Analysis of electoral behavior on the example of presidential elections in Poland in 2010

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Analysis of electoral behavior on the example of presidential elections in Poland in 2010"

Transcription

1 Analysis of electoral behavior on the example of presidential elections in Poland in 2010 Halina yszczarz, Ph.D. Monika Sady, M.Sc. Department of International Management Cracow University of Economics Abstract In representative democracy, the issues of factors affecting choice of a given politician as representative in wielding power gain particular importance. As a part of political marketing, several basic theories determining these factors are distinguished. The conducted empirical research indicates importance of the socalled psychological theory, in accordance with which a dominant factor in u- encing decisions of the voters in presidential elections are emotions, understood as positive or negative attitude towards a given politician, which results directly from the image of a given politician in the eyes of the voters. Taking account of the assumption that the image is a dynamic phenomenon created in mind of the individual on the basis of selected information, it can be stated that the electoral success of a given candidate is in uenced, to a signi cant extent, by ef ciency and effectiveness of PR specialists working for him/her, rather than by his/her political program. It means questioning the paradigm of voters rationality (economic theory) and stressing the meaning of their political education. Introduction Robert A. Dahl (2000), in his deliberations concerning democratic system, indicates, among others, importance of the privilege of citizens, being the freedom to choose their representatives to state authorities. Interest in the issues of political choices is, due to its special character, typical of democratic states, where from half past century research on electoral behavior is conducted, and, in consequence, such elds as psephology, formulating theories of electoral behaviors, and political marketing have appeared. Development, in particular in this latter eld, arouses controversies. Its supporters emphasize that, as a result of instruments of political marketing, we can learn voters expectations and adjust adequately the 327

2 program of political parties or of a candidate for important state positions, enhancing thus the democratic character of the state. In turn, the opponents indicate that the use of political marketing methods opens possibilities of manipulating the electorate. Therefore, the main objective of this discussion is to provide answers to questions what citizens follow when making their political choices and to which degree these choices are truly free, which electoral market segments can be distinguished and which candidate selection criteria are important for different segments, to which degree the existing electoral behavior theories explain political decisions of citizens. What, consequently, should characterize actions conducted towards different voters segments. Conclusions will be formulated on the basis of a survey on electoral behavior of citizens in the course of the presidential elections in Poland in The survey was conducted on 279-person heterogenic group of respondents in the region of Little Poland. Electoral behavior theories Theories explaining electoral behavior of the citizens formulated so far are, as a rule, based on one of three paradigms: sociological paradigm, psychological paradigm, economic paradigm. According to the sociological paradigm, af liation or sense of af liation to a given social community (e.g. professional, class, demographic community) determines political choices of citizens. At this point, it is assumed that members of a given community characterize the same system of values and similar interests, which means that views of members of a given community regarding which political party or which candidate will preferably represent their interests should be concurrent. Therefore, factors con rming rightness of the sociological theory include high uniformity of political preferences among family, co-workers, neighbors, including within particular professional groups. From assumptions of this approach it results that political views and choices of individual citizens may be largely in uenced by persons enjoying large authority and trust of a given social community, namely the so-called opinion leaders. The impact of the mass-media will be signi cantly weaker. According to the psychological paradigm, these are emotions, namely, rst of all, attitude of the voter to a given political group or candidate, which play a signi cant role when making decisions. The attitude of the voter to a given option may depend, rst of all, on his/her system of values, but also on emotional condition (level of satisfaction with life, frustration, depression, fears and phobia, etc.). These factors in uence jointly the degree to which a given voter will support keeping or changing the existing political status quo. Positive emotions aroused in the voter by a given politician or political formation make him/her identify with 328

3 the system of values of this politician or political formation, feel loyalty towards them, and normally it is dif cult to change this type of relationship in the short term through political campaigns. In this approach, creating an adequate image of the candidate, conducted in a longer period of time, gains important signi - cance, which may become the main task of political marketing specialists acting for the bene t of a given candidate or a given group. Pursuing appealing to many voters, heterogeneous by their nature, can lead to creating a fuzzy and hardly expressive image of this candidate and (possibly) expressive, assessed as hardly attractive, images of rivals. The importance of emotions when making electoral decisions may be proved, e.g., by the fact that often the voters cannot characterize a given politician (they know little about him/her), but, at the same time, they have strong feelings towards him/her, make political choices without being able to justify them (summary approach when making decisions) and if substantiation is given, it is often of non-substantive nature, related to the program or competences of a given politician. Although on the basis of psychological theories it may be concluded that people, in their political elections, vote more with hearts than with minds (Wattenberg, 1987), namely, they do not proceed reasonably, the economic paradigm assumes that the voter, according to characteristics of homo economicus, analyzes possible bene ts which may result from a given option, namely, proceeds reasonably, but also egoistically. According to this approach, the voter is familiar with the program of a given formation or candidate, and it is nothing else than the program which is the basic decision criterion characteristics of the candidate are of secondary importance. The voter, just as the client on the market, analyzes different political offer and chooses the one he/she considers the most favorable, provided that he/she may bear in mind the situation of the whole country/and individual situation. The possibility of assessment of these offers assumes that the voter disposes of full information on the political situation and the willingness to conduct its exact analysis. It can be, however, stated that, rst of all, only selected information reaches the voter, and, secondly, people, when making decisions, often follow peculiarly understood principle of economy minimizing effort needed to make a decision they do not carry out detailed analyses, but take account only of some speci c characteristics of a given situation, namely they use cognitive shortcuts, which, however, very often distorts the image of reality. These mechanisms open for political marketing specialists the possibilities of affecting assessments made by the voter. A political campaign based on the economic paradigm may be focused on emphasizing these problems with which a given formation deals better than its political competitors. Presenting speci c solutions may, however, result in dissatisfaction of the voters with contradictory interests, which often involves presentation of a fuzzy and vague program, not concrete and emphasizing during the political campaign aspects without direct connection with the political program, e.g. characteristics of the candidate, namely, in consequence, focusing on one s own image and on the image of rivals. 329

4 Table 1. Characteristics of electoral behavior theories assumption when making electoral decisions, citizens follow candidate selection criterion Sociological theory Psychological theory Economic theory the sense of af liation to a given community candidate/party preferably pursuing interests of a given community emotions candidate s image economic factors candidate s program Source: prepared by the author on the basis of: W. Cwalina, A. Falkowski (2006), A.W. Jab o ski, L. Sobkowiak (2010), Mazur M. (2007). The previous considerations indicate increasing importance of the image of entities functioning It can be assumed that in the case when these choices relate to individual, rather than the whole political formation, as it is, for instance, in the case of presidential elections, and taking account of the special character of the performed function (representative of the nation), the importance of the image grows substantially. The image understood as image of a given politician or rather an idea about him/ her, is a subjective and dynamic phenomenon. On one hand, the image is affected by actual and created characteristics and actions concerning a given politician and, on the other hand, by the system of values of the elector (selection of criteria of assessment of a given politician and their relative importance). The difference in systems of values of the voters explains often occurring opposition of the images of different politicians. Therefore, increase in the electorate through improvement in the image requires identifying the system of values of the voters, and perhaps even in uencing this system, which may be pursued using knowledge about cognitive psychology and related constructivist approach. According to it, the mind may create different interpretations of the same stimulus on the basis of available and continuously supplemented knowledge. And the fact which knowledge reaches the voters may be the object of interest and impact of specialists for creation of the desired image of a given politician, which may be interpreted as a kind of limitation in the voters freedom. Characteristics of the presidential elections in Poland in 2010 In the presidential elections in 2010, which took place on the previous date in connection with the Smolensk disaster, in which the incumbent President, generals and many politicians died, 10 candidates took part: Marek Jurek leader of the Right of the Republic of Poland, former Speaker of the Sejm, rst start in presidential elections; Jaros aw Kaczy ski president of the Law and Justice, former Prime Minister, brother of Lech Kaczy ski, President of the Republic of Poland, deceased on , rst start in presidential elections; Bonis aw Komorowski candidate of the Civic Platform, former Speaker of the Sejm, after death of Lech Kaczy ski President of the Republic 330

