Balance of Power. Balance of Power, theory and policy of international relations that asserts that the most effective

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Balance of Power. Balance of Power, theory and policy of international relations that asserts that the most effective"

Transcription

1

2 Balance of Power I INTRODUCTION Balance of Power, theory and policy of international relations that asserts that the most effective check on the power of a state is the power of other states. In international relations, the term state refers to a country with a government and a population. The term balance of power refers to the distribution of power capabilities of rival states or alliances. For example, the United States and the Soviet Union maintained equivalent arsenals of nuclear weapons in the 1970s and 1980s, which helped sustain a military balance of power. The balance of power theory maintains that when one state or alliance increases its power or applies it more aggressively, threatened states will increase their own power in response, often by forming a counter-balancing coalition. For example, the rise of German power before and during World War I ( ) and World War II ( ) triggered the formation of an anti-german coalition, consisting of the Soviet Union, Britain, France, the United States, and other countries. II SIGNIFICANCE TO INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS As a policy, balance of power suggests that states counter any threat to their security by allying with other threatened states and by increasing their own military capabilities. The policy of forming a geographically based coalition of states to surround and block an expansionist power is known as containment. For example, the United States followed a containment policy towards the Soviet Union after World War II by building military alliances and bases throughout Europe, the Middle East, and Asia.

3 As a theory, balance of power predicts that rapid changes in international power and status especially attempts by one state to conquer a region will provoke counterbalancing actions. For this reason, the balancing process helps to maintain the stability of relations between states. A balance of power system can function effectively in two different ways. First, multiple states can form a balance of power when alliances are fluid that is, when they are easily formed or broken on the basis of expediency, regardless of values, religion, history, or form of government. Occasionally a single state plays a balancer role, shifting its support to oppose whatever state or alliance is strongest. Britain played this role in Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries, particularly in its relations with France, Russia, and Germany. Second, two states can balance against each other by matching their increases in military capability. In the Cold War, the Soviet Union and United States both expanded their nuclear arsenals to balance against each other. One weakness of the balance of power concept is the difficulty of measuring power. Ultimately a state s power derives from the size of its land mass, population, and its level of technology. But this potential power measured roughly by a state s gross domestic product (GDP) translates imperfectly into military capability. The effective use of military force depends on such elements as leadership, morale, geography, and luck. Furthermore, leaders misperceptions can seriously distort the calculation of power. During the Vietnam War ( ), for example, U.S. presidents consistently underestimated the strength of the Vietnamese Communists because by conventional measures of power they were much weaker than the United States. III FROM ANCIENT TIMES TO WORLD WAR II Historical examples of power balancing are found throughout history in various regions of the world, leading some scholars to characterize balance of power as a universal and timeless principle. During the Period of the Warring States in China ( BC), the development of large, cohesive states accompanied the creation of irrigation systems, bureaucracies, and large armies equipped with iron weapons. These Chinese states pursued power through a constantly shifting network of alliances. In ancient Greece during the Peloponnesian War ( BC), the rising power of Athens triggered the

4 formation of a coalition of city-states that felt threatened by Athenian power. The alliance, led by Sparta, succeeded in defeating Athens and restoring a balance of power among Greek cities. In the 17th century the Habsburg dynasty, which ruled Austria and Spain, threatened to dominate Europe. During the Thirty Years War ( ), a coalition that included Sweden, England, France, and The Netherlands defeated the rulers of the Habsburg Empire. Early in the 19th century, French emperor Napoleon I repeatedly made efforts to conquer large areas of Europe. A broad coalition of European states including Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia defeated France in a series of major battles that climaxed with Napoleon s defeat at the Battle of Waterloo in The classical European balance of power system emerged thereafter in an alliance known as the Concert of Europe, organized in 1815 by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich. This loose alliance between Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia, and France ensured that a handful of great powers would coexist, with none able to dominate the others. Under this system, and with Britain playing a balancer role, peace largely prevailed in Europe during the 19th century. During World War II, Germany s rising power, aggressive conquests, and alliance with Italy and Japan triggered yet another coalition of opposing states notably the capitalist democracies of Britain and the United States, and the Communist Soviet Union. IV IN THE NUCLEAR AGE The Cold War standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union shaped the global balance of power after World War II. Although an actual war between these two superpowers never occurred, the balance of power process instead took the form of a massive arms race, in which each superpower responded by adding to their military buildup. The possession of large arsenals of nuclear weapons by both the United States and the Soviet Union ensured that any potential war would prove disastrous for both. Because of the threat to human survival posed by nuclear weapons, military strategists often referred to the balance of power as a balance of terror.

