Juan Ignacio Martínez de Morentin de Goñi. What is International Education? UNESCO Answers. Editorial San Sebastian UNESCO Centre

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1 Juan Ignacio Martínez de Morentin de Goñi What is International Education? UNESCO Answers Editorial San Sebastian UNESCO Centre 1

2 Cover photo: UNESCO Headquarters (32 nd General Conference). San Sebastian UNESCO Centre (06/10/03) Original title: Qué es la educación internacional? Responde la UNESCO Translation: Paul Feith This book is not an official document of UNESCO. Juan Ignacio Martínez de Morentin de Goñi UNESCO Training Centre-Florida Eskola San Sebastian UNESCO Centre 1 st edition: July 2004 ISBN D.L.: SS-1546/04 Printed in San Sebastian (Grupo Delta) 2

3 Index Pag. Introduction... 5 I. Education for international understanding... 7 I.1. The first stage: education for international understanding... 9 I.1.1. Evolution and development I UNESCO s international instruments I.1.2. Towards a definition of education for international understanding 27 I International cooperation, as a consequence of education for international understanding Peace, as a consequence of education for international understanding II. The first stage of defining education for international understanding II.1. Education for living in a world community II.1.1. The United Nations system II.2. Fundamental education II.3. Human rights and fundamental liberties 56 III. International education for an international understanding III.1. The second stage III.2. The objectives of international education III.2.1. The development of the human personality III.2.2. Human rights and fundamental liberties

4 III.2.3. Understanding, tolerance and friendship between nations III.2.4. Promoting peace III.3. Contents of international education III.4. What is international education

5 Introduction UNESCO understands international education as a process resulting from international understanding, cooperation and peace. This results from combining three perspectives: the first, human rights -in a strict sense- the second, fundamental liberties -stressing its possibilities and requirements- and the third, the United Nations system -understanding the way in which it is committed to achieving peace. International education is education for international understanding. This understanding must impregnate all of its educational system s actions and materials. It is not a separate course. Instead, it must be present in all courses. International education or education for international understanding is the entire programme, the motivation behind any teachinglearning process. 5

6 This book explains ideas and models that UNESCO has worked with in order to clarify what it aims for in education. This is seen through the resolutions of the general conferences and the Executive Board decisions of 1946 to 2004, which are UNESCO s framework in defining international education. 6

7 I Education for international understanding The year 1974 is the turning point for UNESCO s process in defining the concept of education for international understanding. The approval of the recommendation concerning Education for International Understanding, Co-operation and Peace and Education relating to Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms -also known as the 1974 Recommendation- ordains and summarizes the developments of the constitutional principles of education oriented towards comprehension between nations; in other words, education for international understanding. Then, a reflection is begun which would 7

8 conclude in 1995 with the approval of the Integrated Framework of Action on Education for Peace, Human Rights and Democracy 1. This Plan does not underscore the 1974 Recommendation: it is considered as an instrument which continues to inspire the implementation of education for peace, human rights and democracy 2. The reflection on international education as the heart of Unesco s education programme 3 does 1 UNESCO, Records of the General Conference. Volume 1. Resolutions, Programme for Major Programmes and Transdisciplinary Projects. Transdisciplinary projects and activities. Education for peace, human rights, democracy, international understanding and tolerance. Updating of the 1974 Recommendation on international education: Endorsement of the Declaration of the 44 th session of the International Conference on Education and approval of the Draft Integrated Framework of Action on Education for Peace, Human Rights and Democracy. Annex II. Integrated Framework of Action on Education for Peace, Human Rights and Democracy, resolution 28C/IV.5.41.II, Paris, 1995, pp UNESCO, op. cit. in note 1, resolution 28C/IV , p UNESCO, Records of the General Conference. Resolutions, Annexes. Report of the Programme Commission. Appendix II. Report of sub-commission I concerning the future 8

9 not change, taking into consideration UNESCO s ethical, educational and intellectual mission 4. By 1947, the Executive Board was asking itself if education, science and culture would help in promoting and maintaining peace and security 5. I.1. The first stage: education for international understanding With respect to education for international understanding, it had become necessary to have a document specifying content methods, resources and activities. These requests were discussed in the 1974 Recommendation. Programme in the field of education. Other suggested priorities, resolution 14C/B..II.Appendix II.17, Paris, 1966, p UNESCO, op. cit. in note 2. 5 EXECUTIVE BOARD, Record of decisions (of the Executive Board at its second session, 1947), Item 8 - Programme. I Part. General Projects and Activities. Fundamental Education, decision 2EX/8.B.3.(a), Paris, April 15 th, 1947, p. 4. 9