5 of Poland, temporarily performing duties of the President, rst start in presidential elections; Janusz Korwin-Mikke leader of the party Freedom and Lawfulness, former president of the Real Politics Union, fourth start in presidential elections ( % of votes and eighth place, /43 and sixth place, % and sixth place); Andrzej Lepper president and founder of the Self-defense Party, former Deputy Prime Minister, fourth start in presidential elections ( % of votes and ninth place, % and fth place, % and third place); Kornel Morawiecki president and founder of the Fighting Solidarity, second start in presidential elections (in 1990 he put himself up as a candidate but did not manage to gather signatures with support, required by the electoral regulations); Grzegorz Napieralski president of the Left Democratic Alliance, after the Smole sk tragedy replaced the deceased Left Democratic Alliance candidate for president Deputy Speaker of the Sejm, Jerzy Szmajdzi ski, rst start in presidential elections; Andrzej Olechowski head of the Program Council of the Democratic Party, co-founder of the Civic Platform, second start in presidential elections ( % of votes, second place); Waldemar Pawlak president of the Polish Folk Party, former Deputy Prime Minister, second start in presidential elections ( % of votes, fth place); Bogus aw Zi tek president of the Polish Labor Party, head of the Free Trade Union August 80, rst start in presidential elections. Table 2. Of cial results of voting in the rst round Name of the candidate Electoral result Bronis aw Komorowski Jaros aw Kaczy ski Grzegorz Napieralski Janusz Korwin-Mikke Waldemar Pawlak Andrzej Olechowski Andrzej Lepper Marek Jurek Bogus aw Zi tek Kornel Morawiecki 41.54% 36.46% 13.68% 2.48% 1.75% 1.44% 1.28% 1.06% 0.18% 0.13% Source: prepared by the author on the basis of data of the State Electoral Commission In the runoff Jaros aw Kaczy ski obtained 46.99% of votes, while Bronis aw Komorowski obtained 53.01% of votes, winning thus the presidential elections in Poland. In 2010, the electoral campaign covered several elds. The largest campaign expenses were sustained by the electoral staff of the Law and Justice and of the Civic Platform. TV spots were the most important and the most capital intensive. 331

6 Later, in the campaign of Jaros aw Kaczy ski, an important role was played by billboards and posters, which proves a traditional approach to campaign. The staff of Bronis aw Komorowski, excusing themselves with the willingness to respect the memory of victims of the Smole sk tragedy, did not invest too much in billboards, focusing, however, on an intensive ght on the Internet via the website and social network services, gaining thereby votes of the younger generation (very active in the network). These two candidates appeared very often in the mass media in connection with the Smolensk tragedy Jaros aw Kaczy ski is a brother of the tragically deceased President Lech Kaczy ski, while Bronis aw Komorowski, after the tragedy, performed the function of acting as the President of the Republic of Poland. A frequent presence in the mass media ensured them, in this aspect, advantage over other candidates. At this point, it should be emphasized that the reason for the early elections signi cantly eased electoral campaigns of all candidates who, owing to the national mourning and respect for the deceased, decided to run campaigns in a professional manner, but signi cantly more mild than in the case of previous elections. Campaigns were focused, exceptionally and intensively, on emphasizing family bonds and identifying with normal citizens. During the campaign, an attempt was also made to avoid the subject of the disaster, so as not to make use of this situation in the electoral ght, which would be assessed as immoral by the voters. Other candidates, in connection with several times lower funds for the campaign, focused on less costly promotion (posters, lea ets, sponsored interviews, election meetings), trying to appear in the mass media with the possibly smallest nancial expenses. At this point, it is worth emphasizing a good result of Grzegorz Napieralski, who, in spite of relatively low funds and the possibility to appear in the mass media incomparably smaller than the biggest rivals, obtained a very high result thanks to active participation in the life of local communities, active comments on political life and a very involved attitude. Analysis of the electorate of two strongest candidates The conducted analysis allows stating that ca. 80% of the voters of J. Kaczy ski were his iron electorate 1, and that 50% of them were inhabitants of large cities (more than inhabitants), and 28% were inhabitants of the country, and the remaining 22% were inhabitants of mid-size cities. The wealth level does not have a greater impact on preferences towards a candidate (37.5% of the iron electorate of J. Kaczy ski are persons whose monthly income per capita ranges from 500 to 1000 PLN, and 30% of them have income exceeding 2000 PLN). In the surveyed group, 70% of this electorate are women. 1 Iron electorate is here understood as voters who voted for a given candidate in both rounds and additionally are supporters of the political formation which put up a given candidate, which additionally strengthens loyalty towards him/her. 332

7 The analysis of surveys indicates that Jaros aw Kaczy ski is perceived by his supporters as, rst of all, patriot, expressive politician taking care of the welfare of citizens, fair and right person. He arouses trust, is incorruptible. As defects of this politician, his supporters indicate (incidentally) inability to cooperate with the mass media and impulsiveness, quick temper. His rival is, in turn, perceived by the voters of J. Kaczy ski as hardly expressive politician, coarse, not arousing trust, often as a puppet controlled by more or less speci ed interest groups, namely as a politician not representing interests of the so-called normal people. Among the respondents, 55% of the voters of B. Komorowski were his iron electorate, and 66% of them were inhabitants of large cities (more than ), 24% were inhabitants of the country. Among the voters of B. Komorowski, ca. 40% are people with income exceeding 2000 PLN (and 26% with income of PLN, 22% with income of PLN). In this group, 60% were women. B. Komorowski is perceived by his electorate as, rst of all, a representative, even-tempered, family, intelligent man. As defects of this politician, his supporters indicate his small expressiveness and no independence in expressing political views. On the other hand, J. Kaczy ski is perceived by supporters of B. Komorowski as an unpredictable and confrontational person. As advantages of J. Kaczy ski, few respondents from the group of supporters of his rival indicated patriotism, involvement, education. Analysis of the electorate of B. Komorowski indicates that the voters, when characterizing this candidate, follow to a smaller extent criteria resulting from characteristics of the ideal candidate speci ed by them. According to indications of the respondents being the electorate of B. Komorowski, the ideal president should be educated, determined, have clearly identi ed goals, and only on the third place they indicate attractive appearance, which, as it results from answers of the respondents, is for them the main characteristic of this politician. Table 3. Characteristics of the ideal candidate according to the electorate of J. Kaczy ski and B. Komorowski (in %) Characteristic Electorate of Electorate of J. Kaczy ski B. Komorowski Patriotism Honesty, righteousness Determination, clear goals Education, knowledge, competences Care for public welfare 24 9 Intelligence Objectivity, independence Authority, charisma Attractive appearance, representativeness Source: prepared by the author 333