5 During the Cold War, the U.S. policy of containment encircled the Soviet Union with military and political alliances in Western Europe, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. The major U.S. and Soviet military interventions of the Cold War in Korea, Vietnam, and Afghanistan took place in politically contested regions of the world where both superpowers jockeyed for influence. Small states sometimes benefited from the superpower competition. In the 1960s, for example, relations soured between Cuba and the United States. At that time, Cuba allied itself with the Soviet Union and received large economic and military subsidies. V BALANCE OF POWER TODAY The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world s sole superpower. Balance of power theory suggests that without the Soviet threat the United States, as the dominant world power, will face difficulties in its relations with such states as China and the European powers. For example, key countries such as China, Russia, France, and Germany all opposed the United States invasion of Iraq in 2003 in diplomatic arenas such as the United Nations. Yet this opposition did not stop the United States from acting, exposing the significant gap in military capability that now exists between the United States and the rest of the world. Small states that fear the United States are no longer able to join a counterbalancing coalition to protect their security. Instead, many are developing nuclear weapons in an attempt to dramatically expand their military capability. For example, North Korea claimed in 2003 that it was developing nuclear weapons to balance against U.S. power. The changing nature of power in the contemporary international system further complicates the operation of the global balance of power. Globalization, the Internet, weapons of mass destruction, and other technological developments have made it possible for small states and even nonstate groups to acquire significant power. These factors also dilute the relative importance of military power. For example, after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States assembled a broad coalition to invade Afghanistan, using military force to topple the Taliban government and end the Taliban s support for al-qaeda terrorists. This application of military power did not provoke a balancing coalition of other states, but it also did not end the terrorist threat to the United States. In the future,

6 the balance of power may continue to operate among states engaged in prolonged disputes, but it is less applicable to conflicts involving terrorists and other nonstate groups. Reviewed By: Peter Howard

Great Powers. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, United States president Franklin D. Roosevelt, and British prime minister Winston

Great Powers. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, United States president Franklin D. Roosevelt, and British prime minister Winston Great Powers I INTRODUCTION Big Three, Tehrān, Iran Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, United States president Franklin D. Roosevelt, and British prime minister Winston Churchill, seated left to right, meet

More information

The Historical Evolution of International Relations

The Historical Evolution of International Relations The Historical Evolution of International Relations Chapter 2 Zhongqi Pan 1 Ø Greece and the City-State System p The classical Greek city-state system provides one antecedent for the new Westphalian order.

More information

WORLD HISTORY Curriculum Map

WORLD HISTORY Curriculum Map WORLD HISTORY Curriculum Map (1 st Semester) WEEK 1- ANCIENT HISTORY Suggested Chapters 1 SS Standards LA.910.1.6.1-3 LA.910.2.2.1-3 SS.912.G.1-3 SS.912.G.2.1-3 SS.912.G.4.1-9 SS.912.H.1.3 SS.912.H.3.1

More information

From 1789 to 1804, France experienced revolutionary changes that transformed France from an absolute monarchy to a republic to an empire

From 1789 to 1804, France experienced revolutionary changes that transformed France from an absolute monarchy to a republic to an empire From 1789 to 1804, France experienced revolutionary changes that transformed France from an absolute monarchy to a republic to an empire The success of the American Revolution & Enlightenment ideas such

More information

Domestic policy WWI. Foreign Policy. Balance of Power

Domestic policy WWI. Foreign Policy. Balance of Power Domestic policy WWI The decisions made by a government regarding issues that occur within the country. Healthcare, education, Social Security are examples of domestic policy issues. Foreign Policy Caused

More information

Modern International Relations An Elective Social Science Course for Loudoun County Public Schools

Modern International Relations An Elective Social Science Course for Loudoun County Public Schools Modern International Relations An Elective Social Science Course for Loudoun County Public Schools Loudoun County Public Schools Ashburn, Virginia 2014 Modern International Relations The United States

More information

B. Directions: Use the words from the sentences to fill in the words in this puzzle. The letters in the box reading down name a part of nationalism.