10 In this document motivations and objectives are highlighted, and the Recommendation is a result of the responsibility incumbent on States to achieve through education the aims set forth in the Charter of the United Nations, the Constitution of Unesco, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Geneva Conventions for the Protection of Victims of War of 12 August 1949, in order to promote international understanding, co-operation and peace and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; of the responsibility which is incumbent on Unesco to encourage and support in Member States any activity designed to ensure the education of all for the advancement of justice, freedom, human rights and peace; 10

11 and of the wide disparity between proclaimed ideals, declared intentions and the actual situation 6. Moreover; the Recommendation defines education for international understanding by stating that the terms international understanding, cooperation and peace are to be considered as an indivisible whole based on the principle of friendly relations between peoples and States having different social and political systems and on the respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. In the text of this recommendation, the different connotations of these terms are sometimes gathered together in a concise expression, international education. The terms international education and peace 6 UNESCO, Records of the General Conference. Volume 1. Resolutions, Recommendations. Recommendation concerning Education for International Understanding, Cooperation and Peace and Education relating to Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, resolution 18C/X.38, preface, Paris, 1974, p

12 that are used as synonyms for international understanding form part of the indivisible whole, and are united to create one objective for an educational process which must be understood as the entire process of social life by means of which individuals and social groups learn to develop consciously within, and for the benefit of, the national and international communities, the whole of their personal capacities, attitudes, aptitudes and knowledge 7. However, international education was not limited to achieving international cooperation and peace or the combination of these terms in the realm of teaching and learning aimed at reaching an environment favouring respect, justice, liberty and the reverence of nations and cultures. Human rights and fundamental liberties, as well as the United Nation s actions were also considered as topics in relation to international 7 UNESCO, op. cit. in note 6, Significance of terms, resolution 18C/X.38.1.(a), p

13 education, and thus recommended as elements worth adjoining to this sphere. According to the 1974 Recommendation, the human rights and fundamental freedoms are those defined in the United Nations Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenants on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and on Civil and Political Rights 8. This Recommendation can be considered as a synthesis of the operative guide to the UNESCO constitutional mandate on international education material. Years after the proclamation, what was the precursor on education for international understanding would be known as the Recommendation on International Education 9. 8 UNESCO, op. cit. in note 7, resolution 18C/X.38.1.(c). 9 UNESCO, Records of the General Conference. Volume 1. Resolutions, Programme for Major Programme 13

14 I.1.1. Evolution and development Three times throughout its history -until a General Conference had forgotten to refer to international understanding as a result of a genuine educational process. This is a recurring concept that even summarizes UNESCO s ultimate aim as expressed in its Constitution s preamble: that since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed 10. The Executive Board immediately assumes this by dedicating a section on education for international understanding in a document from Areas. Social and human sciences: contribution to development, peace, human rights and democracy Recommendation concerning Education for International Understanding, Co-operation and Peace and Education relating to Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, resolution 27C/III.5.7, Paris, 1993, p UNESCO, Constitution, preface. 14

15 their second session. This decision takes the International Studies Centres into consideration, and establishes that they must continue to form part of the Education for International Understanding project 11. The Executive Board would go on to confirm that education for international understanding is part of UNESCO s identity. The Executive Board would compel the UNESCO action on educational material in Japan to have the same educational perspective of UNESCO, and that it be explicitly noted 12. Months later, the Executive Board would again highlight that the methods used to reach peace are supported by education for international understanding. Furthermore, the Executive Board would 11 EXECUTIVE BOARD, op. cit. in note 5, Education for International Understanding decision 2EX/8.C. Note EXECUTIVE BOARD, Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its nineteenth session from 13 to 25 February 1950, Programme. Programme to be submitted to the fifth session of the General Conference. Draft resolution regarding Unesco's activities in Japan in 1951, decision 19EX/5.I.5.(e), Paris, 2 March 1950, p

16 express that it is convinced that the UNESCO methods also serve the United Nations system s objectives for peace 13. In this same line, in 1951, the Executive Board would approve a settlement in relation to education for international understanding 14. And in 1952, it recommends that Member States, and accredited Non-Governmental Organizations make more specific use of the facilities and machinery available in Unesco for the planning and administration of international fellowships and Exchange of Persons Programme, which include, inter alia, [...] advisory services for the assistance of governments in determining the 13 EXECUTIVE BOARD, Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its twenty-third session, 26 August to 2 September 1950), Contribution of Unesco to the action of the United Nations and specialized agencies following the aggression against Korea, 23EX/4.A.I, Paris, 8 September 1950, p EXECUTIVE BOARD, op. cit. in note 13, Programme for 1951: Execution of resolution adopted by the fifth session of the General Conference. Education. Education for International Understanding, decision 23EX/8.I.3, p

