beneficial for both sides. Deriving from this, despite the lingering issues in 19

21 trade, the United States and European Union continuously engage in commercial activities with China due to the abundant supply of resources, and also huge populations with growing middle-class spending power that China could offer. On the other hand, with a combination of population around 820 million people between the US and EU, this has provided China the marketplace in meeting their huge supply of manufactured goods. Furthermore, through the commercial interaction with these countrues, it also offers China the access toward advanced technology Keywords: Reciprocity, China-US and China-EU trade relations 20

22 INTEGRITY AMONG ROYAL MALAYSIA POLICE Ahmad Shamil Abu Bakar Mashitah Mohd Udin The Royal Malaysian Police is a centralized police agency within the Government of Malaysia. This paper explores the contours of police integrity among the Malaysian serving police officers. It relies on the integrity survey recently conducted. A total of 210 self-administered questionnaires were distributed and the quantitative crosssection has been used. The final response rate was 93.4% and the data obtained was being analysed using the Statistic Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). We analyse the results across several measures of police integrity, such as the respondents knowledge of official rules, evaluations of the seriousness of police misconduct, views about appropriate, expected disciplinary actions and the code of silence. The results show that most of our respondents recognized behaviours described in the hypothetical scenarios as rule violating and evaluated them to be serious. On the other hand, findings also show that only lenient discipline is appropriate for such forms of misconduct. They mostly expected their police agencies to mete out lenient disciplinary corrective actions, indicating a relaxed disciplinary environment within the force. The paper ends with a discussion on the possible implications and suggestions for future research. Keywords: Royal Malaysian police, police integrity, survey, misconduct. 21

23 ADMINSTRATIVE REFORMS A MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE Mashitah Mohd Udin Rusdi Omar Abd. Rahim Romle Kamarul Zaman Yusoff This paper focuses on Malaysian bureaucracy and the administrative reforms undertaken by the government in the context of promoting development activities to achieve Vision 2020, which aims at making Malaysia a developed nation by the year Malaysian public service is a huge organisation with over 1.4 million government servants, spreading over a number of Ministries, Departments and Statutory Bodies with many smaller organisations under them. To understand the complex relationships between the various elements in development process in Malaysia, a system approach is adopted in this study. Administrative reforms are generally grouped into structural, process and behavioural reforms, with a common objective of improving the efficiency and productivity of the government delivery system. The paper traces the historical development of administrative reforms vis-avis the development process in Malaysia with a strong emphasis on Abdullah Ahmad Badawi s era, a period of strong behavioural administrative reforms and human capital development. A total of 100 questionnaires were distributed among Malaysian Civil Service officers working in Putrajaya in Using the structural equation modelling approach to process data, our findings show there exists a close relationship between administrative reforms and government delivery system in terms of productivity and efficiency with integrity acting as a mediating variable in the research framework. Keywords: Administrative Reforms, Bureaucracy, Government Delivery System, Productivity, Efficiency, Malaysian Civil Service Officers, Integrity. 22

24 PANEL 2 : CROSS CULTURE STUDIES MASCULINITY VS. FEMININITY: ITS RELATIONSHIP TOWARDS CONSPICUOUS CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOR Wan Nurisma Ayu Wan Ismail Norhayati Zakaria Asmat Nizam Abdul Talib This research deals with the influence cultural value of Gen Y consumers toward consumption behaviour in Malaysia. Gen Y consumers can be classified as a people with age range between years old. Gen Y consumers are become an interest of researchers. However, not much information are reflect with this generation cohort especially in the segment of college student Gen Y. Gen Y consumers have different consumption behaviour compared to the previous generation. This study attempts to understand the role of masculinity vs. femininity of Gen Y consumers toward luxury products. A convenience sample of 275 university students was used to assess the impact of these values toward conspicuous consumption behaviour. Based on the findings, it shows that femininity vs. masculinity play a significant role towards conspicuous consumption behaviour. This paper helps to generate some important directions for future research in Gen Y context. Keywords: Generation Y, Conspicuous Consumption, Attitude toward Luxury Brand, Values, Culture 23

