THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR

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1 It will not be believed that such a force as Great Britain has employed for eight years in this country could be baffled in their plan of subjugating it by numbers infinitely less composed of men sometimes half-starved, always in rags, without pay, and experiencing at times every species of distress which human nature is capable of undergoing. General George Washington THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR Treaty of Paris (1763) expelled France from North America Britain s land holdings vastly increased Britain emerges from war in debt Cost of administering North American possessions 5X prior to war victory Pivotal change in relationship between colonies & Crown Sudden & drastic changes Implementation of writs of assistance Enumerated articles increased Salutary neglect down the drain Large number of soldiers stationed throughout colonies mere presence soon infuriated colonists many pursued off-duty jobs in civilian sector Proclamation of 1763 Check westward expansion into vast newly acquired territory Appease frontier Indian tribes (Pontiac s War) COLONIAL RESISTANCE TO NEW BRITISH POLICIES Sugar Act (1764) Regulate trade AND raise revenue Much emphasis placed on enforcement

2 Stamp Act (1765) Similar tax highly successful in Great Britain Stamp Act Congress nine colonies represented first unified effort against Britain James Otis: Taxation w/o representation is tyranny actual vs. virtual representation distinction between tax laws & others Repeal & subsequent Declaratory Act Townshend Duties (1767) Series of taxes on glass, lead, paint, paper, tea imported to colonies Repealed in 1770 (except tea tax) but not soon enough for news to reach colonies Boston Massacre (1770) Boston = hotbed of colonial unrest Seething anger sparked by minor scuffle Mob of Bostonians cornered British patrol Five citizens killed (inc. Crispus Attucks) Paul Revere s propagandized engraving Gaspee incident (1772) Tea Act & Boston Tea Party (1773) Intolerable Acts, inc. Coercive Acts & two other laws (1774) First clear act of tyranny Coercive Acts Crown s ill-conceived response to Boston Tea Party Boston Port Act closed Boston harbor until citizens paid for dumped tea Administration of Justice Act allowed transfer of court cases out of Mass Massachusetts Gov t Act increased power to appointed governor First Continental Congress (September 1774) Purpose = discuss relations w/ England 55 delegates from 12 colonies (not Georgia) Declaration of Resolves King George III: state of rebellion and blows must decide

3 WAR COMMENCES Lexington and Concord (April 1775) British mission = arrest colonial leaders & seize arms Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Revere s legendary midnight ride 700 disciplined Redcoats vs. 70 ragged Minutemen Ralph Waldo Emerson:...the shot heard round the world Casualties = 273 (Br) to 100 (Am) change in Yankee Doodle The Retreat from Concord to Lexington of the Army of Wild Irish Asses Defeated by the Brave American Militia by Amos Doolittle Second Continental Congress (May 1775) Considerably different than First Continental Congress all colonies represented extremely distinguished group (generally more radical) faced decision of outright war Preparations for war army under General George Washington navy under Commodore Esek Hopkins foreign aid (money & munitions) sought authorized attack on Canada (the 14th colony) Financing the war (Robert Morris & Haym Salomon) gov t certificates (war bonds) state levies (money & goods) foreign loans (esp. France) print paper money (severe inflation) Battle of Bunker/Breed s Hill (June 1775) Heaviest British battle losses of entire war = 1,000 (Br) to 400 (Am) Marked point of no return for rebel colonists Olive Branch Petition refused by Crown

4 1776 Question of independence determined Hessian mercenaries hired by Britain Thomas Paine s Common Sense Colonies adopt constitutions Principle of popular sovereignty (people rule) Concept of limited gov t (restricted powers) List of unalienable rights (no gov't interference) Separation of powers (inc. checks/balances) Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson + four others John Trumbull s clever painting Contains four content areas Initial vote (July 1) not unanimous Pennsylvania & So Car = voted no; Delaware = tie vote; New York = no vote unanimous by mid-july; bulk of delegates signed on August 2 Crystal ball Why the British would win overwhelming military superiority enormous financial resources Why the British could lose logistics woes (ocean & vast enemy terrain) American heart (home soil & inspiring cause) Loyalist factor one-fifth of colonists no discernible demographics New York Campaign (September 1776) Obvious early military target Lieutenant Nathan Hale s foiled spy mission First submarine warfare (Turtle vs. HMS Eagle) Continental Army defeated; lack of British pursuit puzzling & fortunate Battle of Trenton (December 1776) First major American victory Emanuel Leutze s famous painting

5 INDEPENDENCE IS REALIZED Battle of Saratoga (October 1777) Considered war s turning point France persuaded to enter war against England America spurned broad British peace offer Gen. Benedict Arnold s ironic participation Southern Colonies (late 1778) Northern setbacks & perceived southern pluses superior sea power large Loyalist presence aid from slaves promised freedom Fighting ceased in North; war s worst yet to come in South Savannah (Dec 1778) & Charleston (May 1780) American guerrilla warfare (as in The Patriot) Gen. Charles Cornwallis trapped at Yorktown (Oct 1781) Treaty of Paris United States & France negotiate separately Britain retains only Canada in North America Benjamin West s unfinished painting Reasons for British defeat Underestimated American power & will Loyalists did not provide expected assistance Foreign assistance, esp. French alliance Poor performance of British military

6 George Grenville writs of assistance Sugar Act virtual vs. actual representation taxation without representation Stamp Act Congress Declaratory Act Townshend Duties Boston Massacre Gaspee incident Tea Act Boston Tea Party Sons of Liberty Intolerable Acts Coercive Acts First Continental Congress Lexington & Concord shot heard round the world Committees of Correspondence Second Continental Congress Battle of Bunker Hill Common Sense John Trumbull Loyalists Battle of Trenton Battle of Saratoga Battle of Yorktown Charles Cornwallis Yankee Doodle Treaty of Paris The First Continental Congress met to a. declare war on England. b. adopt the Declaration of Independence. c. discuss relations with England. d. protest the Stamp Act. King George III responded to the demands of the First Continental Congress by a. repealing the Intolerable Acts. b. arresting several American agents in Britain, including Benjamin Franklin. c. sending troops to attack the colonial militiamen at Bunker Hill. d. adopting even harsher policies against the colonists. The event which greatly reduced the possibility for England and the colonies to avoid war was a. the Boston Massacre. b. the Battle of Bunker Hill. c. Paul Revere s ride. d. the Olive Branch Petition. The hotbed of colonial protest was a. Boston. b. Philadelphia. c. New York City. d. Savannah cut & submit The Battle of Saratoga was especially important because it a. was the first major colonial victory of the war. b. caused France to enter the war against Great Britain. c. resulted in the capture of several key colonial leaders. d. effectively removed the British naval threat from the Great Lakes region.

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