8 Table 4. Basic characteristics of politicians according to the electorate of J. Kaczy ski and B. Komorowski Electorate of Characteristics of J. Kaczy ski J. Kaczy ski patriot, right, fair, incorruptible B. Komorowski Source: prepared by the author quarrelsome, fanatic, unpredictable Characteristics of B. Komorowski hardly expressive, controlled, coarse, incompetent representative, calm, likeable, nonconfrontational, family Among the respondents, ca. 15% had not participated in both rounds of the elections. Among the reasons for absence, they speci ed, rst of all, lack of time or absence at the place of residence (40%), lack of interest in the upcoming elections and lack of belief in their sense (ca. 45%), as well as lack of adequate candidate (ca. 15% of the respondents). Their unquestionable majority had dif culties with indication of both characteristics of the ideal candidate and characterization of both major candidates for president. More than 60% of them do not support any political option. Thus, it may be assumed that this is a group of citizens who are not interested in politics and do not participate in political life of the country either. Ca. 90% of them are relatively young people (aged years, including 2/3 are people aged up to 25 years). A separate group of voters are those who in the rst round voted for other candidates than those who passed to the runoff. They were ca. 12% of the respondents, and their main candidates were G. Napieralski (60%), as well as J. Korwin- -Mikke (ca. 35%). Almost all electors of G. Napieralski voted for R. Komorowski in the runoff. On the contrary, more than 30% of the voters of J. Korwin-Mikke voted for J. Kaczy ski in the runoff. As the main reasons for voting for G. Napieralski, the supporters emphasized the desire to introduce changes in the country and focus on young people. For the electorate of G. Napieralski, the basic characteristics of the ideal politician are care for the country and social matters of citizens, conscientiousness and familiarity with politics. For supporters of J. Korwin-Mikke, political and economic program of the candidate and his/her party is important, and the ideal candidate should be intelligent, educated, have economic and political knowledge, be allparty and patriot. Identi cation of electoral behavior The conducted surveys do not con rm that af liation to different social communities affects signi cantly political choices (only 4% of the respondents admitted that when choosing the candidate for president followed opinion of their family and friends). Although respondents answers indicate that ca. 80% of them discuss political topics mostly in the bosom of family and with co-workers, and 75% 334

9 of them ascertain uniformity of political preferences within these social groups, however, the analysis of political choices of particular professional groups or communities separated on the basis of the demographic criteria, including wealth criterion, does not con rm this uniformity. Presence of this discrepancy can be explained using the dynamic theory of social impact, in accordance with which individuals check support their views enjoy in the society. When a given person states that is in minority may take over views dominant in a given community, especially if persons representing them have a large authority, or he/she may resign from open demonstrating views towards a broader group. At their political choices, electors do not follow economic criteria either. Only 10% of them paid attention to views and program of candidates, including only 25% attempted to assess past achievements of the candidate, which may con rm the fact that for the vast majority of voters economic criteria are not of primary importance. On the basis of the conducted surveys, it can be concluded that the psychological paradigm explains electoral behavior of the surveyed respondents to a maximum extent. As it has been already mentioned, according to this approach, a hardly expressive, protective image of its candidate and very expressive, uninteresting image of the rival are created. Such strategy seems to be executed in particular by B. Komorowski, which is proved by the way of perception of this politician (hardly expressive, hardly clear) also by his/her supporters, and assessments strongly lled with emotions (negative ones of opponents and positive ones of supporters) of the rival. Surveys indicate a dominant importance of the candidate s image (to a smaller extent of political formation from which he/she origins) on electoral decisions of citizens. Most of the surveyed are able to specify characteristics of the politician ideal in their opinion, and many of them follow these characteristics when making political choices. For instance, for the voters of J. Kaczy ski personal and competence characteristics of the politician are of a greater importance than in the case of the voters of B. Komorowski, who pay much attention to characteristics indicated not at all or only incidentally by the voters of J. Kaczy ski, such as: presence, attractiveness, representativeness, self-control, calmness, namely of more external character. Of course, an interesting objective of surveys would be also determination of the degree to which electors, when specifying characteristics of the ideal politician, follow abstract image of politician created by them, to which degree they describe characteristics of the real politician for whom they feel af nity. The latter approach may be proved by the fact that many voters were not even able to justify their choices in any way (it applies to ca. 30% of the voters of B. Komorowski and 15% of the voters of J. Kaczy ski). In addition, many of them are unable to characterize both politicians (35% of the voters of B. Komorowski, 23% of the voters of J. Kaczy ski and overall 27% of all respondents). Thus, it may be concluded that many of them apply summary approach in their political choices, 335

10 following mainly emotions, rather than reasonable analysis. This thesis is additionally con rmed by the manner of characterizing the rival, in which in the case of one of them insults prevail de nitely over an attempt of objective assessment. Only incidentally attention is paid to such characteristics of the rival as discipline, consistency, care for citizens, patriotism or education. Such a situation may prove success of conducted, the so-called negative image campaign 2 or even aggressive negative campaign 3, which happens to be effective in spite of the fact that recipients, in general, do not assess positively the idea of such advertising. This effectiveness may result from the fact that a message repeated many times, both negative and positive, remains in the mind of the recipient, although he/she may already not remember source and form of this message. This message may come to mind as the rst information when analyzing the political situation by the elector (in accordance with the principle of economy, when making decisions, electors normally do not conduct a thorough analysis of the politics and politicians, which would require a greater effort, but they make decisions on the basis of information that in a way comes to mind on its own, namely very often this information, with which the recipient was permanently attacked ). It causes emergence of stereotypes and other, the so-called cognitive cuts which often distort perception of reality. Final conclusions On the basis of the conducted surveys, it can be concluded that in the future, to increase his/her electorate, particular politicians should pay attention subsequently to the following voters segments: voters who participate in the elections, but do not identify themselves with any political party, and who can be called unstable electors (over 20% of the respondents), potential voters (namely those who currently do not exercise their rights, the so-called iron electorate of rivals. Potential voters may be encouraged to political activity through appropriate information campaigns oriented to make aware of the impact of electoral decisions on situation of the elector and of the country, as well as through resignation from the use of various kinds of negative political campaigns, which may result exactly in discouragement of a part of the electorate. This part of the society shows indifference in relation to political matters (therefore, importance of 2 Negative image advertising presents unfavorably character traits of the rival without analyzing his/her political program (e.g. information concerning personal life, health, religion, etc.). Source: W. Cwalina, A. Falkowski, pp Assaultive advertisement is, according to Johnson-Cartee: W. Cwalina, A. Falkowski (p. 481) is the most poisonous form of negative advertising, and is characterized by dissemination of gossip, insinuation, immortalizing hints, lying and calling the rival names (as above). 336