25 CONCEPTUALIZATION OF INFLUENCE OF ETHNICITY IN DESTINATION IMAGE FORMATION AND THE CHOICE OF DESTINATION Shankar Chelliah Universiti Sains Malaysia Mohammad Jamal Khan Universiti Sains Malaysia Mahmood Sabri Haron Universiti Sains Malaysia Sahrish Ahmed Universiti Sains Malaysia Fast economic growth of South-East Asian countries leads citizens of this region to take leisure travel more frequently to outside their countries. However, India in-spite of geographically and culturally diverse and offer many travel activities to perform, failed to attract significant number of travelers from south-east Asian regions. This situation clearly indicates, India is not in their choice set of destinations. Literature argues that destination image is the most important factor in destination choice followed by travel motivations. Early literature reveals that motivations and socioeconomic factors have significant role in destination image formation and recently perceived risk is also considered as another factor. However, authors argue that due to large social diversity in South-East Asian region ethnicity of population should also be considered as important factor influence destination image. Population from a particular ethnic group had close ties with India earlier may hold different image than other ethnic group and may keep India in different set of choice destination than the others. After thorough literature review authors argued that apart from travel motivation and perceived risks, ethnicity of population will also influence destination image. And later, based on image potential travelers will keep a particular destination in early choice set and late choice set of destinations. Keywords: Travel Motivations and Risks, Ethnicity, Destination Image, Early Choice Set, Late Choice Set 24

26 THE INFLUENCE FACTORS OF CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM ON BRAND CONSIDERATION AMONG GOVERNMENT SERVANT Mohd Azwardi Md. Isa Fawad Husain Fitratul Huda bt Abdul Rashid Mohammad Basir Saud The Malaysian automobile consumers are quite versatile in taking their purchasing decisions. The establishment of choice set from which consumers identify their brand choices provokes some attention among researchers and practitioners, particularly within the context of international marketing and domestic Malaysian automobile market. This paper looks into the construct of consumer ethnocentrism (CE) and its influence on brand consideration. The objective of this research is to study the brand preference of Majlis Amanah Rakyat(MARA) staff in Perak Tengah District, two from Mara Junior Science Colleges (MRSM) Staff in Parit and Kg Gajah and one MARA Professional College (KPM) Staff and lastly in Mara District Office Staff. A total of 106 questionnaires were distributed among the college staff in order to obtain primary data for the purpose of the study. A total of 104 questionnaires was used for analysis. Smart PLS 2 statistical software was used for analysis. A relationship between consumer ethnocentrism and brand consideration was tested. It was found that there is a significant relationship with consumer ethnocentrism and brand consideration for Malaysian made automobiles. The study, therefore, provides a better understanding into Malaysian consumers selection of automobiles as influenced by consumer ethnocentrism. Keywords: Consumer Ethnocentrism, Brand Consideration, Malaysian Automobile Market. 25

27 PANEL 3: LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN EMPLOYEE S AND MANAGER S CAPABILITIES: THE APPLICATION OF RESOURCE-BASED VIEW IN EVALUATING MALAYSIAN PORT COMPETITIVENESS Salwani Arbak Aminurraasyid Yatiban A great deal of literature applies efficiency measurement methods to investigate port s competitive advantages. Nevertheless, the competitive characteristics of a port are deeply influenced by port policies of government, the operating strategies of the port, operating facilities, and the loading and unloading efficiencies, etc. Therefore, the measurement of a port s overall competitiveness requires considering all internal and external factors. This paper is to identify the relationship among those determinants and port performance with special emphasis on employee s and manager s capabilities from eight Malaysian ports. 26

