History of Law Enforcement

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1 Course Law Enforcement I Unit I History Essential Question How did the current model of law enforcement come about? TEKS (c) (1)(A)(B) Prior Student Learning None Estimated Time 3 to 5 hours History of Law Enforcement Rationale Modern law enforcement has been influenced by thousands of years and many civilizations. It is important for an officer to understand the history of his or her profession so they have an understanding of why things are the way they are. Objectives The student will be able to: 1. Identify the role of police in society. 2. Define terms associated with the lesson. 3. Discuss the origins and development of modern law enforcement. 4. Research the duties of law enforcement officers in various eras. 5. Create a presentation to teach others about the history of law enforcement. Engage Discuss the following questions: Where was the first recorded police organization founded? What was its purpose? Use the Discussion Rubric for assessment. Key Points I. The role of police in a democratic society A. The police are entrusted to serve and protect. B. Law enforcement officers are the citizens most common and direct contact with the government. C. Law enforcement dates back to the earliest human civilizations. D. The Romans contributed the idea of districts or enforcement precincts. II. Key terms A. Bobbies In 1829, English Parliament mandated a publicly funded police force throughout England. They became known as the bobbies. B. Constables Local level individuals who assisted the shire reeve and organized posses to chase and apprehend criminals C. Frankpledge System A form of community policing instituted by King William in 1066 D. Tithing In the Frankpledge System, every male over twelve years of age was required to form a group of ten families called a tithing. E. Sir Robert Peel A member of the English Parliament in 1829 who led the mandating of a publicly funded police force throughout England via the London Metropolitan Police Act. He advocated the 12 principles of policing. F. Shires Ten tithings were grouped together to form a hundred, and these consolidated groups were called shires. G. Henry Fielding A London magistrate who, in 1748, formed a group of law enforcement agents to apprehend criminals and recover stolen property from the entertainment district. They were called the Bow Street Runners. H. Justice of the Peace In 1326, the shire reeve was replaced with the office of the justice of the peace. I. Night Watch System In England, the night watch system provided citizens with protection from crime. During times of duress, the men on watch would 1

2 raise the hue and cry to summon assistance from the citizens of the community or, in the case of a larger community, from others already on watch. The watch standers were equipped with various signaling devices, including bells, ratchets, and rattles. J. Shire Reeves The top law enforcement official, who was the forerunner of the American sheriff K. Peelers Another name for the bobbies because of Sir Robert Peel s influence in creating the force L. Politeria The Greek word that police is derived from M. Pharaoh Hur Moheb Established the first recorded police organization in Egypt around 1340 B.C. N. Law Enforcement The most visible representatives of the criminal justice system; typically citizens most common and direct contact with law enforcement O. Police Entrusted to serve and protect the public, and to control and prevent crime P. Political Era 1840 s to 1920 s: the period when police agencies were first established to provide a unified law enforcement force in the major American cities Q. Reform Era Wanted to take law enforcement out of politics, introduce modern technology to make law enforcement more efficient, and establish police administrative boards that were responsible for appointing police administrators and controlling police affairs R. Professional Era 1920 s to 1970 s: the period when there was a call for the establishment of measures to assist law enforcement agencies to improve their effectiveness and become more professional S. Community Model Era 1970 s to the present: the period when it was advocated for law enforcement to move away from the crime-fighting focus of law enforcement towards a greater emphasis on maintaining order and providing service to the community T. August Vollmer Was known as the most famous police reformer in the early part of the twentieth century. He believed the police should be a professional force. U. Spoils A system that used political power to hire supporters and fire those considered disloyal. This led to a period of incompetent, corrupt, and disliked police force. V. O.W. Wilson A student of Vollmer s who advocated for law enforcement agencies to employ technological advances, such as motorized patrols, effective radio communications, and rapid response, to aid effective crime fighting. III. Law enforcement and early civilizations A. Extends back to the earliest civilizations B. Met a social need for promoting a group s well-being C. Banishment was the most effective means of punishment. Camp guards of early civilization represent the first traces of law enforcement practices. D. First recorded police organization 1340 B.C., in Egypt, under the reign of Pharoah Hur Moheb 2