11 casting vote in the elections should be emphasized each vote is important), or indecision with regard to political beliefs (therefore, the most effective way to persuade them to one s arguments would be information campaign combined with image campaign). Interest of unstable voters may be raised through appropriate image creation (for instance, in the case of J. Kaczy ski, emphasizing such characteristics as: calmness, self-control, as well as conducting such campaign which would effectively undermine his image created by political opponents; in the case of B. Komorowski, emphasizing such characteristics as care for the country, determination, increase in competences). It seems that broadening of the electorate should be easier for J. Kaczy ski (assuming equal treatment by the mass media), owing to the fact that 45% of the voters of R. Komorowski did not declare themselves as supporters of his political formation (among the voters of J. Kaczy ski this percentage amounted to 20%), and many of them voted for this politician by the so-called negative voting (on the basis of selecting smaller evil ), which proves weaknesses of the image of this politician, but, at the same time, emphasizes strength of the image of the rival. Due to a great strength of the image of J. Kaczy ski, actions of his staff, designed to increase his electorate, should be oriented, to a greater extent than in the case of his rival, to creation of the system of values of unstable voters and possibly iron supporters of the rival. Winning liking of the electorate of rivals is not an easy task and, rst of all, normally this task is executed in a longer period of time, to create in the mind of the voter the manner of perceiving reality desired by a given politician or political option. This goal might be achieved through applying various methods of persuasion, but it brings electorate manipulation hazard and, in a sense, may be perceived as undermining the principle of freedom of the citizen when making electoral decisions. Bibliography Cwalina W., Falkowski A., Marketing polityczny, perspektywa psychologiczna, Gda skie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne, Gda sk Dahl R.A., O demokracji, Znak, Kraków Jab o ski A.W., Sobkowiak L. (ed.) Marketing polityczny w teorii i praktyce, Wyd. Uniwersytetu Wroc awskiego, Wroc aw Mazur M., Marketing polityczny. Studium porównawcze, PWN, Warszawa Wattenberg M.P., The hollow realignment: Partisan change in a candidate-centered era, Public Opinion Quarterly, 5A1/1987. Website wybory.onet.pl Website of the State Electoral Commission 337

THE 2015 REFERENDUM IN POLAND. Maciej Hartliński Institute of Political Science University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn

THE 2015 REFERENDUM IN POLAND. Maciej Hartliński Institute of Political Science University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn East European Quarterly Vol. 43, No. 2-3, pp. 235-242, June-September 2015 Central European University 2015 ISSN: 0012-8449 (print) 2469-4827 (online) THE 2015 REFERENDUM IN POLAND Maciej Hartliński Institute

More information

Political Participation under Democracy

Political Participation under Democracy Political Participation under Democracy Daniel Justin Kleinschmidt Cpr. Nr.: POL-PST.XB December 19 th, 2012 Political Science, Bsc. Semester 1 International Business & Politics Question: 2 Total Number

More information

Functional theory of political discourse. Televised debates during the parliamentary campaign in 2007 in Poland

Functional theory of political discourse. Televised debates during the parliamentary campaign in 2007 in Poland Functional theory of political discourse. Televised debates during the parliamentary campaign in 2007 in Poland Patrycja Dudek UNIVERSITY OF WROCŁAW, POLAND Sławomir Partacz POLAND ABSTRACT: The aim of

More information

The purpose of the electoral reform

The purpose of the electoral reform In July 2013 it seems we have come to the end of a three-year process of electoral reform, but slight modifications may yet follow. Since the three new laws regulating Parliamentary elections (CCIII/2011

More information

Presidential Election in Poland

Presidential Election in Poland POLAND European Elections monitor Presidential Election in Poland 20 th June and 4 th July 2010 ANALYSIS 1 month before the poll On 10 th April Bronislaw Komorowski, President of the Sejm, the lower Chamber

More information

GUEST EDITORIAL. Political Marketing in Evolving European Democracies

GUEST EDITORIAL. Political Marketing in Evolving European Democracies GUEST EDITORIAL Political Marketing in Evolving European Democracies The dynamic development of Information Technology, resulting in the development of the Internet and new technologies used for wireless

More information

CONSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF THE DEATH OF THE HEAD OF STATE. POLISH EXPERIENCES OF 2010

CONSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF THE DEATH OF THE HEAD OF STATE. POLISH EXPERIENCES OF 2010 Krzysztof Prokop University of Białystok, Poland CONSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF THE DEATH OF THE HEAD OF STATE. POLISH EXPERIENCES OF 2010 Abstract The death of the President of the Republic of Poland Lech

More information

Małgorzata Druciarek & Aleksandra Niżyńska *

Małgorzata Druciarek & Aleksandra Niżyńska * TURKISH POLICY QUARTERLY Do gender quotas in politics work? The case of the 2011 Polish parliamentary elections Women s participation in Polish politics has never achieved a critical mass. Therefore a

More information

What Leads to Voting Overreports? Contrasts of Overreporters to Validated Voters and Admitted Nonvoters in the American National Election Studies

What Leads to Voting Overreports? Contrasts of Overreporters to Validated Voters and Admitted Nonvoters in the American National Election Studies Journal of Of cial Statistics, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2001, pp. 479±498 What Leads to Voting Overreports? Contrasts of Overreporters to Validated Voters and Admitted Nonvoters in the American National Election

More information

Elections and Voting Behavior

Elections and Voting Behavior Edwards, Wattenberg, and Lineberry Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy Fourteenth Edition Chapter 10 Elections and Voting Behavior How American Elections Work Three types of elections:

More information

Privacy as a Theoretical and Practical Concept*

Privacy as a Theoretical and Practical Concept* INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF LAW COMPUTERS & TECHNOLOGY, VOLUME 11, NUMBER 2, PAGES 193 202, 1997 Privacy as a Theoretical and Practical Concept* PETER BLUME The purpose of this article is to consider some

More information

Agnieszka Pawlak. Determinants of entrepreneurial intentions of young people a comparative study of Poland and Finland

Agnieszka Pawlak. Determinants of entrepreneurial intentions of young people a comparative study of Poland and Finland Agnieszka Pawlak Determinants of entrepreneurial intentions of young people a comparative study of Poland and Finland Determinanty intencji przedsiębiorczych młodzieży studium porównawcze Polski i Finlandii

More information

Chapter II European integration and the concept of solidarity

Chapter II European integration and the concept of solidarity Chapter II European integration and the concept of solidarity The current chapter is devoted to the concept of solidarity and its role in the European integration discourse. The concept of solidarity applied

More information

Topic: Systems of government

Topic: Systems of government Topic: Systems of government Lesson 1 of 2: KS or Year Group: Year 10 Resources: 1. Resource 1 Sky News video clip: Cameron: People deserve better than this 2. Resource 2 What is a general election? 3.