28 CLASSIFICATION AND FUNCTIONS OF THIRD PARTY LOGISTICS SERVICE PROVIDERS: A LITERATURE REVIEW Sabariah Yaakub On the basis of content analysis, this paper provided a definition of third party logistics service providers (LSPs) before performing a classification and functions of third party logistics service providers and the importance that these LSPs play. Although the common consensus across literature with regards to the function of LSP is that it should be grounded in the definition of the underlying domain of logistics and its management, there has been several differing arguments on how to classify these LSPs concerning their roles or what they do. Drawing on the extant literature in supply chain management and logistics, this paper strives to demarcate the classifications and functions of these LSPs to provide a better understanding of third party logistics service providers. Keywords: Third Party Logistics, Classification and Functions of LSP, Logistics Service Providers, Supply Chain Management, Logistics, Literature Review 27

29 PARALLEL SESSION 2 PANEL 1: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS STRATEGY EFFECT OF IFRS ADOPTION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE PRACTICES ON PERFORMANCE: A STUDY ON LISTED COMPANIES IN DUBAI Abbas Alkhuzaie Noraza Mat Udin This study has been conducted on the financial market of Dubai. The purpose of the study is to understand the effect of IFRS adoption along with corporate governance characteristics over the financial performance of listed companies in Dubai. The study has taken return on assets as the measurement of performance, while IFRS adoption, board independence, board size, and audit quality as the measurement of CG. Firm size and leverage have been taken as control variables. The data has been collected from the annual reports and websites of the companies. Regression analysis is employed to understand the effect of each independent variable on performance. The study has identified that IFRS adoption; board independence, board size, and audit quality have a significant effect over financial performance of companies listed in Dubai stock market. The major contribution of the study is the combined effect of variables, as in the available literature all these variables have not yet been studied collectively. Keywords: IFRS, Corporate Governance, Board of Director Committees, Firm Size, ROA 28

30 ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF PRODUCT FACTORS ON THE SATISFACTION OF SMARTPHONE CONSUMERS: EVIDENCE FROM NORTH MALAYSIA Norsafinas Md. Saad Faiz Masnan For many years, smartphone adoption and usage has been an area of interest in consumer and marketing research. Taking the notion of how consumers attach importance to smartphones, this study sets out to investigate the product factors affecting the satisfaction of smartphone consumers and to understand better the current dynamics of smartphone market from the perspective of end consumers in North Malaysia. Data were gathered via survey, resulting in 382 completed questionnaires being returned. The results indicate that product judgment, product feature and brand image have a significant positive impact on the satisfaction on smartphone consumers. Keywords: Smartphone, Product Judgment, Product Feature, Brand Image, Consumer Satisfaction 29

31 THE INFLUENCE OF SERVICE MARKETING MIX (7 P) ON CUSTOMER SERVICE SATISFACTION IN MALAYSIAN EDUTAINMENT SERVICES Mohd Haniff Jedin Indra Balachandran Marketing mix is a foundation to marketing managers to make decision particularly to meet the expectations and needs of customers. Addtionally, it is also a means to acquire customer s satisfaction through high reputation products or services. In this respect, the purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of the service marketing mix elements with customer service satisfaction in Malaysian edutainment industry. A survey methodology was used by applying mall intercept methods. 123 useable responses were received from customers especially parents and their children who have used the edutainment services in three selected malls in the Klang Valley that near to the edutainment service providers. The study reveal that price, physical and product/service quality have significant relationship on customer service satisfaction. Keywords: Marketing Mix, Customer Service Satisfaction, Edutainment Services 30