3 1. River security force established to ensure security on the Nile 2. Responsible for preventing piracy, guarding commerce, and searching suspect ships E. Police is a derivative of the Greek work Politeria the portion of government that deals with protection of life and property. F. Roman contribution during the reign of Emperor Augustus Caesar 1. Police were a special feature of the Roman government. 2. Various grades of officers 3. Seven divisions with 14 districts; districts represent the first city precincts IV. English Roots A. American law enforcement concepts originated in England in 900 A.D. B. Justice was primarily a private matter based on revenge and retribution. C. Victims and/or family members would seek justice. D. King William Frankpledge system 2. Tithing 3. Shires 4. Shire Reeve 5. Constables E. Winchester Statute Night watch system 2. Selection of constables 3. Draft of volunteer citizens as watchmen F. Justice of Peace Replaced Shire Reeve 2. Supervised law enforcement activities including crime investigation, securing criminals, and organizing the night watch system 3. The system lasted into the 1700 s. 4. Citizens were the police. 5. Law enforcement organization was local. G. Henry Fielding 1700 s 1. The military was used for crime control. 2. Established the Bow Street Runners who apprehended criminals and recovered stolen property a) More effective than any other law enforcement of its day b) Paved the way for a more professional and efficient response to crime, and the apprehension of criminals H. Sir Robert Peel Worked with the English Parliament to mandate a publicly funded police force under the London Metropolitan Police Act 2. Created uniformed police force known as bobbies or peelers" 3. Peel s 12 Principles of Policing a) The police must be stable, efficient, and organized along military lines. b) The police must be under government control. c) The absence of crime will best prove the efficiency of police. 3

4 d) The distribution of crime news is essential. e) The deployment of police strength, by both time and area, is essential. f) No quality is more indispensable to a policeman than a perfect command of temper; a quiet, determined manner has more effect than a violent action. g) Good appearance commands respect. h) The securing and training of proper persons is the root of efficiency. i) Public security demands that every police officer be given a number. j) Police headquarters should be centrally located and easily accessible to the people. k) Policemen should be hired on a probationary basis. l) Police records are necessary to the correct distribution of police strength. V. Historical Eras of Law Enforcement C. Political Era (1840 to 1920) 1. The period when police agencies were established to provide a unified police force in the major American cities 2. The Spoils system; the metropolitan police in the 19th century were powerful, corrupt, poorly trained, unsupervised, and frequently abusive to the public they were to serve and protect. 3. The primary focus was on crime prevention and the maintenance of order through the foot patrol. D. Reform Era 1. Began in early part of the 20th century, as a result of the middle and upper class citizens concern with corruption. 2. They wanted to get rid of political patronage and improve the efficiency of government, especially in law enforcement. 3. They called for professional police forces, to remove law enforcement from politics and to introduce modern technology to make law enforcement more efficient. 4. One result of the Reform Era was the establishment of police administrative boards who were responsible for appointing police administrators and controlling police affairs. 5. These civilian review boards were established to reduce local political control over the police. 6. These review boards failed because the appointed leaders often lacked law enforcement knowledge. E. Professional Era (1920 s to the 1970 s) 1. August Vollmer a) Chief of police in Berkley, California, was the most famous police reformer in the early part of the 20th century b) Instituted university training for police officers c) Helped to develop the School of Criminology at the University of California at Berkley. The school became the model for university- 4

5 level criminal justice programs around the U.S. d) Believed that the police should be a professional force e) The model of professional policing was developed from Vollmer s six essential elements: (1) The police force should stay out of politics. (2) Members should be well trained, disciplined, and tightly organized. (3) Laws should be equally enforced. (4) The police should use technological developments. (5) Merit should be on the basis of personnel procedures. (6) The crime-fighting role should be prominent. 2. O.W. Wilson a) The redirection of police from maintenance of order to one of crime control altered the nature of policing in America more than any of the other elements of the professional era. b) A student of Vollmer s, advocated that law enforcement use motorized patrols, radio communication, and rapid response to aid effective crime fighting. c) Suggested the use of one-man patrols as the best way to deploy police personnel, and the importance of rotating beat assignments in order to fight police corruption F. Community Era (1970 to present) 1. Research findings indicate that the professional model was not working: a) Increasing the number of patrol officers in a neighborhood was found to have little effect on crime. b) Rapid response to calls for service does not greatly increase the arrest of criminals. c) It is difficult, if not impossible, to improve rates of solving crimes. G. Service to the community 1. In the 1970 s there was a movement away from the crime-fighting focus of law enforcement towards a greater emphasis on maintaining order and providing service to the community. 2. It was suggested that police officers get out of their patrol cars and spend more time on the street assisting citizens, while maintaining their crime-fighting role. Activities 1. Students may play the Match Game to practice key terms and definitions. Use the Individual Work Rubric for assessment. 2. Timeline Project: Have students work individually or in pairs to research the Top 10 Duties of Law Enforcement for each of the following time periods: Egyptian Civilization, Greek Civilization, Roman Civilization, 900 to 1066 A.D., 1066 to 1326 A.D., 1326 to 1700 A.D., 1700 to 1829 A.D., and 1829 to the present. Then students will locate royalty free or public domain images to illustrate the key points of research. Students will use their research and images to create a 5