More information

Texas Elections Part I

Texas Elections Part I Texas Elections Part I In a society governed passively by free markets and free elections, organized greed always defeats disorganized democracy. Matt Taibbi Elections...a formal decision-making process

More information

APGAP Reading Quiz 2A AMERICAN POLITICAL PARTIES

APGAP Reading Quiz 2A AMERICAN POLITICAL PARTIES 1. Which of the following is TRUE of political parties in the United States? a. Parties require dues. b. Parties issue membership cards to all members. c. Party members agree on all major issues or they

More information

Political participation by young women in the 2018 elections: Post-election report

Political participation by young women in the 2018 elections: Post-election report Political participation by young women in the 2018 elections: Post-election report Report produced by the Research and Advocacy Unit (RAU) & the Institute for Young Women s Development (IYWD). December

More information

Incumbents Interests, Voters Bias and Gender Quotas

Incumbents Interests, Voters Bias and Gender Quotas Incumbents Interests, Voters Bias and Gender Quotas Guillaume R. Fréchette New York University Francois Maniquet C.O.R.E. Massimo Morelli The Ohio State University March 23 2006 We are highly indebted

More information

Analysis of Findings from a Survey of 2,233 likely 2016 General Election Voters Nationwide

Analysis of Findings from a Survey of 2,233 likely 2016 General Election Voters Nationwide Analysis of Findings from a Survey of 2,233 likely 2016 General Election Voters Nationwide Celinda Lake Washington, DC Berkeley, CA New York, NY LakeResearch.com 202.776.9066 Who We Are Leading Political

More information

Unit 7 - Personal Involvement

Unit 7 - Personal Involvement Unit 7 - Personal Involvement Getting Interested -Personal Involvement- Of the people, by the people, for the people Abraham Lincoln used these words in a famous speech the Gettysburg Address. He was talking

More information

REGIONAL RESOURCE The Council of State Governments 3355 Lenox Road, N.E., Suite 1050 Atlanta, Georgia /

REGIONAL RESOURCE The Council of State Governments 3355 Lenox Road, N.E., Suite 1050 Atlanta, Georgia / REGIONAL RESOURCE The Council of State Governments 3355 Lenox Road, N.E., Suite 1050 Atlanta, Georgia 30326 404/266-1271 February 2000 The Proposed Interstate Compact for Adult Offender Supervision Over

More information

Polish citizens working abroad in 2016

Polish citizens working abroad in 2016 Polish citizens working abroad in 2016 Report of the survey Iza Chmielewska Grzegorz Dobroczek Paweł Strzelecki Department of Statistics Warsaw, 2018 Table of contents Table of contents 2 Synthesis 3 1.

More information

What is left unsaid; implicatures in political discourse.

What is left unsaid; implicatures in political discourse. What is left unsaid; implicatures in political discourse. Ardita Dylgjeri, PhD candidate Aleksander Xhuvani University Email: arditadylgjeri@live.com Abstract The participants in a conversation adhere

More information

ROLE OF MEDIA IN ELECTORAL CAMPAIGNS KOSOVO AFTER 1999

ROLE OF MEDIA IN ELECTORAL CAMPAIGNS KOSOVO AFTER 1999 MASS COMMUNICATION AND JOURNALISM MASTER THESIS THEME: ROLE OF MEDIA IN ELECTORAL CAMPAIGNS KOSOVO AFTER 1999 Mentor: Prof. Asoc. Ibrahim BERISHA Candidate: Meneta ZEKAJ NUSHI Prishtine, 2014 CONTENT Introduction...

More information

CHAPTER 9: THE POLITICAL PROCESS. Section 1: Public Opinion Section 2: Interest Groups Section 3: Political Parties Section 4: The Electoral Process

CHAPTER 9: THE POLITICAL PROCESS. Section 1: Public Opinion Section 2: Interest Groups Section 3: Political Parties Section 4: The Electoral Process CHAPTER 9: THE POLITICAL PROCESS 1 Section 1: Public Opinion Section 2: Interest Groups Section 3: Political Parties Section 4: The Electoral Process SECTION 1: PUBLIC OPINION What is Public Opinion? The

More information

Chapter 9: The Political Process

Chapter 9: The Political Process Chapter 9: The Political Process Section 1: Public Opinion Section 2: Interest Groups Section 3: Political Parties Section 4: The Electoral Process Public Opinion Section 1 at a Glance Public opinion is

More information

'Wave riding' or 'Owning the issue': How do candidates determine campaign agendas?

'Wave riding' or 'Owning the issue': How do candidates determine campaign agendas? 'Wave riding' or 'Owning the issue': How do candidates determine campaign agendas? Mariya Burdina University of Colorado, Boulder Department of Economics October 5th, 008 Abstract In this paper I adress

More information

How will the EU presidency play out during Poland's autumn parliamentary election?

How will the EU presidency play out during Poland's autumn parliamentary election? How will the EU presidency play out during Poland's autumn parliamentary election? Aleks Szczerbiak DISCUSSION PAPERS On July 1 Poland took over the European Union (EU) rotating presidency for the first

More information

Participation in European Parliament elections: A framework for research and policy-making

Participation in European Parliament elections: A framework for research and policy-making FIFTH FRAMEWORK RESEARCH PROGRAMME (1998-2002) Democratic Participation and Political Communication in Systems of Multi-level Governance Participation in European Parliament elections: A framework for

More information

Developments in the EU and Effects on the EU-Japan Relationship

Developments in the EU and Effects on the EU-Japan Relationship Developments in the EU and Effects on the EU-Japan Relationship H. E. Bernhard ZEPTER I am pleased to be here at R itsumeikan U niversity, a well-established and distinguished seat of learning which has

More information

Elections Alberta Survey of Voters and Non-Voters

Elections Alberta Survey of Voters and Non-Voters Elections Alberta Survey of Voters and Non-Voters RESEARCH REPORT July 17, 2008 460, 10055 106 St, Edmonton, Alberta T5J 2Y2 Tel: 780.423.0708 Fax: 780.425.0400 www.legermarketing.com 1 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

More information

NC Voting Site Station Guide

NC Voting Site Station Guide ««NC Voting Site Station Guide Revised August 2016 Our democratic process relies and depends on the dedicated efforts of election workers. Thank you for investing in the future of your community and our

More information

Banana policy: a European perspective {

Banana policy: a European perspective { The Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 41:2, pp. 277±282 Banana policy: a European perspective { Stefan Tangermann * European Union banana policies do not make economic sense, and

More information

Chapter 5. Political Parties

Chapter 5. Political Parties Chapter 5 Political Parties Section 1: Parties and what they do Winning isn t everything; it s the only thing. Political Party What is a party? A group or persons who seek to control government through

More information

The Politics of Emotional Confrontation in New Democracies: The Impact of Economic

The Politics of Emotional Confrontation in New Democracies: The Impact of Economic Paper prepared for presentation at the panel A Return of Class Conflict? Political Polarization among Party Leaders and Followers in the Wake of the Sovereign Debt Crisis The 24 th IPSA Congress Poznan,

More information

EDW Chapter 9 Campaigns and Voting Behavior: Nominations, Caucuses

EDW Chapter 9 Campaigns and Voting Behavior: Nominations, Caucuses EDW Chapter 9 Campaigns and Voting Behavior: Nominations, Caucuses 1. Which of the following statements most accurately compares elections in the United States with those in most other Western democracies?