32 PENGARUH KEMANJURAN DIRI (SELF-EFFICACY) TERHADAP TINGKAH LAKU INNOVATIF DI KALANGAN PEKERJA-PEKERJA EKSEKUTIF DI SYARIKAT MULTINASIONAL ASING YANG BEROPERASI DI MALAYSIA Hartini Husin Fakhrorazi Ahmad Nik Ab Halim Nik Abdullah Abstrak Elemen kemanjuran-diri atau lebih dikenali sebagai self-efficacy di dalam bahasa Inggeris merupakan satu elemen motivasi yang sangat penting di dalam mempengaruhi tingkah laku seseorang, seperti apa yang telah dinyatakan di dalam teori kognitif sosial. Bagi menilai pengaruh kemanjuran-diri terhadap tingkah laku inovatif, satu kajian terperinci telah dijalankan di beberapa syarikat terpilih di negara ini. Syarikat-syarikat terbabit adalah syarikat-syarikat MNC asing yang beroperasi di Malaysia di dalam sektor elektrik dan elektronik. Sebanyak 304 responden dari pelbagai syarikat dan latar belakang dari seluruh Malaysia telah memberi maklum balas ke atas soalan soalan soal selidik yang telah diedarkan. Data yang diperolehi kemudiannya dianalisa secara langsung dengan menggunakan varian-based SEM dengan program Smart-PLS v2. Kajian mendapati bahawa kemanjuran-diri memberi kesan yang sangat besar terhadap tingkahlaku inovatif pekerja. Dapatan kajian ini juga selari dengan kenyataan di dalam teori kognitif sosial. Secara kesimpulan, bagi memacu tingkah laku inovatif di kalangan pekerja ke tahap yang lebih tinggi di dalam sesuatu organisasi, tahap kemanjuran-diri bagi setiap pekerja perlu dipertingkatkan. Jika perlu, latihan yang khusus berkaitan kemanjuran-diri perlu diberikan kepada setiap pekerja di dalam sesebuah organisasi. Katakunci: Inovasi, Kemanjuran-diri, Tingkah Laku Innovatif, Motivasi, Teori Kognitif Sosial 31

33 PANEL 2: PEACE AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION ANTI TERRORISM EDUCATION: AN EFFORT TO ENHANCE NATIONALISM AND PRESERVING THE UNITY OF INDONESIA Aditya Cleverina Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia Salieg Munestri Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia This paper identifies lack of an urgency of the government to tackle the terrorism threat from the early detection. That is why terrorism attacks mostly done by the youth. The idea of giving an interactive course for university student would be much beneficial explained by three reasons. First, the formal education would give a standard perspective on how student of university would sense, understand, and define about anti terrorism action. Second, the youth is the right target merely because in age between is the most critical, curious, and labile stage which need more attention and control. Third, through formal education, but would give easier detection and evaluation if it finds indications about terrorism or misinterpretation. This paper uses qualitative method with collecting data as the primary source. This paper offers a reference that can be used as a solution called Anti Terrorism Education; an interactive formal education which contains a proper material about anti terrorism integrated with material of nationalism, inter faith dialog among religions, and moral for student of university. This scheme consist of two main ways to deliver the material, first is a proper explanation and material about anti terrorism. Second, an interactive discussion which will be the media provided in class to have check and balance and raising the awareness of preventing the terrorism itself. Keywords: Terrorism, Anti Terrorism, Education, Nationalism, Indonesia 32

34 2011 LIBYAN UPRISING AND NATO INTERVENTION: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS Basiru Musa Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria Che Mohd Aziz Yaacob Rusdi Omar The paper critically evaluated the impact of NATO s military intervention in the 2011 Libyan uprising. Specifically, it was intended to protect innocent civilians by imposing a no-fly zone over Libya ordered by a United Nations Security Council Resolution: 1973 or it was carried out to further the global hegemonic interests of the United States of America through the employment of NATO s military might. The work utilised a theoretical framework of Collective Security, developed by A.F.K. Organski in 1958, and relied on documentary method of data collection and qualitative method as its tool or yardstick for data analysis. It was found out that the imposition and enforcement of a no-fly zone over the Libyan airspace did not protect innocent civilians, but resulted in toppling of Muammar Gaddafi and his 42 year old regime (1 st September, th October, 2011), worsening insecurity, fragile and unstable government, exacerbation of human rights abuses, humanitarian crisis, resurgence of Islamic radicalism, weapons proliferation in Libya and its neighbours, such as Mali and Egypt, Diplomatic failure, Loss of Libya s internal and external sovereignty, aiding the rebels to victory over Gaddafi, decimation of the hitherto stable Libyan society and plunging it into utter anarchy, shattering of the Libyan economy and its endowed oil wealth. Therefore, this brings to the fore, the apparent need for a truly autonomous, robust and impartial Global Authority to check the excesses of the superordinate states, such as the U.S., France, Britain and their allies in order to protect the weaker states in the International System from the catastrophic drawbacks of an unnecessary military intervention, which has an ulterior imperialist motive. Libya is today a shadow of its former prosperous and stable self under Gaddafi and the hope of stability, peace and sustainable human development continues to fade. Keywords: Libya, Uprising, NATO, Intervention 33