17 effectiveness of international training schemes as a means of technical instruction and promotion of international understanding 15. Always in line with the earlier desire to prepare for consideration at the 1948 Conference a draft convention under the term of which the Member States may agree, within the limitations and powers of their respective constitutional and legal provisions regarding the control and administration of education to direct the programmes of their respective educational systems at all levels to the end of international peace and security 16, 15 EXECUTIVE BOARD, Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its thirtieth session, 26 May-6 June 1952, Other Programme questions. Exchange of Persons. Report by the Bureau on the Exchange of Persons Programme, decision 30EX/ (5.(f), Paris, 4 July 1952, p UNESCO, Resolutions adopted by the General Conference during its second session, Resolutions adopted on the report of the Programme and Budget Commission. The Programme of Unesco in Chapter 3. - Education, resolution 2C/VIII.A , Paris, 1947, p

18 by 1947 UNESCO would already have requested it, and in 1948 would again insist on it. 17 The next time the topic is approached, they would no longer be discussing a Convention, but instead a regulation on education for international understanding, cooperation and peace: The General Conference, [ ] considers it desirable that an international instrument should be drawn up for this purpose; Decides that this instrument: should take the form of a recommendation to Member States within the meaning of Article IV, paragraph 4, of the Constitution; should also cover education relating to human rights and fundamental freedoms UNESCO, Records of the General Conference. Resolutions, Resolutions adopted on the report of the Programme and Budget Commission. The Programme of Unesco: Chapter 2. - Education. Schools and Youth, resolution 3C/IX.2.514, Paris, 1948, p UNESCO, Records of the General Conference. Volume 1. Resolutions, Recommendations, Programme. Resolutions concerning the programme for and Recommendations concerning future programme. Education. Curriculum, structures and methods of education. Curricula 18

19 However, they hoped that it would influence the States legislations and practical educational procedures. Yet, it would be necessary to look further into education for peace and international understanding; aims, programmes and methods 19, so that the same does not happen as was reported to have occurred in the Report of the International Commission on the Development of Education and comments by the Director-General: the Commission did not deal in depth with education for international understanding and and structures, resolution 17C/II (a) and (b), Paris, 1972, p EXECUTIVE BOARD, Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its 90 th session (Paris, 25 September to 21 November 1972), Methods of work of the Organization. Report of the Executive Board s Special Committee: Topics to be studied in depth in the printed Report of he Director-General (1972). General, decision 90EX/3.1.3.(c).(iv), Paris, 21 December 1972, p

20 peace and the contribution of education to the struggle against racialism and all forms of discrimination 20. This preoccupation for the excellence of education for international understanding had already been manifested by the Executive Board some time back. Specially back in 1961 when the Executive Board is said to have been Mindful of resolution adopted by the General Conference of Unesco at its eleventh session in which the opinion was expressed that a suitable upbringing imbued with a spirit of tolerance and objectivity, can effectively help to eradicate those factors which oppose the establishment of genuine and lasting international understanding, [ ] 20 EXECUTIVE BOARD, op. cit. in note 19, Execution of the Programme. Education. Report of the International Commission on the Development of Education, and comments by the Director-General, decision 90EX/4.1.1.II.(e), p

21 Urges Member States to encourage by every appropriate means, the improvement of textbooks and teaching materials in use at all levels of education in their countries to embody a spirit of tolerance and objectivity 21. In this same manner a year later, another decision was adopted by the Executive Board claiming that in the absence of adequate educational facilities no nation can make its full contribution to the cause of international understanding and world peace to which Unesco is dedicated EXECUTIVE BOARD, Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its sixtieth session (Paris, 25 October - 29 November 1961), Report of the working party established in pursuance of decision 56 EX/8.1.1 to assess the results of Unesco s Programme with special reference to its contribution to international understanding and peaceful cooperation, decision 60EX/6, Paris, 22 December 1961, p EXECUTIVE BOARD, Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its sixty-second session (Paris and Istanbul, 27 August-12 September 1962), Proposed Programme and Budget for Consideration of the Proposed Programme and Budget for and 21

22 And again in 1963 when the Executive Board, besides being convinced that a strong priority must be placed in promoting human rights and international understanding in educational programmes, it considers it necessary to bear in mind the importance of the content of education including the following fields of educational activity: (a) the combating of all forms of discrimination in education; (b) the dissemination among young people of the ideals of peace, friendship and mutual understanding between peoples 23. Finally, and the most relevant with respect o preparation of comments of the Executive Board thereon. Part II - Programme operations and services. Chapter 1 Education, decision 62EX/ , Paris, 12 October 1962, p EXECUTIVE BOARD, Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its sixty-sixth session (Paris, 25 September-29 October 1963), Proposed Programme and Budget for Consideration of the Summary Preliminary Draft Programme and Budget for Education. Priority accorded to education, decision 66EX/5.1.5.II, Paris, 12 November 1963, p