More information

why we need a theory of federalism

why we need a theory of federalism introduction why we need a theory of federalism In the mid-nineteenth century, two-thirds of the world s landmass was governed by imperial edict. In the early twenty- rst century, according to many political

More information

Influence of Identity on Development of Urbanization. WEI Ming-gao, YU Gao-feng. University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China

Influence of Identity on Development of Urbanization. WEI Ming-gao, YU Gao-feng. University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China US-China Foreign Language, May 2018, Vol. 16, No. 5, 291-295 doi:10.17265/1539-8080/2018.05.008 D DAVID PUBLISHING Influence of Identity on Development of Urbanization WEI Ming-gao, YU Gao-feng University

More information

Amy Tenhouse. Incumbency Surge: Examining the 1996 Margin of Victory for U.S. House Incumbents

Amy Tenhouse. Incumbency Surge: Examining the 1996 Margin of Victory for U.S. House Incumbents Amy Tenhouse Incumbency Surge: Examining the 1996 Margin of Victory for U.S. House Incumbents In 1996, the American public reelected 357 members to the United States House of Representatives; of those

More information

US Government Module 3 Study Guide

US Government Module 3 Study Guide US Government Module 3 Study Guide There are 3 branches of government. Module 3 will cover the legislative and execute and module 4 will cover the judicial. 3.01 The Legislative Branch aka Congress Established

More information

Political Campaign. Volunteers in a get-out-the-vote campaign in Portland, Oregon, urge people to vote during the 2004 presidential

Political Campaign. Volunteers in a get-out-the-vote campaign in Portland, Oregon, urge people to vote during the 2004 presidential Political Campaign I INTRODUCTION Voting Volunteer Volunteers in a get-out-the-vote campaign in Portland, Oregon, urge people to vote during the 2004 presidential elections. Greg Wahl-Stephens/AP/Wide

More information

Unit 4 Political Behavior

Unit 4 Political Behavior Unit 4 Political Behavior Ch. 11 Political Parties Roots of the Two-Party System The Development of the Political Parties, 1800 1824 Jacksonian Democracy, 1824 1860 The Golden Age, 1860 1932 The Modern

More information

Americans, Japanese: Mutual Respect 70 Years After the End of WWII

Americans, Japanese: Mutual Respect 70 Years After the End of WWII Americans, Japanese: Mutual Respect 70 Years After the End of WWII April 7, 2015 Neither Trusts China, Differ on Japan s Security Role in Asia Adversaries in World War II, fierce economic competitors in

More information

THE POTENTIALS OF REMITTANCES FOR INCOME GENERATING ACTIVITIES LEADING TO LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ALBANIA THE CASE OF DURRES

THE POTENTIALS OF REMITTANCES FOR INCOME GENERATING ACTIVITIES LEADING TO LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ALBANIA THE CASE OF DURRES THE POTENTIALS OF REMITTANCES FOR INCOME GENERATING ACTIVITIES LEADING TO LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ALBANIA THE CASE OF DURRES Prepared by: Enika Abazi, Ph.D. Mithat Mema, Ph.D. Local Consultants Durres,

More information

FOR RELEASE APRIL 26, 2018

FOR RELEASE APRIL 26, 2018 FOR RELEASE APRIL 26, 2018 FOR MEDIA OR OTHER INQUIRIES: Carroll Doherty, Director of Political Research Jocelyn Kiley, Associate Director, Research Bridget Johnson, Communications Associate 202.419.4372

More information

Do barriers to candidacy reduce political competition? Evidence from a bachelor s degree requirement for legislators in Pakistan

Do barriers to candidacy reduce political competition? Evidence from a bachelor s degree requirement for legislators in Pakistan Do barriers to candidacy reduce political competition? Evidence from a bachelor s degree requirement for legislators in Pakistan September 2013 Madiha Afzal* Abstract In the 2002 election, candidates for

More information

Primary Election Systems. An LWVO Study

Primary Election Systems. An LWVO Study Primary Election Systems An LWVO Study CONSENSUS QUESTIONS with pros and cons Question #1. What do you believe is the MORE important purpose of primary elections? a. A way for political party members alone

More information

Public Opinion and Government Responsiveness Part II

Public Opinion and Government Responsiveness Part II Public Opinion and Government Responsiveness Part II How confident are we that the power to drive and determine public opinion will always reside in responsible hands? Carl Sagan How We Form Political

More information

Starting an election campaign. A primer for CPAs interested in running for political office

Starting an election campaign. A primer for CPAs interested in running for political office Starting an election campaign A primer for CPAs interested in running for political office 2 CPA4office Starting an election campaign Table of contents 2 Why CPAs are prime candidates 4 Making decision

More information

Chapter 12. Representations, Elections and Voting

Chapter 12. Representations, Elections and Voting Chapter 12 Representations, Elections and Voting 1 If Voting Changed Anything They d Abolish It Title of book by Ken Livingstone (1987) 2 Representation Representation, as a political principle, is a relationship

More information

Atlantic Ocean. Baltic Sea. North Sea. Bay of Biscay. National Integrity system Assessment poland. Black Sea. Mediterranean Sea

Atlantic Ocean. Baltic Sea. North Sea. Bay of Biscay. National Integrity system Assessment poland. Black Sea. Mediterranean Sea Atlantic Ocean Baltic Sea North Sea Bay of Biscay National Integrity system Assessment poland Black Sea Mediterranean Sea National Integrity system Assessment poland EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Can we really talk

More information

Voters Interests in Campaign Finance Regulation: Formal Models

Voters Interests in Campaign Finance Regulation: Formal Models Voters Interests in Campaign Finance Regulation: Formal Models Scott Ashworth June 6, 2012 The Supreme Court s decision in Citizens United v. FEC significantly expands the scope for corporate- and union-financed

More information

3rd Nine Weeks. Student s Name: School: Core Teacher: Block: Gifted Resource Teacher:

3rd Nine Weeks. Student s Name: School: Core Teacher: Block: Gifted Resource Teacher: Suffolk Public School s Portfolio Packet 3rd Nine Weeks Student s Name: School: Accelerated Course: _7 th Civics Core Teacher: Block: Gifted Resource Teacher: This packet must be submitted at the conclusion

More information

The voting behaviour in the local Romanian elections of June 2016

The voting behaviour in the local Romanian elections of June 2016 Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov Series V: Economic Sciences Vol. 9 (58) No. 2-2016 The voting behaviour in the local Romanian elections of June 2016 Elena-Adriana BIEA 1, Gabriel BRĂTUCU

More information

Crossing Party Lines: The E ects of Information on Redistributive Politics

Crossing Party Lines: The E ects of Information on Redistributive Politics Crossing Party Lines: The E ects of Information on Redistributive Politics Katherine Casey November 28, 2010 Abstract This paper explores how the quality of information available to voters in uences the

More information

MODEL OF ELECTION OF THE HEAD OF STATE OF THE THIRD POLISH REPUBLIC BALANCING BETWEEN INSTITUTIONAL COHERENCE AND POLITICAL PRAGMATISM

MODEL OF ELECTION OF THE HEAD OF STATE OF THE THIRD POLISH REPUBLIC BALANCING BETWEEN INSTITUTIONAL COHERENCE AND POLITICAL PRAGMATISM University of Silesia, Poland MODEL OF ELECTION OF THE HEAD OF STATE OF THE THIRD POLISH REPUBLIC BALANCING BETWEEN INSTITUTIONAL COHERENCE AND POLITICAL PRAGMATISM Abstract: Since then four such elections

More information

Chapter 14. The Causes and Effects of Rational Abstention

Chapter 14. The Causes and Effects of Rational Abstention Excerpts from Anthony Downs, An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper and Row, 1957. (pp. 260-274) Introduction Chapter 14. The Causes and Effects of Rational Abstention Citizens who are eligible