6 pictorial timeline for display in the classroom, or a computer-based presentation. Use the Individual Work Rubric and the Presentation Rubric as needed for assessment. Assessments History of Law Enforcement Quiz and Key Discussion Rubric Presentation Rubric Materials History of Law Enforcement computer-based presentation History of Law Enforcement Match Game History of Law Enforcement Key Terms Poster boards and markers or computer-based presentation software Computers with Internet access Resources , Criminal Justice, Fagin, James A., Pearson, , Policing in America: A Reference Handbook, Steverson, Leonard A., ABC-CLIO, , Criminology (4 th Edition), Adler, Freda, McGraw-Hill, 2001 Accommodations for Learning Differences For reinforcement, the student will define and illustrate the key terms in a journal. Use the Individual Work Rubric for assessment. For enrichment, the student will create their own 12 principles of policing then compare and contrast them to Sir Robert Peel s 12 principles. Use the Individual Work Rubric for assessment. State Education Standards Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Career and Technical Education Law Enforcement I. (One to Two Credits). (1) The student explores the history of law enforcement. The student is expected to: (A) trace the history of law enforcement from pre-industrial Europe, nineteenth century England, and the United States through contemporary policing in the United States; and (B) identify core issues in the development of law enforcement such as centralization and authority. College and Career Readiness Standards V. Research A. Formulate topic and questions 1. Formulate research questions. 2. Explore a research topic. 3. Refine research topic and devise a timeline for completing work. C. Produce and design a document. 1. Design and present an effective product. 6

7 2. Use source material ethically. 7

8 History of Law Enforcement Key Terms 1. Bobbies In 1829, English Parliament mandated a publicly funded police force throughout England. They became known as the bobbies. 2. Constables Local level individuals who assisted the shire reeve and organized posses to chase and apprehend criminals 3. Frankpledge System A form of community policing instituted by King William in Tithing In the Frankpledge System, every male over twelve years of age was required to form a group of ten families called a tithing. 5. Sir Robert Peel A member of the English Parliament in 1829, who led the mandating of a publicly funded police force throughout England via the London Metropolitan Police Act. He advocated the 12 principles of policing. 6. Shires Ten tithings were grouped together to form a hundred, and these consolidated groups were called shires. 7. Henry Fielding A London magistrate who, in 1748, formed a group of law enforcement agents to apprehend criminals and recover stolen property from the entertainment district. They were called the Bow Street Runners. 8. Justice of the Peace In 1326, the shire reeve was replaced with the office of the justice of the peace. 9. Night Watch System In England, the night watch system provided citizens with protection from crime. During times of duress, the men on watch would raise the hue and cry to summon assistance from the citizens of the community or, in the case of a larger community, from others already on watch. The watch standers were equipped with various signaling devices, including bells, ratchets, and rattles. 10. Shire Reeves The top law enforcement official, who was the forerunner of the American sheriff 11. Peelers Another name for the bobbies because of Sir Robert Peel s influence in creating the force 12. Politeria The Greek word that police is derived from. 13. Pharaoh Hur Moheb Established the first recorded police organization in Egypt around 1340 B.C. 14. Law Enforcement The most visible representatives of the criminal justice system; typically citizens most common and direct contact with law enforcement 15. Police Entrusted to serve and protect the public, and to control and prevent crime 8