23 raising the levels of education for international understanding, is the 1970 decision. The Executive Board laments that the Director-General has not included in the biennium a proposal for an international conference of government experts for the elaboration of such an instrument to be submitted to the General Conference. And raises the attention of the General Conference to the problem of the credibility of education for international understanding and peace in a world which provides young people with the daily spectacle of violence EXECUTIVE BOARD, Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its 84 th session (Paris, 4 May-19 June 1970), Examination of the Draft Programme and Budget for and recommendations thereon by the Executive Board. Report of the Finance and Administrative Commission on its study of the financial and administrative aspects of document 16C/5. The programme. Unesco s contribution to peace, decision 84EX/5.2.A.IV.(a).8, Paris, 18 July 1970, p

24 I UNESCO s international instruments Throughout its history, UNESCO has approved twenty-two normative texts and international instruments in relation to education. Not all of them directly focus on education for international understanding, but they can not be separated from UNESCO s fundamental motivation: assure universal and equal access to education, to facilitate research of the objective truth and promote the free exchange of ideas and knowledge. There are a total of twelve conventions, seven recommendations of action specific to the material and three declarations of principles. All of these aim at upholding human rights, peace, respect towards people, nations and cultures, and to uphold education, science and culture as the means to implementing a just society that is free and democratic. This doctrine specifically reserves a space for education for international understanding: three 24

25 standardized texts that express UNESCO s thoughts in this subject and that also attempt to create operative links to enable them. This is present in the first approved international instrument, and also in the preamble where the signatory states manifested convinced that in facilitating the international circulation of visual and auditory materials of an educational, scientific and cultural character, the free flow of ideas by word and image will be promoted and the mutual understanding of peoples thereby encouraged, in conformity with the aims of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 25. Thus, one of the foundations of education 25 UNESCO, op. cit. in note 17, Miscellaneous resolutions. Agreement to facilitate the international circulation of visual and auditory materials of an educational, scientific and cultural character. Draft agreement for facilitating the international circulation of visual and auditory materials of an educational, scientific and cultural character, resolution 3C/XIV.5, p

26 for international understanding is to enable the dissemination of ideas. This foundation, besides specifying how international understanding must be understood, is an element that UNESCO wishes to implement by way of agreements that favour effective development, since the free exchange of ideas and knowledge and, in general, the widest possible dissemination of the diverse forms of self-expression used by civilizations are vitally important both for intellectual progress and international understanding, and consequently for the maintenance of world peace 26. Furthermore, to educate and be educated in international understanding, the exchange of publications must also be shared in solidarity, since 26 UNESCO, Records of the General Conference. Resolutions, Appendix agreement on the importation of educational, scientific and cultural materials, resolution 5C/Appendix. Preamble, Paris 1950, p

27 development of the international exchange of publications is essential to the free exchange of ideas and knowledge among the peoples of the world 27. I.1.2. Towards a definition of education for international understanding The first stage of an approximate definition of education for international understanding is characterized by the attempts at finding ways to limit its meaning; by efforts to show the consequences of international understanding; and by determining the elements that would favour a spirit of international understanding. Within this context, it is useful to place some of the Executive Board s first stage interventions. 27 UNESCO, Records of the General Conference. Resolutions, Conventions and recommendation adopted by the General Conference. Convention concerning the International Exchange of Publications, resolution 10C/B.I.preamble, Paris, 1958, p

28 These interventions vary from proposals that favour teaching the United Nations principles 28, to highlighting the importance, for peace and international understanding, of regional activities in education, science and culture 29, including such specific decisions such as the criteria kept in mind when awarding prizes for work in literacy campaigns: contribution to the 28 EXECUTIVE BOARD, Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its thirty-fourth session (Paris, 8-15 June 1953), External relations. Relations with International Governmental Organizations. Report on the first meeting of the Joint Committee on Co-ordination of Unesco and the Organization of American States. The Executive Board has the following comments to make on the remaining proposals: Education in the principles of the United Nations, decision 34EX/8.3.1.VI.19, Paris, 30 June 1953, p EXECUTIVE BOARD, Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its seventy-seventh session (Paris, 9 October-4 November 1967), Preparation of the Draft Programme and Budget for Director-General s proposals concerning a concrete plan of activity to reinforce the contribution of the Organization to peace, international co-operation and security of peoples through education, science and culture, decision 77EX/5.2.4, Paris, 17 November 1967, p