More information

ANNUAL SURVEY REPORT: REGIONAL OVERVIEW

ANNUAL SURVEY REPORT: REGIONAL OVERVIEW ANNUAL SURVEY REPORT: REGIONAL OVERVIEW 2nd Wave (Spring 2017) OPEN Neighbourhood Communicating for a stronger partnership: connecting with citizens across the Eastern Neighbourhood June 2017 TABLE OF

More information

PEOPLE VS POWER / TNP SUMMER 2011

PEOPLE VS POWER / TNP SUMMER 2011 PEOPLE VS POWER / TNP SUMMER 2011 What Can be Changed? The introduction of direct presidential elections is, from the perspective of standard constitutional engineering, a tool for solving or achieving

More information

Deliberative Polling Post- survey

Deliberative Polling Post- survey 1. On a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 is completely unimportant, 10 is extremely important, and 5 is exactly in between, how important do you think each of the following is to being a good citizen? Unimportant

More information

Federal Elections, Union Publications. and. Union Websites

Federal Elections, Union Publications. and. Union Websites Federal Elections, Union Publications and Union Websites (Produced by the APWU National Postal Press Association) Dear Brother or Sister: Election Day is Tuesday, November 8, 2008. Working families have

More information

past few decades fast growth of multi-national corporations (MNC) rms that conduct and control productive activities in more than one country

past few decades fast growth of multi-national corporations (MNC) rms that conduct and control productive activities in more than one country Ch. 14 Foreign nance, investment and aid International ow of nancial resources to developing countries 1. Foreign direct and portfolio investment 2. remittances of earnings by international migrants 3.

More information

Ohio State University

Ohio State University Fake News Did Have a Significant Impact on the Vote in the 2016 Election: Original Full-Length Version with Methodological Appendix By Richard Gunther, Paul A. Beck, and Erik C. Nisbet Ohio State University

More information

Get Out The VOTE! Overview Materials Duration Teacher Preparation Procedure Voter Turnout

Get Out The VOTE! Overview Materials Duration Teacher Preparation Procedure Voter Turnout Get Out The VOTE! Overview In this lesson, students will explore voter turnout in North Carolina and through a short reading, they will learn about the various reasons for depressed voter turnout in the

More information

A Functional Analysis of 2008 and 2012 Presidential Nomination Acceptance Addresses

A Functional Analysis of 2008 and 2012 Presidential Nomination Acceptance Addresses Speaker & Gavel Volume 51 Issue 1 Article 5 December 2015 A Functional Analysis of 2008 and 2012 Presidential Nomination Acceptance Addresses William L. Benoit Ohio University, benoitw@ohio.edu Follow

More information

MATERIAL ON THE TEST Edwards Chapters 6, 9, 8, 10, 11 Sides ( Science of Trump ) chapters 4, 5, 6, 15, 24, 12 CHAPTER 6

MATERIAL ON THE TEST Edwards Chapters 6, 9, 8, 10, 11 Sides ( Science of Trump ) chapters 4, 5, 6, 15, 24, 12 CHAPTER 6 Study Guide for Exam 2: October 25 in class 47 multiple choice questions worth 1 point each and probably a couple of extra credit problems. Bring a pencil with you to the exam. As with the last exam, there

More information

LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying Chapter 12, you should be able to: 1. Describe the characteristics of our senators and representatives, and the nature of their jobs. 2. Explain what factors have the

More information

A priori veto power of the president of Poland Jacek W. Mercik 12

A priori veto power of the president of Poland Jacek W. Mercik 12 A priori veto power of the president of Poland Jacek W. Mercik 12 Summary: the a priori power of the president of Poland, lower chamber of parliament (Sejm) and upper chamber of parliament (Senate) in

More information

Nonvoters in America 2012

Nonvoters in America 2012 Nonvoters in America 2012 A Study by Professor Ellen Shearer Medill School of Journalism, Media, Integrated Marketing Communications Northwestern University Survey Conducted by Ipsos Public Affairs When

More information

Analyzing American Democracy

Analyzing American Democracy SUB Hamburg Analyzing American Democracy Politics and Political Science Jon R. Bond Texas A&M University Kevin B. Smith University of Nebraska-Lincoln O Routledge Taylor & Francis Group NEW YORK AND LONDON

More information

Standing for office in 2017

Standing for office in 2017 Standing for office in 2017 Analysis of feedback from candidates standing for election to the Northern Ireland Assembly, Scottish council and UK Parliament November 2017 Other formats For information on

More information

Unit: The Legislative Branch

Unit: The Legislative Branch - two houses. Name: Date: Period: Unit: The Legislative Branch Part One: How Congress is Organized Gerrymandering- to a state into an odd-shaped district for reasons. - people in a representative s district.

More information

PRELIMINARY STATEMENT OF THE NDI INTERNATIONAL ELECTION OBSERVER DELEGATION TO THE MAY 5, 2005 PALESTINIAN LOCAL ELECTIONS Jerusalem, May 6, 2005

PRELIMINARY STATEMENT OF THE NDI INTERNATIONAL ELECTION OBSERVER DELEGATION TO THE MAY 5, 2005 PALESTINIAN LOCAL ELECTIONS Jerusalem, May 6, 2005 PRELIMINARY STATEMENT OF THE NDI INTERNATIONAL ELECTION OBSERVER DELEGATION TO THE MAY 5, 2005 PALESTINIAN LOCAL ELECTIONS Jerusalem, May 6, 2005 This preliminary statement is offered by the National Democratic

More information

American Government: Teacher s Introduction and Guide for Classroom Integration

American Government: Teacher s Introduction and Guide for Classroom Integration American Government: Teacher s Introduction and Guide for Classroom Integration Contents of this Guide This guide contains much of the same information that can be found online in the Course Introduction

More information

The Political Economy of Data. Tim Besley. Kuwait Professor of Economics and Political Science, LSE. IFS Annual Lecture. October 15 th 2007

The Political Economy of Data. Tim Besley. Kuwait Professor of Economics and Political Science, LSE. IFS Annual Lecture. October 15 th 2007 The Political Economy of Data Tim Besley Kuwait Professor of Economics and Political Science, LSE IFS Annual Lecture October 15 th 2007 Bank of England There is nothing a politician likes so little as

More information

PPIC Statewide Survey: Special Survey on Campaign Ethics

PPIC Statewide Survey: Special Survey on Campaign Ethics PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY: Special Survey on Campaign Ethics OCTOBER 28 NOVEMBER 4, 2002 MARK BALDASSARE, SURVEY DIRECTOR 2,000 CALIFORNIA ADULT RESIDENTS; ENGLISH AND SPANISH [LIKELY VOTERS IN BRACKETS; 1,025

More information

Elections and Voting Behaviour. The Political System of the United Kingdom

Elections and Voting Behaviour. The Political System of the United Kingdom Elections and Behaviour The Political System of the United Kingdom Intro Theories of Behaviour in the UK The Political System of the United Kingdom Elections/ (1/25) Current Events The Political System

More information

Agnieszka Kasińska-Metryka PSYCHOLOGICAL AND MARKETING CONDITIONS OF ELECTORAL ACTIVITY OF WOMEN