35 PENGURUSAN KONFLIK PALESTIN-ISRAEL: ANALISIS PERJANJIAN DAMAI Rusnawati Ismail Abstrak Konflik boleh berlaku pada bila-bila masa dan yang pastinya ianya mempunyai pemangkin, pendorong dan faktor yang boleh menggerakkan kepada tercetusnya konflik. Antara faktor yang boleh membawa kepada konflik termasuklah faktor biologi, psikologi, geografi, demografi, ideologi, budaya dan sosioekonomi. Kewujudan aspek propaganda dan kemajuan hubungan komunikasi pada masa kini juga menjadi aspek utama kepada pertambahan kewujudan konflik masa kini. Huntington melalui kritikannya mengatakan bahawa konflik akan terus berlaku selagi semangat nasionalisme dan etnik menguasai pemikiran manusia. Hal ini sejajar dengan situasi pada masa kini kerana setiap negara lebih mementingkan kepentingan masing-masing berdasarkan faktor geografi seperti barat dengan timur. Terdapat satu konsep untuk mengelakkan konflik daripada berlaku iaitu konsep incrementalisme yang mana proses yang menjurus kepada pembaharuan serta pembangunan dalam sesuatu hubungan yang dijalinkan secara berperingkat-peringkat (fasa). Namun konflik tidak dapat dielakkan kerana kecenderungan manusia dalam bermasyarakat dan adakalanya konflik wujud sejak berabad dulu seperti yang terjadi di Asia Barat. Sehingga kini, kebanyakkan masalah yang timbul di Asia Barat telah mencetuskan konflik yang seringkalinya berkisarkan kepada masalah Palestin. Konflik ini dapat dibendung sekiranya mendapat komitmen daripada daripada masyarakat antarabangsa. Dengan itu, perlu usaha untuk menilai sejauhmana konflik yang berlaku dapat ditangani dan seterusnya menjalankan usaha untuk memastikan konflik dapat diselesaikan sekaligus mewujudkan keadaan yang stabil di Timur Tengah yang dapat menjamin kestabilan masyarakat dunia secara keseluruhannya.konflik diantara Israel dan Palestin memperlihatkan jalan penyelesaian dengan termeterinya perjanjian damai antara Israel dan Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) pada 13 September 1993 di Washington D.C. Dengan ini penyelidikan berterusan telah dijalankan dalam pelbagai aspek untuk melihat dan mencari penyelesaian yang paling sesuai dalam memastikan konflik ini reda demi kepentingan pihak bertelagah, perantara dan masyarakat dunia amnya. 34

36 MODEL PENGURUSAN KONFLIK PARTI POLITIK KE ARAH 1 MALAYSIA Muhammad Fuad Othman Zaheruddin Othman Mohd Foad Sakdan Malaysia dikenali sebagai sebuah negara yang berjaya menguruskan masyarakt berbilang kaum sehingga mencapai kestabilan politik. Kekuatan Barisan Nasional, pakatan tiga belas parti-parti politik perkauman and bukan perkauman, yang mengungguli pemerintahan kerajaan Malaysia sejak lebih 50 tahun yang lampau menarik perhatian ramai pengkaji. Walau bagaimanapun, dalam mengecap keamanan ini, amalan permintaan dan proses tawar-menawar politik antara kaum di negara ini telah wujud dan amalan ini cenderung mengakibatkan parti politik sentiasa dirundund keluh-kesah politik dan konflik. Artikel ini adalah berdasarkan kepada satu kajian yang telah dilaksanakan di bawah geran RAGS di bawah Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk, menukur nilai kompetensi emosi terhadap barisan kepimpinan parti UMNO, menilai gaya kepimpinan dan pengurusan barian kepimpinan UMNO dan mengenal pasti kaedah pengurusan konflik di kalangan barisan kepimpinan UMNO. Kajian ini menggunakan data primer yang telah diperolehi melalui temu bual secara bersemuka dengan responden berdasarkan soal selidik yang telah disediakan. Responden untuk kajian ini telah dipilih secara purposive dan maklumat mengenai responden in telah diperolehi dari pejabat UMNO di setiap daerah, Seramai 132 orang digunakan dalam membuat analisis data. Dapatan kajian mendapati bahawa kepimpinan UMNO telah menggunakan pelbagai kaedah dalam mengurus konflik dalaman seperti pengelakan, penundaan dan kerjasama. 35