B. Directions: Use the words from the sentences to fill in the words in this puzzle. The letters in the box reading down name a part of nationalism. Name Date Period Nationalism Puzzle Chapter 22 Activity 64 A. Directions: Write the correct word from the Word Bank to complete each sentence. 1) Customs, religion, music, beliefs, and way of life make

More information

The Cold War Notes

The Cold War Notes The Cold War Notes 1945-1991 The Cold War was a time after WW2 when the USA and the Soviet Union were rivals for world influence. First World capitalistic-democracies Second World authoritarian-communist

More information

HST206: Modern World Studies

HST206: Modern World Studies HST206: Modern World Studies Students are able to gain credit if they have previously completed this course but did not successfully earn credit. For each unit, students take a diagnostic test that assesses

More information

2. The State Department asked the American Embassy in Moscow to explain Soviet behavior.

2. The State Department asked the American Embassy in Moscow to explain Soviet behavior. 1. The Americans become increasingly impatient with the Soviets. 2. The State Department asked the American Embassy in Moscow to explain Soviet behavior. 3. On February 22, 1946, George Kennan an American

More information

Introduction to the Cold War

Introduction to the Cold War Introduction to the Cold War What is the Cold War? The Cold War is the conflict that existed between the United States and Soviet Union from 1945 to 1991. It is called cold because the two sides never

More information

World History I (Master) Content Skills Learning Targets Assessment Resources & Technology CEQ: features of early. civilizations.

World History I (Master) Content Skills Learning Targets Assessment Resources & Technology CEQ: features of early. civilizations. St. Michael Albertville High School Teacher: Derek Johnson World History I (Master) September 2014 Content Skills Learning Targets Assessment Resources & Technology CEQ: Early Civilizations 1. I can explain

More information

The Cold War Begins. After WWII

The Cold War Begins. After WWII The Cold War Begins After WWII After WWII the US and the USSR emerged as the world s two. Although allies during WWII distrust between the communist USSR and the democratic US led to the. Cold War tension

More information

Europe and North America Section 1

Europe and North America Section 1 Europe and North America Section 1 Europe and North America Section 1 Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps. Europe and North America Section

More information

nations united with another for some common purpose such as assistance and protection

nations united with another for some common purpose such as assistance and protection SS.7.C.4.1 Differentiate concepts related to U.S. domestic and foreign policy. Students will recognize the difference between domestic and foreign policy. Students will identify issues that relate to U.S.

More information

Russian History. Lecture #1 Ancient History The Romanov s

Russian History. Lecture #1 Ancient History The Romanov s Russian History Lecture #1 Ancient History The Romanov s Outline Russia Lecture #1 Ancient Russia Settlement of Russia Yaroslav the Wise Mongol Invasion of Russia Retaking Russia Ivan the Great Ivan the

More information

Judeo-Christian and Greco-Roman Perspectives

Judeo-Christian and Greco-Roman Perspectives STANDARD 10.1.1 Judeo-Christian and Greco-Roman Perspectives Specific Objective: Analyze the similarities and differences in Judeo-Christian and Greco-Roman views of law, reason and faith, and duties of

More information

Students majoring in International Relations are required to take ONE course from each of the following fields:

Students majoring in International Relations are required to take ONE course from each of the following fields: I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s F I E L D S Students majoring in International Relations are required to take ONE course from each of the following fields: International Politics & Security

More information

Propose solutions to challenges brought on by modern industrialization and globalization.

Propose solutions to challenges brought on by modern industrialization and globalization. Core Content for Assessment: SS-HS-5.3.1 Title / Topic: Classical and Medieval Review, Renaissance and Reformation DOK 2 Define democracy, republic, empire, secular, humanism, theocracy, Protestant Reformation,

More information

Chapter 1. Overview: the modern world and Australia (1918 present)

Chapter 1. Overview: the modern world and Australia (1918 present) Chapter 1 Overview: the modern world and Australia (1918 present) The inter-war years World War I had a devastating global impact. World War I brought about the end to the Ottoman and Austro- Hungarian

More information

THE EARLY COLD WAR YEARS. US HISTORY Chapter 15 Section 2

THE EARLY COLD WAR YEARS. US HISTORY Chapter 15 Section 2 THE EARLY COLD WAR YEARS US HISTORY Chapter 15 Section 2 THE EARLY COLD WAR YEARS CONTAINING COMMUNISM MAIN IDEA The Truman Doctrine offered aid to any nation resisting communism; The Marshal Plan aided

More information

The French Revolution and Napoleon,

The French Revolution and Napoleon, The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789 1815 Why was it so hard for the French to establish a republic than it was for the Americans? How was Napoleon able to take power twice? The French Revolution and

More information

World History Chapter 23 Page Reading Outline

World History Chapter 23 Page Reading Outline World History Chapter 23 Page 601-632 Reading Outline The Cold War Era: Iron Curtain: a phrased coined by Winston Churchill at the end of World War I when her foresaw of the impending danger Russia would

More information

The French Revolution establishes a new political order, Napoleon Bonaparte gains and loses an empire, and European states forge a balance of power.