Agnieszka Kasińska-Metryka PSYCHOLOGICAL AND MARKETING CONDITIONS OF ELECTORAL ACTIVITY OF WOMEN Preferencje Polityczne, nr 3/2012 DOI: 10.6084/m9.figshare.94192 Agnieszka Kasińska-Metryka PSYCHOLOGICAL AND MARKETING CONDITIONS OF ELECTORAL ACTIVITY OF WOMEN A woman is like a tea bag, you can not

More information

Plan for the cooperation with the Polish diaspora and Poles abroad in Elaboration

Plan for the cooperation with the Polish diaspora and Poles abroad in Elaboration Plan for the cooperation with the Polish diaspora and Poles abroad in 2013. Elaboration Introduction No. 91 / 2012 26 09 12 Institute for Western Affairs Poznań Author: Michał Nowosielski Editorial Board:

More information

RECOMMENDED CITATION: Pew Research Center, July, 2016, 2016 Campaign: Strong Interest, Widespread Dissatisfaction

RECOMMENDED CITATION: Pew Research Center, July, 2016, 2016 Campaign: Strong Interest, Widespread Dissatisfaction NUMBERS, FACTS AND TRENDS SHAPING THE WORLD FOR RELEASE JULY 07, 2016 FOR MEDIA OR OTHER INQUIRIES: Carroll Doherty, Director of Political Research Jocelyn Kiley, Associate Director, Research Bridget Johnson,

More information

ELECTORAL CODE OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA

ELECTORAL CODE OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA ELECTORAL CODE OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA PART ONE SECTION ONE GENERAL PROVISIONS SECTION TWO ELECTORAL COMMISSIONS SECTION THREE VOTING SUMMARIZATION OF THE VOTING RESULTS PART TWO SECTION FOUR ELECTIONS

More information

BRICS NATIONS: AN IDEAL BREEDING GROUND FOR CORRUPTION?

BRICS NATIONS: AN IDEAL BREEDING GROUND FOR CORRUPTION? Abstract BRICS NATIONS: AN IDEAL BREEDING GROUND FOR CORRUPTION? Ruchi Gupta Associate Professor, Dyal Singh College, University of Delhi ruchigupta2508@gmail.com An attempt is made to unearth the causes

More information

The Texas Legislature Part III. How can you look at the Texas Legislature and still believe in intelligent design? Kinky Friedman

The Texas Legislature Part III. How can you look at the Texas Legislature and still believe in intelligent design? Kinky Friedman The Texas Legislature Part III How can you look at the Texas Legislature and still believe in intelligent design? Kinky Friedman Texas Legislative Process Texas Legislative Process The Texas Constitution

More information

EXTREMIST RIGHT IN POLAND. Paper by. Nikolay MARINOV. Director François Bafoil CNRS Sciences Po/CERI

EXTREMIST RIGHT IN POLAND. Paper by. Nikolay MARINOV. Director François Bafoil CNRS Sciences Po/CERI COESIONET EUROPEAN COHESION AND TERRITORIES RESEARCH NETWORK EXTREMIST RIGHT IN POLAND Paper by Nikolay MARINOV Director François Bafoil CNRS Sciences Po/CERI Collège Universitaire de Sciences Po Campus

More information

Prime Minister Szydło resigns, Morawiecki to take over

Prime Minister Szydło resigns, Morawiecki to take over 7th December 2017 Prime Minister Szydło resigns, Morawiecki to take over This evening, ruling PiS party spokesperson Beata Mazurek has informed that Prime Minister Beata Szydło has resigned. The Political

More information

(Democracy under construction: Patterns from four continents

(Democracy under construction: Patterns from four continents A 447458 Ursula J. van Beek (ed.) (Democracy under construction: Patterns from four continents Contributions from: Hans-Dieter Klingemann Dirk Berg-Schlosser Pierre du Toit Jorge Heine Susanne Fuchs Hennie

More information

BRIEF. Smart Defence - is it likely to succed? By Colonel Frank Mathiassen, Royal Danish Air Force FORSVARSAKADEMIETS FORLAG

BRIEF. Smart Defence - is it likely to succed? By Colonel Frank Mathiassen, Royal Danish Air Force FORSVARSAKADEMIETS FORLAG BRIEF Smart Defence - is it likely to succed? By Colonel Frank Mathiassen, Royal Danish Air Force FORSVARSAKADEMIETS FORLAG BRIEF Smart Defence - is it likely to succed? By Colonel Frank Mathiassen, Royal

More information

IS APPROVAL VOTING PREFERED BY THE POLISH SOCIETY? OBSERVATIONS FROM A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE 1

IS APPROVAL VOTING PREFERED BY THE POLISH SOCIETY? OBSERVATIONS FROM A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE 1 IS APPROVAL VOTING PREFERED BY THE POLISH SOCIETY? OBSERVATIONS FROM A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE 1 Krzysztof Przybyszewski Center for Economic Psychology and Decision Sciences, LKAEM, Warsaw, Poland crispy@wspiz.edu.pl

More information

Chapter 9 Campaigns and Voting Behavior (Elections) AP Government

Chapter 9 Campaigns and Voting Behavior (Elections) AP Government Chapter 9 Campaigns and Voting Behavior (Elections) AP Government The Nomination Game 9.1 Competing for Delegates 9.1 National party convention State delegates meet and vote on nominee Nomination process

More information

FRED S. MCCHESNEY, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, U.S.A.

FRED S. MCCHESNEY, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, U.S.A. 185 thinking of the family in terms of covenant relationships will suggest ways for laws to strengthen ties among existing family members. To the extent that modern American law has become centered on

More information

Who wins and who loses after a coalition government? The electoral results of parties

Who wins and who loses after a coalition government? The electoral results of parties Who wins and who loses after a coalition government? The electoral results of parties Ignacio Urquizu Sancho Juan March Institute & Complutense University of Madrid January 22, 2007 One of the main gaps

More information

Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy Thirteenth Edition, and Texas Edition Edwards/Wattenberg/Lineberry. Chapter 8.

Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy Thirteenth Edition, and Texas Edition Edwards/Wattenberg/Lineberry. Chapter 8. Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy Thirteenth Edition, and Texas Edition Edwards/Wattenberg/Lineberry Chapter 8 Political Parties The Meaning of Party Political Party: A team of men [and

More information

A Critique on Schumpeter s Competitive Elitism: By Examining the Case of Chinese Politics

A Critique on Schumpeter s Competitive Elitism: By Examining the Case of Chinese Politics A Critique on Schumpeter s Competitive Elitism: By Examining the Case of Chinese Politics Abstract Schumpeter s democratic theory of competitive elitism distinguishes itself from what the classical democratic

More information

Chapter 8: Mass Media and Public Opinion Section 1 Objectives Key Terms public affairs: public opinion: mass media: peer group: opinion leader:

Chapter 8: Mass Media and Public Opinion Section 1 Objectives Key Terms public affairs: public opinion: mass media: peer group: opinion leader: Chapter 8: Mass Media and Public Opinion Section 1 Objectives Examine the term public opinion and understand why it is so difficult to define. Analyze how family and education help shape public opinion.

More information

The most important results of the Civic Empowerment Index research of 2014 are summarized in the upcoming pages.

The most important results of the Civic Empowerment Index research of 2014 are summarized in the upcoming pages. SUMMARY In 2014, the Civic Empowerment Index research was carried out for the seventh time. It revealed that the Lithuanian civic power had come back to the level of 2008-2009 after a few years of a slight

More information