29 appreciation of other cultures and to international understanding 30. The 1974 Recommendation -which would be the last of this stage- would unite the fluctuations, intuitions and antecedents by establishing an authoritative doctrine. In any case, this doctrine is based on the necessity to disseminate the best methods of developing mutual international understanding 31, which twenty-eight years previous to this UNESCO would tried to establish the idea that the Organization should orientate its educational process towards an international understanding. 30 EXECUTIVE BOARD, Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its 83 rd session (Paris, 15 September-10 October 1969), Annexe. General rules to govern prizes awarded for meritorious work in literacy. Criteria for award of prizes, decision 83EX/4.2.6.Annexe.6.(b).(vii), Paris, 6 December 1969, p UNESCO, General Conference, Summary Records of the six Programme Sub-Commissions. Sub-Commission on Education. Second meeting. Group I. The panel on fundamental education. Enquiry concerning education as a means of fostering international understanding, resolution 1C/(a).II.I.1, Paris, 1946, p

30 I International cooperation as a consequence of education for international understanding In the first stage of an approximate definition of education for international understanding, international cooperation is established as a consequence of it. International cooperation is definitely a result of education, but it is also a sense of a future, as must be articulated by the States, with the aim of avoiding war 32. Education is to accept new realities; to achieve a better understanding of UNESCO s objectives, ideals and efforts 33 in relation to the promotion of international understanding and cooperation. Thus, 32 UNESCO, op. cit. in note 31, Plenary meetings. Second plenary meeting. Report and general discussion on the work of the preparatory commission, resolution 1C/9, p UNESCO, op. cit. in note 18, Programme Resolutions concerning the programme for and Recommendations concerning future Programmes. Communication. Public information and promotion of international understanding, resolution 17C/II.4.301, p

31 in education, UNESCO will act as a centre for the exchange and dissemination of ideas and practices, in order to encourage the growth of effective systems of education and that nations learn to understand one another 34. For this: In primary and secondary schools, every effort should be made, both in teaching and in framing programmes of study, to avoid inculcating by word or implication the belief that, lands, peoples and customs other than one s own are necessarily inferior, or are otherwise unworthy of understanding and sympathy 35. Thus, in 1962, 34 UNESCO, Records of the General Conference. Resolutions, Resolutions adopted on the report of the Programme and Budget Commission: First Part: Code of Policies, resolution 4C/II.1.VI, Paris, 1949, p UNESCO, op. cit. in note 34, Second Part: The Programme of Unesco in Education. Recommendations to the Director-General. Principles concerning Education, resolution 4C/II.2.841, p

32 urges Member States, with this development in mind, to expand their programmes of activities for young people, based on the pursuit of truth, understanding and objectivity, as one of the best means of promoting the ideals of peace, mutual respect and understanding between peoples and of fostering exchanges between young people of different countries, whatever their social and economic systems, so that the spirit of peace and friendship may be spread among young people 36. This, in definitive, is international cooperation. In the late fifties it would figure along with the concepts of peace and international security as hermeneutic for education for international understanding and as indivisible for understanding the meaning of this education. 36 UNESCO, Records of the General Conference. Resolutions, Programme and Budget for Education. International co-operation for the study and advancement of education. Education for international understanding, resolution 12C/II , Paris, 1962, p

33 International cooperation is a sign of peace, and is, as well, pacifying and pacific. But, Member States are invited to promote and support studies concerning the problem, and the ways and means, of strengthening peaceful cooperation between nations 37. [And] The Director-General is authorized: [ ] To participate, at the request of Member States, in the planning and execution of programmes in Member States for international understanding and peaceful cooperation 38. The United Nations system is a possible solution for developing education for international understanding, and its teachings are a necessary element in leading the educational process: 37 UNESCO, op. cit. in note 27, Programme and Budget for Social Sciences. Promotion of International Understanding and Peaceful Co-operation, resolution 10C/II.3.51, p UNESCO, op. cit. in note 37, resolution 10C/II.3.52.(b). 33

34 The organs of international co-operation have sufficiently developed to make a study of them by the methods of Social Science worth while. A better understanding of the present techniques of co-operation is bound to increase their effectiveness 39. I Peace as a consequence of education for international understanding If the consequence of education for international understanding is cooperation between nations, the ultimate result would be peace. If this is to be realized, peace must have impregnated the entire process; it is equally true that an educational programme is sine qua non for peace to be an everlasting base within the wide concept of justice. 39 UNESCO, op. cit. in note 26, Resolutions adopted on the report of the Programme and Budget Commission and of the Joint Commission-Programme and Budget, Official and external Relations. Second Part : Preamble. Social Sciences. Studies of International Co-operation, resolution 5C/II.C.3, p