9 16. Political Era 1840 s to 1920 s: the period when police agencies were first established to provide a unified law enforcement force in the major American cities 17. Reform Era Wanted to take law enforcement out of politics, introduce modern technology to make law enforcement more efficient, and establish police administrative boards that were responsible for appointing police administrators and controlling police affairs 18. Professional Era 1920 s to 1970 s: the period when there was a call for the establishment of measures to assist law enforcement agencies to improve their effectiveness and become more professional 19. Community Model Era 1970 s to the present: the period when it was advocated for law enforcement to move away from the crime-fighting focus of law enforcement towards a greater emphasis on maintaining order and providing service to the community 20. August Vollmer Was known as the most famous police reformer in the early part of the twentieth century. He believed the police should be a professional force. 21. Spoils A system that used political power to hire supporters and fire those considered disloyal. This led to a period of incompetent, corrupt, and disliked police force. 22. O.W. Wilson A student of Vollmer s who advocated for law enforcement agencies to employ technological advances, such as motorized patrols, effective radio communications, and rapid response to aid effective crime fighting 9

10 A A Shire Reeves SELECT E MATCH GAME Vocabulary E Justice of the Peace I I Frankpledge 1000 Pts System MATCH M M Constables 1000 Pts B B Sir Robert Peel F F Night Watch System J J Pharaoh 1000 Pts Hur Moheb N N Sir 1000 Robert Pts Peel C C Frankpledge System G G Constables K K 1000 Politeria Pts O O Night 1000 Watch Pts System D D Pharaoh Hur Moheb H H Politeria L L Shire 1000 Reeves Pts P P Justice 1000 of Pts the Peace 10

11 1. Divide the class into two teams. Match Game Instruction Sheet 2. Each team creates a team name and selects a team captain. 3. Determine who goes first (coin toss, draw straws, etc.). 4. The first team captain selects a letter from one of the Select columns (A-H). 5. The teacher reads the question or definition corresponding to the letter on the Match Game Terms Sheet. Do not read the term in italics. 6. The first team must give the answer that matches the question or definition. The captain gives the answer. 7. The teacher clicks on and moves the covering text box to the right or left side of the grid to reveal the answer (left side for first team; right side for second team). 8. If the answer revealed is not the same as that given by the first team captain, the teacher recovers the square with the text box and play goes to the second team. 9. If the answer revealed is the same as that given by the first team captain, the first team has the opportunity to select a letter under the Match columns (I-P). The captain says the letter name. 10. The teacher moves the text box off of the square. If the same answer appears on the Match Side, the first team has won 1000 points, and the teacher moves the blue text box (with 1000 pts ) to the left side, on top of the red text box from the Select column. Play then goes to the second team. 11. If a different answer appears under the Match square, the teacher will re-cover both squares with their respective text boxes and play goes to the second team. 12. Play continues until a match has been made for every question. 13. The team with highest number of points wins. 14. No player may have notes or definitions in view. 15. No player may take notes of the terms as they are revealed. 11

12 Match Game Questions Vocabulary: A. The top law enforcement officials, who were the forerunner of the American sheriff Shire Reeves B. A member of the English Parliament in He led the mandating of a publicly funded police force throughout England, via the London Metropolitan Police Act. (Additional He advocated the 12 principles of policing) Sir Robert Peel C. A form of community policing instituted by King William in 1066 Frankpledge System D. Established the first recorded police organization in Egypt around 1340 B.C. Pharaoh Hur Moheb E. Replaced the office of shire reeve in 1326 Justice of the Peace F. During times of duress, the men on watch would raise the hue and cry to summon assistance from the citizens of the community. What is this known as? Night Watch System G. Local level that assisted the shire reeve and organized posses to chase and apprehend criminals Constables H. The Greek word that police is derived from Politeria 12

13 MATCH GAME Vocabulary SELECT MATCH A E I M Shire Reeves Justice of the Peace Frankpledge System Constables B F J N Sir Robert Peel Night Watch System Pharaoh Hur Moheb Sir Robert Peel C G K O Frankpledge System Constables Politeria Night Watch System D H L P Pharaoh Hur Moheb Politeria Shire Reeves Justice of the Peace 13