The French Revolution establishes a new political order, Napoleon Bonaparte gains and loses an empire, and European states forge a balance of power. SLIDE 1 Chapter 23 The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789 1815 The French Revolution establishes a new political order, Napoleon Bonaparte gains and loses an empire, and European states forge a balance

More information

Modern World History Spring Final Exam 09

Modern World History Spring Final Exam 09 1. What was the goal of the Marshall Plan? A. to provide aid to European countries damaged by World War II B. to protect member nations against Soviet Union aggression C. to protect the United States economically

More information

Unit 11: The Cold War B A T T L E O F T H E S U P E R P O W E R S :

Unit 11: The Cold War B A T T L E O F T H E S U P E R P O W E R S : Unit 11: The Cold War B A T T L E O F T H E S U P E R P O W E R S : 1 9 4 6-1 9 9 1 Textbook Help Remember your textbook has a lot of extra information that can really help you learn more about the Cold

More information

AGGRESSORS INVADE NATIONS SECTION 4, CH 15

AGGRESSORS INVADE NATIONS SECTION 4, CH 15 AGGRESSORS INVADE NATIONS SECTION 4, CH 15 VOCAB TO KNOW... APPEASEMENT GIVING IN TO AN AGGRESSOR TO KEEP PEACE PUPPET GOVERNMENT - A STATE THAT IS SUPPOSEDLY INDEPENDENT BUT IS IN FACT DEPENDENT UPON

More information

The Cold War. Origins - Korean War

The Cold War. Origins - Korean War The Cold War Origins - Korean War What is a Cold War? WW II left two nations of almost equal strength but differing goals Cold War A struggle over political differences carried on by means short of direct

More information

Cold War Containment Policies

Cold War Containment Policies VUS.13b Cold War Containment Policies How did the U.S. respond to the threat of communist expansion? "Flags courtesy of www.theodora.com/flags used with permission" Origins of the Cold War The Cold War

More information

One war ends, another begins

One war ends, another begins One war ends, another begins Communism comes from the word common, meaning to belong equally to more than one individual. The related word, commune is a place where people live together and share property

More information

Hitler did not keep his word and six months later demanded that the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia be handed over to Germany.

Hitler did not keep his word and six months later demanded that the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia be handed over to Germany. Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in January 1933. Almost immediately he began secretly building up Germany s army and weapons. In 1934 he increased the size of the army, began building warships

More information

AP European History. -Russian politics and the liberalist movement -parallel developments in. Thursday, August 21, 2003 Page 1 of 21

AP European History. -Russian politics and the liberalist movement -parallel developments in. Thursday, August 21, 2003 Page 1 of 21 Instructional Unit Consolidation of Large Nation States -concept of a nation-state The students will be -define the concept of a -class discussion 8.1.2.A,B,C,D -Mazzini, Garibaldi and Cavour able to define

More information

Journal # 11 04/30/15 Objective: Students will utilize various

Journal # 11 04/30/15 Objective: Students will utilize various Journal # 11 04/30/15 Objective: Students will utilize various resources to identify, compare/contrast, and evaluate the origins, development and effects of the Cold War. Agenda: Journal Cold War PPT Guided

More information

European History

European History European History 101 http://www.ling.gu.se/projekt/sprakfrageladan/images/europe_map.gif Ancient Greece 800BC ~ 200BC Birthplace of Democracy Known for system of government city-states Spread Greek culture

More information

Reading Essentials and Study Guide

Reading Essentials and Study Guide Lesson 4 The Fall of Napoleon and the European Reaction ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS What causes revolution? How does revolution change society? Reading HELPDESK Academic Vocabulary civil involving the general

More information

AP European History Month Content/Essential Questions Skills/Activities Resources Assessments Standards/Anchors

AP European History Month Content/Essential Questions Skills/Activities Resources Assessments Standards/Anchors Month Content/Essential Questions Skills/Activities Resources Assessments Standards/Anchors September October Unit I: Western Civilization and the Renaissance Greek and Roman influence Christianity s rise

More information

Grade Level: 9-12 Course#: 1548 Length: Full Year Credits: 2 Diploma: Core 40, Academic Honors, Technical Honors Prerequisite: None

Grade Level: 9-12 Course#: 1548 Length: Full Year Credits: 2 Diploma: Core 40, Academic Honors, Technical Honors Prerequisite: None World History/Civilization Grade Level: 9- Course#: 548 Length: Full Year Credits: Diploma: Core 40, Academic Honors, Technical Honors Prerequisite: None This two semester course emphasizes events and

More information

The Hot Days of the Cold War

The Hot Days of the Cold War The Hot Days of the Cold War Brian Frydenborg History 321, Soviet Russia 3/18/02 On my honor, I have neither given nor received any unacknowledged aid on this paper. The origins of the cold war up to 1953