37 KEPIMPINAN POLITIK PEMANGKIN KEPADA PERKONGSIAN KOMPREHENSIF ANTARA MALAYSIA-AMERIKA SYARIKAT PASCA 9/11 Mas Juliana Mukhtaruddin Abstrak Cabaran dalam hubungan politik antara Amerika Syarikat dan negara barat terhadap dunia Islam telah menjadi kritikal selepas berlakunya tragedi 11 September Sekaligus ia telah merubah landskap perhubungan politik antarabangsa. Dalam situasi dunia yang saling kebergantungan, tidak dapat dinafikan setiap negara mempunyai hubungan dengan Amerika Syarikat dalam pelbagai skala. Maka, bagi setiap hubungan politik, kesan ini mewujudkan ketegangan antara negara serta menjejaskan interaksi ekonomi. Oleh itu, hubungan politik antara Malaysia dan Amerika Syarikat juga tidak terkecuali. Kertas kerja ini bertujuan untuk membincangkan hubungan politik Malaysia- Amerika Syarikat pasca 9/11 dengan menganalisa kepimpinan politik Malaysia sebagai salah satu faktor yang menyumbang kepada hubungan dua hala yang progresif. Kerjasama kepimpinan politik antara Kuala lumpur dan Washington telah membawa hubungan dua hala Malaysia-Amerika Syarikat kepada tahap perkongsian komprehensif. Katakunci: Malaysia, Amerika Syarikat, Kepimpinan Politik, Perkongsian Komprehensif dan 9/11 36

38 PANEL 3: INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP A ONE-TO-ONE RATIO BETWEEN FAMILY DIRECTORS AND INDEPENDENT DIRECTORS: A VIEW FROM MALAYSIA PUBLIC-LISTED FAMILY FIRMS AND ITS POLICY IMPLICATION Lynn Yew Hua Ling Curtin University, Malaysia John Evans Curtin University, Australia Shibley Sadique University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh Corporate governance has been a continuous global concern. It is well perceived that a good corporate governance practice induce good company performance and value. Good corporate governance practices are especially important to protect the interest of minority shareholders from companies with concentrated shareholdings. In Malaysia, major companies that constitute to concentrated shareholdings in public listed companies are family firms. Such phenomenon is further asserted by The World Bank Group. This leads to the motivation of further scrutinization on the significance role of the board of family firms in corporate governance. This paper aims to shed further light in this area by examining the effect of family directors on family firms performance, within the context of corporate acquisition and its wealth effect. Findings suggest that a 1:1 ratio of family representatives to independent directors on the board should be introduced into the best practices of corporate governance in Malaysia public listed family firms. Such best practice should be upheld by the management or implemented by policy makers to induce better company value and performance for public-listed Malaysian family firms. This finding is derived based on a sample of 267 corporate acquisitions made by public-listed Malaysian family firms over the ten-year period of Keywords: Board Corporate Governance, Family Firm Value, Malaysian Family Firms, Family Directors, Corporate Acquisitions 37