14 Name: Date: History of Law Enforcement Quiz 1. Where was the first recorded police organization established? a. London b. Greece c. Egypt d. Rome 2. The concept of enforcement districts or precincts was contributed by whom? a. Egyptians b. Greeks c. English d. Romans 3. The was instituted by King William in a. Frankpledge System b. Justice of the Peace c. London Metropolitan Police Act d. Night Watch System 4. Police are entrusted to serve and protect the public. a. True b. False 5. In B.C. the first recorded police organization occurred. a. 900 b c d The word police is derived from the Greek word. a. Politicos b. Policia c. Politeria d. Politics 7. Every male over twelve years of age was required to form a group of ten families called. a. Shire reeve b. Bobbies c. Shires d. Tithings 8. In 1326, the shire reeve was replaced with the. 14

15 a. Constable b. Justice of the peace c. Shire d. Peel s 9. Henry Fielding formed The Bow Street Runners in a. True b. False 10. Sir Robert Conan Doyle advocated the 12 principles of policing. a. True b. False 11. What era of law enforcement emphasizes the need for police officers to be in close contact with the public? a. Political Era b. Reform Era c. Professional Era d. Community Model Era 12. What is a system called where an elected official fired those government employees not loyal to him, and appointed political supporters to those jobs? a. Home Rule b. Spoils c. Reforms d. Political favor 13. The era concerned with stamping out corruption and improving law enforcement efficiency. a. Reform Era b. Professional Era c. Community Model Era d. Political Era 14. The most famous police reformer in the early part of the 20 th century was who? a. Stephen Girard b. J. Edgar Hoover c. August Vollmer d. O.W. Wilson 15. The era that called for the establishment of measures to assist law enforcement agencies to improve their effectiveness and to become more professional. a. Professional Era b. Community Model Era c. Reform era d. Political Era 15

16 16. The Political Era was when the need for law enforcement to be in close contact with the public was advocated. a. True b. False 17. O.W. Wilson helped develop the School of Criminology at the University of California at Berkley. a. True b. False 18. Who proposed the ideal of motorized patrols? a. O. W. Wilson b. August Vollmer c. Stephen Girard d. Marshall Tate 19. During which era was a unified law enforcement force established? a. Community Model Era b. Reform Era c. Political Era d. Professional Era 20. O.W. Wilson introduced the importance of rotating beat assignments in order to fight police corruption. a. True b. False 16

17 History of Law Enforcement Quiz Key 1. C 2. D 3. A 4. A 5. C 6. C 7. D 8. B 9. A 10. B 11. D 12. B 13. A 14. C 15. A 16. B 17. B 18. A 19. C 20. A 17

18 Name Date Discussion Rubric Objectives 4 pts. Excellent 3 pts. Good 2 pts. Needs Some Improvement 1 pt. Needs Much Improvement N/A Pts. Participates in group discussion Encourages others to join the conversation Keeps the discussion progressing to achieve goals Shares thoughts actively while offering helpful recommendations to others Gives credit to others for their ideas Respects the opinions of others Involves others by asking questions or requesting input Expresses thoughts and ideas clearly and effectively Total Points (32 pts.) Comments: 18

19 Name Date Objectives Follows directions Student completed the work as directed, following the directions given, in order and to the level of quality indicated Individual Work Rubric 4 pts. Excellent 3 pts. Good 2 pts. Needs Some Improvement 1 pt. Needs Much Improvement N/A Pts. Time management Student used time wisely and remained on task 100% of the time Organization Student kept notes and materials in a neat, legible, and organized manner. Information was readily retrieved Evidence of learning Student documented information in his or her own words and can accurately answer questions related to the information retrieved *Research/Gathering information (if relevant) Student used a variety of methods and sources to gather information. Student took notes while gathering information Total Points (20 pts.) Comments: 19

20 Name: Date: Presentation Rubric Objectives Topic/Content Topic discussed completely and in-depth Includes properly cited sources (if used) Creativity/Neatness Integrates a variety of multimedia effects to create a professional presentation (transition and graphics) or appropriate visual aid used Title slide, table of contents, bibliography are included, using acceptable format Mechanics Grammar, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization are correct Image and font size are legible to the entire audience Oral Presentation Communicates with enthusiasm and eye contact Voice delivery and projection are dynamic and audible Audience Interaction Presentation holds audience s attention and relates a clear message Clearly and effectively communicates the content throughout the presentation 4 pts. Excellent 3 pts. Good 2 pts. Needs Some Improvement 1 pt. Needs Much Improvement N/A Pts. Total Points (20 pts.) Comments: 20

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