More information

Unit 28 ( ) American Nation Textbook Pages

Unit 28 ( ) American Nation Textbook Pages Unit 28 (1945-1991) American Nation Textbook Pages 809-839 1 1. The Cold War Begins After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union became rivals. They competed for influence around the world

More information

THE IRON CURTAIN. From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the continent. - Winston Churchill

THE IRON CURTAIN. From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the continent. - Winston Churchill COLD WAR 1945-1991 1. The Soviet Union drove the Germans back across Eastern Europe. 2. They occupied several countries along it s western border and considered them a necessary buffer or wall of protection

More information

Reading Essentials and Study Guide

Reading Essentials and Study Guide Lesson 3 The Rise of Napoleon and the Napoleonic Wars ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS What causes revolution? How does revolution change society? Reading HELPDESK Academic Vocabulary capable having or showing ability

More information

The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4. Napoleon s Fall

The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4. Napoleon s Fall Main Idea Napoleon s Fall After defeating Napoleon, the European allies sent him into exile and held a meeting in Vienna to restore order and stability to Europe. 1) Disaster and Defeat /The Russian Campaign

More information

All societies, large and small, develop some form of government.

All societies, large and small, develop some form of government. The Origins and Evolution of Government (HA) All societies, large and small, develop some form of government. During prehistoric times, when small bands of hunter-gatherers wandered Earth in search of

More information

How China Can Defeat America

How China Can Defeat America How China Can Defeat America By YAN XUETONG Published: November 20, 2011 WITH China s growing influence over the global economy, and its increasing ability to project military power, competition between

More information

Modern World History - Honors Course Study Guide

Modern World History - Honors Course Study Guide Created 1-11 Modern World History - Honors Course Study Guide Unit I Absolutism 1. What was absolutism? How did the absolute monarchs of Europe in the 16 th and 17 th centuries justify their right to rule?

More information

DURING WWII THE US AND THE SOVIET UNION HAD JOINED

DURING WWII THE US AND THE SOVIET UNION HAD JOINED DURING WWII THE US AND THE SOVIET UNION HAD JOINED FORCES AGAINST THE GERMANS BUT AFTER THE WAR, THEIR COMPETING POLITICAL PHILOSOPHIES WOULD LEAD TO NEARLY A HALF-CENTURY OF CONFLICT CALLED THE COLD WAR.

More information

TABLE OF CONTENTS UNIT 1 LONG AGO

TABLE OF CONTENTS UNIT 1 LONG AGO TABLE OF CONTENTS UNIT 1 LONG AGO IMPORTANT WORDS TO KNOW... 1 CHAPTER 1 LONG AGO LONG AGO... 2 FIRST CIVILIZATION... 3 EGYPT...4 FIRST EMPIRES... 5 INDIA AND CHINA... 6 CHAPTER 2 ANCIENT GREECE GREECE...

More information

Nationalism movement wanted to: UNIFICATION: peoples of common culture from different states were joined together

Nationalism movement wanted to: UNIFICATION: peoples of common culture from different states were joined together 7-3.2 Analyze the effects of the Napoleonic Wars on the development and spread of nationalism in Europe, including the Congress of Vienna, the revolutionary movements of 1830 and 1848, and the unification

More information

GRADE 10 WORLD HISTORY, CULTURE, AND GEOGRAPHY: THE MODERN WORLD

GRADE 10 WORLD HISTORY, CULTURE, AND GEOGRAPHY: THE MODERN WORLD GRADE 10 WORLD HISTORY, CULTURE, AND GEOGRAPHY: THE MODERN WORLD Students in grade ten study major turning points that shaped the modern world, from the late 18th century through the present, including

More information

UNIT 4: POLITICAL ORGANIZATION OF SPACE

UNIT 4: POLITICAL ORGANIZATION OF SPACE UNIT 4: POLITICAL ORGANIZATION OF SPACE Advanced Placement Human Geography Session 5 SUPRANATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: CHANGING THE MEANING OF SOVEREIGNTY SUPRANATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS Supranational organizations

More information

Chapter 17 WS - Dr. Larson - Summer School

Chapter 17 WS - Dr. Larson - Summer School Name: Class: _ Date: _ Chapter 17 WS - Dr. Larson - Summer School Matching IDENTIFYING KEY TERMS, PEOPLE, AND PLACES Match each name with his or her description below. You will not use all the names. a.

