Bentley Chapter 28 Study Guide: Revolutions and National States in the Atlantic World

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1 Bentley Chapter 28 Study Guide: Revolutions and National States in the Atlantic World Eyewitness: Olympe de Gouges Declares the Rights of Women ( ) 1. What did Olympe de Gouges campaign for in Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen? What was the result? 2. What ideas inspired revolutions for political and social change? 3. What were the two global results of revolutions in the late 18 th and early 19 th century? Popular Sovereignty and Political Upheaval ( ) 4. What did revolutionaries argue for and who did they attack to justify their policies? Enlightened and Revolutionary Ideas (623) 5. Describe the government system that was most common throughout the world. Enlightened and Revolutionary Ideas: Popular Sovereignty (623) 6. Explain John Locke s theory on government according to his Second Treatise of Civil Government? Enlightened and Revolutionary Ideas: Individual Freedom (623) 7. What individual freedoms did philosophes such as Voltaire call for? Enlightened and Revolutionary Ideas: Political and Legal Equality(623) 8. What in Enlightened ideas did Rousseau support? - 1 -

2 Enlightened and Revolutionary Ideas: Global Influence of Enlightenment Values ( ) 9. Explain the process in which enlightened ideas spread. 10. What Enlightenment ideas served as interests for European and Euro-American men? The American Revolution (624) 11. Who dominated global trade as a result of the French and Indian/Seven Years War? The American Revolution: Tightened British Control of the Colonies (624) 12. What factor contributed to the colonists feeling of autonomy? 13. What issues caused conflict between the colonists and the British and what did the colonists do in response to these conflicts? The American Revolution: The Declaration of Independence (625) 14. Where did the Declaration of Independence influence derive from? Be specific. 15. What ideas of John Locke did the Declaration of Independence include? The American Revolution: Building an Independent State ( ) 16. What did the Constitution of the United States emphasize? Give specific examples

3 17. Describe characteristics of the independent state. The French Revolution (627) 18. How were the French Revolution and American Revolution similar? 19. How were the French Revolution and American Revolution different? The French Revolution: The Estates General (627) 20. What problems did France face to lead them to revolution? 21. Who made up the third estate and what problem did they face? The French Revolution: The National Assembly ( ) 22. Who created the National Assembly and what was their goal? The French Revolution: Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity ( ) 23. How did the National Assembly achieve their goal? The French Revolution: The Convention (629) 24. What radical change to the government was made by the Convention? 25. Who was Robespierre and what happened to France during his campaign of terror? Give specific examples

4 The French Revolution: The Directory (629) 26. Why was Napoleon able to seize power? The Reign of Napoleon (629) 27. What type of government did Napoleon establish after he gained control of the Directory? The Reign of Napoleon: Napoleonic France ( ) 28. What did Napoleon bring to France after the Revolution? 29. How did Napoleon s religious policies reflect Enlightened ideas? 30. Despite the equalities established under the Civil Code (Napoleonic Code), where did it limit enlightened ideals of equality? Give multiple examples. The Reign of Napoleon: Napoleon s Empire (631) 31. Who did Napoleon appoint to rule the European countries he conquered? 32. What country did Napoleon fail to invade, which contributed to the decline of his empire? The Reign of Napoleon: The Fall of Napoleon (631) 33. What happened in April 1814 and then again in 1815? The Influence of Revolution (631) - 4 -

5 34. What enlightened ideals appealed to people in the Americas and Europe due to the American and French Revolution? 35. How did the American and French Revolutions influence social reformers in Latin America, and how were their ideals different than that of North America and France? 36. Despite the abolition of slavery, what was the status of former slaves in Europe and the American states? The Haitian Revolution (631) 37. What is the significance of the Haitian Revolution? The Haitian Revolution: Saint-Domingue Society ( ) 38. What were the three major groups that made up the population of Saint-Domingue? Who made up the majority of the population? 39. Describe the communities that were created in Saint-Domingue by the 18 th century. 40. Explain the reasons the American and French Revolutions prepared the way for a political and social revolution in Saint-Domingue

6 The Haitian Revolution: Toussaint Louverture (633) 41. How did Toussaint Louverture incorporate the enlightened ideals of the American and French Revolutions into Saint-Domingue? The Haitian Revolution: Saint-Domingue Society ( ) 42. What became the second independent republic in the western hemisphere? Wars of Independence in Latin America: Latin American Society ( ) 43. What were the grievances of the creoles? Wars of Independence in Latin America: Mexican Independence (636) 44. Who led the rebellion in Mexico and how do contemporaries view his movement? 45. Describe Mexico s independence from colonial rule. Wars of Independence in Latin America: Simon Bolivar (636) 46. Who was Simon Bolivar and who was his inspiration? 47. Where did Jose de San Martin lead revolutions? 48. What was Bolivar s goal and did he succeed? Wars of Independence in Latin America: Creole Dominance ( ) 49. Describe the government established in Brazil when they achieved independence from Portugal

7 Emergence of Ideologies: Conservatism (637) 50. How did conservatives view society? Emergence of Ideologies: Liberalism (637) 51. How did liberals differ from conservatives? 52. What type of government did liberals tend to favor? 53. Who was the most prominent exponent of liberalism? Describe his beliefs. Testing the Limits of Revolutionary Ideals: Slavery ( ) 54. List the implications each revolution had. a. North America: b. France: c. Haiti: d. South America: Testing the Limits of Revolutionary Ideals: Movements to End the Slave Trade (638) 55. Why did William Wilberforce argue to end the slave trade? Testing the Limits of Revolutionary Ideals: Movements to Abolish Slavery (638) 56. Why was the abolition of slavery harder than abolition the slave trade? - 7 -

8 Testing the Limits of Revolutionary Ideals: Freedom without Equality (638) 57. Although abolition brought legal freedom for African and African American slaves, what were the limitations? Testing the Limits of Revolutionary Ideals: Women s Rights (638) 58. What role did women play in revolutionary movements? Testing the Limits of Revolutionary Ideals: Enlightenment Ideals and Women ( ) 59. What was Mary Wollstonecraft s argument in her essay A Vindication of the Rights of Women? Testing the Limits of Revolutionary Ideals: Women s Rights Movements ( ) 60. Who organized the Seneca Falls Conference and what was accomplished? The Consolidation of National States in Europe ( ) 61. Describe the states European nationalist leaders work to create, during the nineteenth century. Nations and Nationalism (641) 62. Describe how the ideology of nationalism was impacting Europe in the nineteenth century. Nations and Nationalism: Political Nationalism (641) 63. In what ways did nationalism impact the political atmosphere in Europe? Nations and Nationalism: Nationalism and Anti-Semitism (642) 64. What effect did nationalism have on Jews in Europe? Give specific examples

9 Nations and Nationalism: Zionism (642) 65. Where did many Jewish migrants go during the 20 th century? The Emergence of National Communities: The Congress of Vienna (643) 66. What were the goals of the great powers that met at the Congress of Vienna after the fall of Napoleon? The Emergence of National Communities: Nationalist Rebellions (643) 67. Where else in Europe, did people use nationalism against the Ottoman Empire, to create independent states? The Unifications of Italy and Germany (644) 68. Describe the political map of Germany and Italy after the fall of the Roman Empire. The Unifications of Italy and Germany: Cavour and Garibaldi ( ) 69. What type of government was established in Italy once it was unified? The Unifications of Italy and Germany: Otto von Bismark (645) 70. Describe the unification of Germany and its government. 71. What conclusion did the unification of Germany and Italy provide? - 9 -

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