35 This is a concept whose understanding is approached through a conscientious assimilation of principles and criteria already expressed in texts and activities, such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations system and UNESCO s international conferences and resolutions. Attaining peace can be approached by education for international understanding: The freedom of thought, the free circulation of ideas, their free flow to all parts of the world, the distribution of the varied riches of human knowledge across the frontiers, among all the nations of our orbit, are probably the indispensable conditions for mutual understanding between men; and this mutual understanding, we know, is the basis of peace UNESCO, op. cit. in note 32, Authorisation of the executive secretary and his staff to perform the function of the director-general, acting as secretary general of the conference, and of the secretariat, pending the appointment of the Director-General, resolution 1C/8, p

36 International understanding and peace are inseparable terms that must be present in any teaching-learning process. For this to occur, the General Conference [ ] Urges Member States to encourage the teaching in schools of points of view which are not prejudicial to relations with other nations or harmful to that understanding between peoples which is essential to the establishment of a real and lasting peace; and to discourage the teaching of inflammatory political points of view UNESCO, op. cit. in note 27, Special Services for the Advancement of Education, resolution 10C/II.1.31, p

37 II The first stage of defining education for international understanding II.1. Education for living in a world community The concept of education for living in a world community is closely related to education for international understanding. In 1953, the Executive Board stated that the Expert Committee to Study the Principles and Methods of Education for Living in a World Community will be invited to address itself to the problem, as such, of the principles and methods of education for living in a world community. This 37

38 will involve consideration, in terms of basic principles of both formal and popular education, of what should be done by schools, universities and through media of general culture from museums to the radio and television, in the promotion of international understanding and co-operation 1. In the following reunion of the same year, the same close relationship is found between education for international understanding and for living in a world community. The committee s proposals -approved by the Executive Board- are proposals that share the principle that education is either international, or not education at all. From this it is inferred that the elements of international education be present when 1 EXECUTIVE BOARD, Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its thirty-third session (Paris, 8-18 April 1953), Annex. Terms of reference of the Expert Committee to Study the Principles and Methods of Education for Living in a World Community, decision 33EX/Annex.9, Paris, 7 May 1953, p

39 The Executive Board takes note with great interest of the report of the Expert Committee on Education for Living in a World Community [ ], Approves the measures proposed by the Director-General to give effect to certain of the recommendations of the Expert Committee as follows: (i) Organization of a European Regional Conference on Education for Living in a World Community. [ ]; (ii) Preparations in 1954 for seminar to be held in 1955 on preparation for understanding current events and contemporary problems in schools and teacher training institutions : [ ] (iii) Publication of a leaflet on Technical Assistance as the first of a series of information files for teachers on the main world problems that the United Nations and the Specialized Agencies are trying to solve 2. 2 EXECUTIVE BOARD, Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its thirty-sixth session (Paris, 30 November-9 December 1953), Execution of the Programme. Education. Education for Living in a World Community: report on meeting of experts held at Unesco House from 15 to 25 July 1953, decision 36EX/5.1.4, Paris, 24 December 1953, pp

40 In this particular line of education, one of the priorities of the years 1953 and 1954 would be education for living in a world community, with reference to young children, children in school, young people in and out of school, and adults 3. That is why Member States are invited, through their National Commissions or otherwise to set up national committees on education for living in a world community and to stimulate the interest in this subject of appropriate non-governmental organizations with a view to advising Unesco on principles and methods in this field 4. Also, 3 UNESCO, Records of the General Conference. Resolutions, Annex I : Reports of the Working Parties. Future Programme and Development of Unesco (PRG/39). Education. Priorities, resolution 7C/II.5, Paris, 1952, p UNESCO, op. cit. in note 3, Programme resolutions Programme. Education. Education for Living in a World Community. International Advisory Committee, resolution 7C/II.1.311, p

41 the Director-General is authorized to conduct an enquiry into the principles and methods of education for living in a world community, and to this end, to organize or to arrange by contract for the organization of regional consultative conferences 5. This committee is proceeded by the creation of a workgroup in 1951 whose mandate consisted of formulating an educational programme for the development of international citizenship. 6 They were after a Recommendation that highlighted the importance of an education for international citizenship 7 and one that would also specify its principles and methods. 5 UNESCO, op. cit. in note 4, resolution 7C/II EXECUTIVE BOARD, Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its twenty-eighth session, Paris, 23 October-1 November 1951), Other Questions. Creation of a Working Party to draft a programme of education al citizenship, decision 28EX/10.3, Paris, 15 November 1951, p EXECUTIVE BOARD, Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its twenty-ninth session (Paris, 13 March-7 April 1952), Execution of the Programme for Education. Education for the World Community: report of the Working Party of the Executive Board and observations of 41