More information

CPWH Agenda for Unit 12.3: Clicker Review Questions World War II: notes Today s HW: 31.4 Unit 12 Test: Wed, April 13

CPWH Agenda for Unit 12.3: Clicker Review Questions World War II: notes Today s HW: 31.4 Unit 12 Test: Wed, April 13 Essential Question: What caused World War II? What were the major events during World War II from 1939 to 1942? CPWH Agenda for Unit 12.3: Clicker Review Questions World War II: 1939-1942 notes Today s

More information

History (HIST) History (HIST) 1

History (HIST) History (HIST) 1 History (HIST) 1 History (HIST) HIST 110 Fndn. of American Liberty 3.0 SH [GEH] A survey of American history from the colonial era to the present which looks at how the concept of liberty has both changed

More information

Name Class Date. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 3

Name Class Date. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 3 Name Class Date Section 3 MAIN IDEA Napoleon Bonaparte rose through military ranks to become emperor over France and much of Europe. Key Terms and People Napoleon Bonaparte ambitious military leader who

More information

Clash of Philosophies: 11/10/2010

Clash of Philosophies: 11/10/2010 1. Notebook Entry: Nationalism Vocabulary 2. What does nationalism look like? EQ: What role did Nationalism play in 19 th century political development? Common Language, Romanticism, We vs. They, Irrational

More information

World History (Survey) Restructuring the Postwar World, 1945 Present

World History (Survey) Restructuring the Postwar World, 1945 Present World History (Survey) Chapter 33: Restructuring the Postwar World, 1945 Present Section 1: Two Superpowers Face Off The United States and the Soviet Union were allies during World War II. In February

More information

Chapter 8: Political Geography. Unit 4

Chapter 8: Political Geography. Unit 4 Chapter 8: Political Geography Unit 4 Where Are States Distributed? Introducing political geography State an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government that has control

More information

Europe Faces Revolution

Europe Faces Revolution 8.2 Notes: Europe Faces Revolution World History 9 th Mr. Sanderson Europe, 1815 Napoleon was defeated ended 25 years of war in Europe Old monarchs were restored to power (with limited powers) The Congress

More information

Teachers Name: Nathan Clayton Course: World History Academic Year/Semester: Fall 2012-Spring 2013

Teachers Name: Nathan Clayton Course: World History Academic Year/Semester: Fall 2012-Spring 2013 Amory High School Curriculum Map Teachers Name: Nathan Clayton Course: World History Academic Year/Semester: Fall 2012-Spring 2013 Essential Questions First Nine Weeks Second Nine Weeks Third Nine Weeks

More information

The Road to World War One

The Road to World War One The Road to World War One 1 Warfare is the Agent of Historic Change Recorded history begins at approximately 3,500 B.C. Prior to that everything is called Pre- Historic 3,500 BC 2017 AD (5,517 Years) Approximately

More information

The Road to World War One

The Road to World War One The Road to World War One 1 Warfare is the Agent of Historic Change Recorded history begins at approximately 3,500 B.C. Prior to that everything is called Pre- Historic 3,500 BC 2018 AD (5,518 Years) Approximately

More information

How did the United States respond to the threat of communist expansion? What are the origins of the Cold War?

How did the United States respond to the threat of communist expansion? What are the origins of the Cold War? Module 12: Triumph, Tragedy and Turmoil (1960-1980) Guided Notes Standard VUS.13b (Cold War Containment) The student will demonstrate knowledge of United States foreign policy since World War II by b)

More information

LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying Chapter 20, you should be able to: 1. Identify the many actors involved in making and shaping American foreign policy and discuss the roles they play. 2. Describe how

More information

The Roots of the Cold War

The Roots of the Cold War The Roots of the Cold War Communism No real wealthy people State/country controls everything business related No free enterprise system 1 ruler that can easily turn into a dictatorship Roots of the Cold

More information

IB Grade IA = 20% Paper 1 = 20% Paper 2 = 25% Paper 3 = 35%

IB Grade IA = 20% Paper 1 = 20% Paper 2 = 25% Paper 3 = 35% IB Grade IA = 20% Paper 1 = 20% Paper 2 = 25% Paper 3 = 35% Grade 11 Major Topic Canadian History Canada to 1867 (founding peoples, confederation and nature of BNA) History of Manitoba and the Northwest

More information

THE COLD WAR Learning Goal 1:

THE COLD WAR Learning Goal 1: THE COLD WAR Learning Goal 1: Describe the causes and effects of the Cold War and explain how the Korean War, Vietnam War and the arms race were associated with the Cold War. RESULTS OF WWII RESULTS VE

More information

Extra Credit. 1. What Estate held high offices in army, government & courts? 2. Besides the French Revolution, what other event took place in 1789?