39 PREFERENCES OF STUDENTS IN THEIR BUYING DECISIONS OF FOREIGN PRODUCTS Mohammad Basir Saud Fawad Hussain Khairul Hisham Zainudin Kolej Professional MARA Seri Iskandar, Malaysia Mohd Azwardi Md. Isa Nowadays customers are very conscious about choosing specific products for their own consumption whether local made or foreign made. Therefore, this paper will look into factors that most influence their decision of buying foreign products specifically sport footwear among higher institution s students. This paper identified the factors as country of origin, product quality, brand image, and price and what are their priorities or preferences among those four factors in their buying decision. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed to KPM s Seri Iskandar s students who currently enrolled and 300 were used for data analysis using Smart Partial Least Square (Smart-PLS3). The finding shows that brand image and price play a significant role in influencing student s sports footwear purchase preferences. For future research it is recommended to use cultural and social norms factors as an independent variables to see the impact on students purchasing preference. It is hope that the findings will help manufacturers or producers to better understand and aware of the preferences preferred among the young generations, especially Generation Y and Z in their buying decision of foreign products. Keywords: Country of Origin, Product Quality, Brand Image, Price, Purchase Preferences 38

40 ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOR AND PERFORMANCE: A STUDY ON STUDENTS INTENTIONS AT THE SCHOOL OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA Mohd Najib Mansor Abdul Rahim Jaguli Muhammad Fuad Othman This conceptual paper is to examine the relationship between entrepreneurial selfefficacy, entrepreneurial need for achievement and locus of control of students with entrepreneurial performance at the School of International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia. Data from 150 students will be analyzed using multiple regression analysis. With various entrepreneurship programs that have been exposed to the students, the results of this study hopefully will reveal the relationship of their intentions to become an entrepreneur with their entrepreneurial performance. Keywords: Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy; Student Entrepreneurs; Entrepreneurial Performance 39

41 INSTITUTIONAL PANEL SESSION: SELECTED ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICS ACCOUNTING ETHICS AND ITS IMPACT ON CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN A GLOBALISING WORLD Denson Muvandi University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa In recent years, the Accounting Profession has been engulfed by a considerable number of issues related to unprofessionalism. There have been numerous stories in the media about the systematic misconduct within the accounting profession which sometimes lead to the bankruptcy and ultimate collapse of companies, organisations and government institutions. This paper makes an analysis of accounting ethics and its impact on corporate governance in a globalising world. It will be argued that ineffective and unsustainable institutional support (both bottom up and top down) from the relevant arms of central government have devastating effects on the central government in a globalising world. Strategic policy and scholarly recommendations will be proffered on how enhance accounting ethics in order to enhance corporate governance in a globalising world. Keywords: Accounting Ethics, Corporate Governance, Globalising World, Unsustainable Institutional Support 40

42 THE ETHICAL DILEMMA ON THE IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS AS A DETERRENT TOOL AGAINST A SOVEREIGN STATE: THE CASE OF ZIMBABWE Peter Muchakazi University of KwaZulu-Natal, Republic of South Africa Michael Tedzani Moyo National Defence College, Zimbabwe The imposition of sanctions is based on Chapter VII, Article 41 of the United Charter which stipulates that the UNSC can apply economic and diplomatic measures against a state that interrupts peace and security in the world. Sanctions are usually understood as a means of avoiding war and its costs. The quest for the lifting of sanctions is regarded as an incentive for the delinquent state. Besides the incentive of lifting of sanctions, it is also presumed that sanctions will exert pressure domestically and internationally to those who are in governance of the targeted country. The imposition of sanctions against Iraq actually resulted in a catastrophic humanitarian situation whereby the majority of the ordinary citizens lost their lives due to hunger, disease and political instability. A question that arises is whether economic sanctions have a deterrent effect or that they create a situation of a catastrophic humanitarian crisis? This article argues that the imposition of sanctions against a legitimate sovereign state does not help to create a situation of international peace and security, rather such a practice undermines the ethic of humanitarianism, thus posing a threat to peace and security in the world. Keywords: Ethical Dilemma, Economic Sanctions, Deterrent Tools, Sovereign State 41

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