42 Later on, it would be researched by an expert committee (alluded to above) and then approved. It was ratified -also in stating that the Executive Board approved the terms of reference of the Expert Committee as shown at Annex I to this report 8. Regarding the close relationship between one form of education and another, the 1951 General Conference discussed fundamental elements of international education that they also considered as part of the education for national and international citizenship. Member States are invited: To take the necessary educational measures to make the Director-General on the report, decision 29EX/7.2.1, Paris, 8 May 1952, p EXECUTIVE BOARD, op. cit. in note 1, Programme questions. Education. Terms of reference of the Expert Committee to study the principles and methods of education for living in a world community, decision 33EX/8.1.3, Paris, 7 May 1953, p

43 children and adults familiar with the aims and activities of the United Nations and its Specialized Agencies, and in general to introduce into all elementary and secondary schools education for citizenship both from the national and international standpoints 9 ; The Director-General is authorized: To organize a seminar for primary and secondary school teachers and for members of the staff of training colleges of all levels, on the development of active methods for education in world citizenship, especially in relation to the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 10. Also in line with the education for living 9 UNESCO, Records of the General Conference. Resolutions, Resolutions adopted on the report of the Programme Commission and of the Joint Commission - Programme, Official and External Relations. Second part: The Programme for Education. Education for international understanding. Teaching about the United Nations and the specialized agencies, resolution 6C/II.1.321, Paris, 1951, p UNESCO, op. cit. in note 9, Education and human rights, resolution 6C/II

44 in a world community, some ideas were suggested that never prospered: The Executive Board Noting the report on existing international schools and possibilities of establishing an international school in Paris, [ ] Believing that such a school for the children of Unesco staff members together with other children of different nationalities would constitute a valuable experiment in education for living in a world community, as well as fulfilling a real need felt by international civil servants in Paris, Invites the Director-General to pursue his study of the project, in consultation when necessary with the appropriate authorities and persons, and to prepare a detailed proposal for consideration by the General Conference at its eighth session, Decides to place the consideration of this proposal on the agenda of the eighth session, Declares its readiness to recommend to the General Conference that up to one-half of the necessary initial funds be advanced as a loan 44

45 from the Working Capital Fund, should no other method of financing prove possible 11. II.1.1. The United Nations system Teaching-learning about the United Nations system and the Specialized Agencies was the first resource used to drive UNESCO s constitutional decision to establish peace by way of education for international understanding. Teaching-learning about the United Nations is a defining component of international education. For this reason, Member States are invited: To take all necessary steps, or to continue whatever they may have undertaken, in order to make children and adults familiar with the principles 11 EXECUTIVE BOARD, Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its thirty-seventh session (Paris, 10 March-9 April 1954), Draft Programme and Budget estimates for Proposal to establish an international school for the children of Unesco staff members, decision 37EX/5.3, Paris, 29 April 1954, pp

46 contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and with the United Nations systems 12. Accordingly, the Director-General is authorized: [ ] To contribute, on the basis of the same principles, to the development of teaching about the United Nations and the Specialized Agencies 13 ; To associate the World Federation of United Nations Associations with Unesco s programme of teaching about the United Nations system by giving to it financial assistance for the organization of courses and seminars on methods of teaching about the system of the 12 UNESCO, Records of the General Conference. Resolutions, Resolutions adopted on the report of the Programme and Budget Commission and of the Joint Commission-Programme and budget, official and external relations: Fourth Part: The Programme for 1951: Education. Education for international understanding. Teaching about the United Nations and the Specialized Agencies, resolution 5C/II.1.351, Paris, 1950, p UNESCO, op. cit. in note 12, resolution 5C/II

47 United Nations in schools 14. Education about the United Nations is a strongly qualified method for favouring education for international understanding. Furthermore, as has been shown, it is an opinion that has always been defended by UNESCO: The Director-General is instructed: To confine the Enquiry on Education for International Understanding during 1948 to teaching regarding the United Nations and its Specialized Agencies, and to carry on this work in close co-operation with the United Nations and other Specialized Agencies 15. From which we can conclude that education 14 UNESCO, op. cit. in note 13, resolution 5C/II UNESCO, Resolutions adopted by the General Conference during its second session, Resolutions adopted on the report of the Programme and Budget Commission. The Programme of Unesco in Chapter 3 - Education. Teaching of International Understanding in Schools, resolution 2C/VIII.A , Paris, 1947, p