Extra Credit. 1. What Estate held high offices in army, government & courts? 2. Besides the French Revolution, what other event took place in 1789? Extra Credit 1. What Estate held high offices in army, government & courts? 2. Besides the French Revolution, what other event took place in 1789? 3. Identify the three groups of people that made up the

More information

HIGH SCHOOL: WORLD HISTORY

HIGH SCHOOL: WORLD HISTORY World History GLEs HIGH SCHOOL: WORLD HISTORY Standard 1 Historical Thinking Skills Students use information and concepts to solve problems, interpret, analyze, and draw conclusions from historical events.

More information

Origins of the Cold War. A Chilly Power Point Presentation Brought to You by Ms. Shen

Origins of the Cold War. A Chilly Power Point Presentation Brought to You by Ms. Shen Origins of the Cold War A Chilly Power Point Presentation Brought to You by Ms. Shen What was the Cold War? The Cold War was a 40+ year long conflict between the U.S. and the Soviet Union that started

More information

The French Revolution and Napoleon, The French Revolution and Napoleon, The French Revolution Begins.

The French Revolution and Napoleon, The French Revolution and Napoleon, The French Revolution Begins. The French Revolution and Napoleon, 789 8 The French Revolution establishes a new political order, Napoleon Bonaparte gains and loses an empire, and European states forge a balance of power. The French

More information

America after WWII. The 1946 through the 1950 s

America after WWII. The 1946 through the 1950 s America after WWII The 1946 through the 1950 s The United Nations In 1944 President Roosevelt began to think about what the world would be like after WWII He especially wanted to be sure that there would

More information

The Cold War Heats Up. Chapter AP US History

The Cold War Heats Up. Chapter AP US History + The Cold War Heats Up Chapter 37-38 AP US History + Goal Statement After studying this chapter students should be able to: Explain how the policies of both the United States and the Soviet Union led

More information

From Leadership among Nations to Leadership among Peoples

From Leadership among Nations to Leadership among Peoples From Leadership among Nations to Leadership among Peoples By Ambassador Wendelin Ettmayer* Let us define leadership as the ability to motivate others to accomplish a common goal, to overcome difficulties,

More information

Prelude to War. The Causes of World War II

Prelude to War. The Causes of World War II Prelude to War The Causes of World War II The Treaty of Versailles Harsh, bitter treaty that ended WWI Germany must: Accept responsibility for WWI Pay war reparations to Allies Demilitarize the Rhineland

More information

Write 3 words you think of when you hear Cold War? THE COLD WAR ( )

Write 3 words you think of when you hear Cold War? THE COLD WAR ( ) THE Write 3 words you think of when you hear Cold War? COLD WAR (1948-1989) ORIGINS of the Cold War: (1945-1948) Tension or rivalry but NO FIGHTING between the United States and the Soviet Union This rivalry

More information

End of WWI and Early Cold War

End of WWI and Early Cold War End of WWI and Early Cold War Why So Scary, Communism? It posed a direct threat to democracy and capitalism Struggle between US and USSR was political but battle between good and evil Democracy A system

More information

China s Uncertain Future. Laura DiLuigi. 19 February 2002

China s Uncertain Future. Laura DiLuigi. 19 February 2002 China s Uncertain Future Laura DiLuigi 19 February 2002 From the moment President Richard Nixon visited China and signed the Shanghai Communique in 1972, the precedent was set for the extraordinary relationship

More information

(3) parliamentary democracy (2) ethnic rivalries

(3) parliamentary democracy (2) ethnic rivalries 1) In the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin governed by means of secret police, censorship, and purges. This type of government is called (1) democracy (2) totalitarian 2) The Ancient Athenians are credited

More information

Overview: The World Community from

Overview: The World Community from Overview: The World Community from 1945 1990 By Encyclopaedia Britannica, adapted by Newsela staff on 06.15.17 Word Count 874 Level 1050L During the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, Czechoslovakians

More information

Write the letter of the description that does NOT match the name or term.

Write the letter of the description that does NOT match the name or term. Page 1 Write the letter of the description that does NOT match the name or term. 1. Joseph Stalin a. totalitarian b. Communist c. launched a massive drive to collectivize agriculture d. entered into a

More information

World History Chapter 24

World History Chapter 24 World History Chapter 24 Problem: How to bring stability & security back to Europe which was destroyed by the French Revolution & Napoleon Solution: Dominant 5 form an alliance (dominated by Russia, Prussia,

More information

The Cold War -- North Korea

The Cold War -- North Korea The Cold War -- North Korea The social, political, and economic situation in North Korea can seem funny at first glance -- those weird people doing completely bizarre things. In reality however, it is

More information

WORLD HISTORY WORLD WAR II

WORLD HISTORY WORLD WAR II WORLD HISTORY WORLD WAR II BOARD QUESTIONS 1) WHO WAS THE LEADER OF GERMANY IN THE 1930 S? 2) WHO WAS THE LEADER OF THE SOVIET UNION DURING WWII? 3) LIST THE FIRST THREE STEPS OF HITLER S PLAN TO DOMINATE

More information

TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Cold War Tensions (Chapter 30 Quiz)

TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Cold War Tensions (Chapter 30 Quiz) Cold War Tensions (Chapter 30 Quiz) What were the military and political consequences of the Cold War in the Soviet Union, Europe, and the United States? After World War II ended, the United States and

More information

Politics of the 18th Century

Politics of the 18th Century Politics of the 18th Century Enlightened Absolutism The Enlightenment also had an effect upon the political development of Europe Concept of Natural Rights A corollary to the idea of natural laws were

More information

Reading Essentials and Study Guide

Reading Essentials and Study Guide Lesson 1 World War II Begins ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS Why do political actions often lead to war? How does war impact society and the environment? Reading HELPDESK Academic Vocabulary dominate to influence

More information

Topic 5: The Cold War (Compiled from 10 Topic and 6 Topic Format) Revised 2012

Topic 5: The Cold War (Compiled from 10 Topic and 6 Topic Format) Revised 2012 Topic 5: The Cold War (Compiled from 10 Topic and 6 Topic Format) Revised 2012 [Since 1998, the pattern is: two subject specific questions, two questions allowing a choice of examples, and one question

More information

An Unequal French Society. Reading #1: The French Revolution (Page ) Topic: Long term problems: Inequality in France

An Unequal French Society. Reading #1: The French Revolution (Page ) Topic: Long term problems: Inequality in France Reading #1: Problem (Old Regime) Phase Experiencing World History An Unequal French Society Reading #1: The French Revolution (Page 476 478) Topic: Long term problems: Inequality in France 1. Who made

More information

With regard to the outbreak of World War Two the following events are seen as being contributing factors:

With regard to the outbreak of World War Two the following events are seen as being contributing factors: World War Two began in September 1939 when Britain and France declared war on Germany following Germany s invasion of Poland. The war ended in Europe on 6 th May 1945 when Germany surrendered. The war

More information

THE COLD WAR ( )

THE COLD WAR ( ) THE COLD WAR (1948-1989) ORIGINS of the Cold War: (1945-1948) Tension or rivalry but NO FIGHTING between the United States and the Soviet Union This rivalry divided the world into two teams (capitalism

More information

4.2.2 Korea, Cuba, Vietnam. Causes, Events and Results

4.2.2 Korea, Cuba, Vietnam. Causes, Events and Results 4.2.2 Korea, Cuba, Vietnam Causes, Events and Results This section will illustrate the extent of the Cold War outside of Europe & its impact on international affairs Our focus will be to analyze the causes

More information

Results of World War II Crossword

Results of World War II Crossword Name Date Period Chapter 27 Results of World War II Crossword Workbook 107 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Across 1) country that became a superpower after World War II 3) these people were killed

More information

After the Cold War. Europe and North America Section 4. Main Idea

After the Cold War. Europe and North America Section 4. Main Idea Main Idea Content Statements: After the Cold War The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 and the Cold War came to an end, bringing changes to Europe and leaving the United States as the world s only superpower.

More information

Lebon Peace Fund Proposal. The Lebon Peace Fund and its founder Derfla Lebon believe that war is a terribly

Lebon Peace Fund Proposal. The Lebon Peace Fund and its founder Derfla Lebon believe that war is a terribly 17.42 Lebon Peace Fund Proposal The Lebon Peace Fund and its founder Derfla Lebon believe that war is a terribly costly affair in both treasure and human life and because of this, it should be avoided

More information

$100 People. WWII and Cold War. The man who made demands at Yalta who led to the dropping of the "iron curtain" around the eastern European countries.

$100 People. WWII and Cold War. The man who made demands at Yalta who led to the dropping of the iron curtain around the eastern European countries. People WWII and Cold War Jeopardy Between the Geography Treaties and Battles of Wars WWII Hot Spots of the Cold War $100 People WWII and Cold War $100 People WWII and Cold War Q $100 Q $100 Q $100 Q $100

More information

Course Overview Course Length Materials Prerequisites Course Outline

Course Overview Course Length Materials Prerequisites Course Outline HST203: Modern World Studies Course Overview Course Length Materials Prerequisites Course Outline COURSE OVERVIEW In this comprehensive course, students follow the history of the world from approximately

More information