48 on the United Nations and the Specialized Agencies will promote commitments to achieve well-being, justice and liberty, all of which coincide with the expected results of education for international understanding. Moving beyond the known value of this resource, there are still other ways to succeed in achieving the educational process: The Director-General is authorized: To continue studies on the means of using the social life and spontaneous activities of young people in education for international understanding 16. The youth are a privileged target for education for international understanding. The 1968 General Conference would decide to undertake new activities for and with youth, in order: [ ] to secure the more active 16 UNESCO, op. cit. in note 12, Youth Movements and Children s Communities, resolution 5C/II

49 participation, national and international, of youth in Unesco s work and in the promotion of its ideals; 2. Accordingly, authorizes the Director-General, in : [ ] (b) to undertake activities calculated to encourage young people to help in finding solutions, national and international, to their own problems; (c) to start activities to promote young people s participation in development at national and international level and encourage their education in the spirit of peace and international understanding; [ ] (f) to encourage exchanges of ideas among young people and discussion between them and adults on national or international problems that are within the Organization s purview; (g) to associate the young as far as possible with Unesco s activities, both in their planning and in their execution; [ ] 3. Invites the Director- General to endeavour to enlarge the scope of Unesco s work for youth in particular by: (a) co-ordinating more closely, in policy and purpose, the work of the various sectors of the Secretariat concerned with youth; (b) co- 49

50 ordinating Unesco s work in this sphere with the corresponding activities of other United Nations organizations; (c) intensifying Unesco s activities in this domain by increased cooperation with National Commissions and appropriate non-governmental organizations and especially by assisting youth committees established by National Commissions 17. If the United Nations Declaration concerning the Promotion among Youth of the Ideals of Peace, Mutual Respect and Understanding between Peoples, which is approved in 1965 by the United Nations General Assembly, is to be diffused and applied as UNESCO suggests, it is worth ensuring that this be done under the context of education for international understanding. It is then easy to establish that the international instruments that constitute the 17 UNESCO, Records of the General Conference. Resolutions, Programme and budget for Education. Out-of-school education. Youth activities, resolution 15C/II.1.311, Paris, 1968, pp

51 framework of the educational process for international understanding should also follow the Declaration concerning the Promotion among Youth of the Ideals of Peace, Mutual Respect and Understanding between Peoples. Something similar must also be said with respect to youth sports, travel and exchanges. If it is true that the youth are a privileged targets for the methods of achieving international understanding, they must also be included as defining elements of this type of education because of the importance place on youth training and education. It is worth noting that in this first stage of defining what education for international understanding is, sport, travel, exchanges, human rights, teachings on the United Nations and the international instruments are elements that are to be included in this education. This must be why the Director-General is authorized, in 51

52 collaboration with Member States and appropriate international non-governmental organizations, to take practical measures, including the award of travel grants, to promote and develop the exchange of young people for purposes of education and international understanding 18. II.2. Fundamental education In 1956 UNESCO would establish that fundamental education aims to help people who have not obtained such help from established educational institutions to understand the problems of their environment and their rights and duties as citizens and individuals, to acquire a body of knowledge and skill for the progressive improvement of their living 18 UNESCO, General Conference. Resolutions, Programme of Unesco for Education. Exchange of Persons. Exchange of young people. Exchange of young people, resolution 8C/IV , Paris, 1954, p

53 conditions and to participate more effectively in the economic and social development of their community. Fundamental education seeks, with due regard for religious beliefs, to develop moral values and a sense of the solidarity of mankind. While the object of the school is to educate children, and while further education continues the education previously acquired in schools, fundamental education is designed to supplement an incomplete school system in economically underdeveloped areas both rural and urban 19. In this presentation of fundamental education there is no explicit reference to education for international understanding. But it is still important to highlight its close relationship. These moral values and human solidarity that fundamental education attempts to develop are 19 UNESCO, General Conference. Resolutions, Annexes. Report of the Programme Commission. Education, resolution 9C/Anexos.A.1.6, Paris, 1956, p

54 also basic aims of the educational process for international education. If education for international understanding is fundamental for UNESCO, and that Fundamental Education is to be at the heart of the work of Unesco 20, we must recognize that the latter is meaningless without the former. Thus, it is obvious when the 1951 General Conference, which clearly favoured fundamental education as a UNESCO aim, approves the project for a world network of international fundamental education centres, designed to remedy this crucial malady of ignorance 21. The centres initiative for fundamental education was stimulated by UNESCO after approval of a pilot programme on fundamental 20 UNESCO, op. cit. in note 9, Miscellaneous Resolutions. Establishment of a world network of international fundamental education centres, resolution 6C/II.9.31, p UNESCO, op. cit. in note 20, resolution 6C/II.9.321, p

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