Final Result Report - Cooperation Agreement with Norad

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1 Final Result Report - Cooperation Agreement with Norad Norsk Folkehjelp - Solidaritet i praksis / / 1

2 Norsk Folkehjelp - Solidaritet i praksis / / 2

3 1. General 1.1 Name of grant recipient: Norwegian People s Aid 1.2 GLO 0613 GLO 07/ Agreement period: Introduction In 2008, Norwegian People s Aid (NPA) left the thematic focus in our international strategy behind and went back to an emphasis on supporting partner organizations capacity to address democratic deficits and inequalities. This was done to be able to adapt even better to the local context and provide flexible support to social organization on the issues that mobilize in each country. NPA has prioritized support to strengthen partner organizations internally as well as in their capacity to mobilize support and influence political decisions. This has been complemented by NPAs efforts to promote partners agenda in Norway and influence Norwegian foreign and development policies. At the end of the period most NPA programs considered that they have been able to adapt to the new strategy. The NORAD Cooperation Agreement has contributed to fund the work in 19 of 23 countries were NPA has long term cooperation programs. At the end of this period the program in Tanzania was faced out and a pre study including support to partners was initiated in Vietnam in In addition, it enabled us to strengthen our support to the democratization processes in Southern Africa and to map the possibilities for similar support in North-Africa and Middle East. NPA has established partnership with organizations based on shared values with respect to the work for democratic rights and redistribution of resources. Our approach to the relationship with the organizations is established in NPAs international strategy and partnership policy. Policies on Land and Natural Resources and Organization and Participation were developed to guide the implementation of the international strategy In addition to the follow up of the geographical advisors at head office, NPA prioritized resources to head office support to the programs in the areas of planning monitoring and reporting and organizational development. Throughout the period NPA has increased its political work and support to forward partners agenda in Norway. Based on an external evaluation, NPAs gender work at head office was reorganized with a clearer focus on mainstreaming gender and women s participation within NPAs priority program and policy work. In 2010 NPA commissioned an external review of the International Development Strategy It was undertaken by CMI, and the report published in NORAD carried out an organizational review in Both recognize NPA as a good and flexible partner with clear stated policies for its partnership practice. They point at improved reporting of results, but question whether NPA has too many partners to achieve quality in the accompaniment and that the approach to partner selection is not consistent across the countries. NPA has taken steps to improve consistency in the new international strategy developed for the period , as well as in the plans for its implementation. In this report, we will present a brief context analysis as well as selected results according to the goals of each country program. In the following we will present an analysis of the overall achievements based on the program presented in Annex 1 to the Cooperation Agreement. 1 Making Partnership work Vision and Implementation of a Development Programme. CMI (Tjønneland/ Tostensen) NPA (Mørck; January 2011). 2 Organisational Performance Review, CMI, (Tjønneland and Hagen, 2011). Norsk Folkehjelp - Solidaritet i praksis / / 3

4 2. Reporting on Results 2.1 What are the most important results achieved in the agreement period? On an overall note, program implementation and the results point towards the predefined goals and may be considered important contributions to the struggle for democratic development and just distribution of power and resources in the countries where NPA works. In some cases, however, it is evident that the country program goals especially the development goals, have been too ambitious while in other cases the political environment has not been conducive to work for democracy. Rwanda and Ethiopia are case in point. All programs report outcomes and relate to the planned indicators, but there are planned results that we have not achieved or that are weak. The reasons are explained in the result matrixes and vary. The South Sudan program reports on local conflicts between groups of people being a hindrance, while the Tanzania and Zimbabwe program explain that one partner struggled with organizational issues. In other cases, the hindrances are linked to the political environment (Honduras, Rwanda) or to a combination of two or more factors (Ecuador). South Africa may have spread its small resources too thinly and/or failed in its selecting and trying of partners. Finally, in some cases, the ability to monitor and document results could be stronger. Notwithstanding such cases, this report supplements the Periodic Result Report and confirms that we have delivered in accordance to the agreement with Norad. Chapter is a summary of results related to NPA s work to strengthen civil society s capacity to address democratic deficits and inequalities through partnership and organizational development. The chapters update information relevant to the country context and results. The result matrix indicates what has changed (or did not change) for whom. The examples referred to in the first chapter are not necessary the same as the results shown in the chapters These chapters also reflect on the achievement of the program goals and impact, and explain how the results shown in the matrix have been chosen Strengthening civil society s capacity to address democratic deficits and inequalities through partnership and organizational development The development goal of Norwegian People's Aid`s (NPA) work funded by the NORAD Cooperation agreement in the period has been that Representative organizations effectively defend people s democratic rights and the redistribution of resources. This is a long term goal and the program goal was therefore established as: Civil society organizations work for the right to assemble and associate, with the indicators referring to the number of civil society organizations involved and the issues raised by the organizations in the field of right to assemble and associate, participation in public debate, NGO/CSO legislation and redistribution of wealth and power. The final impact in society will always depend on a number of external factors outside the control of NPA or partners. In this report we consider that the number of organizations involved is not a good indicator as such. At the same time, the number of organizations that received support is an indication of the important outreach of the work of NPA. A total of 298 partners in 19 countries received financial support between 2008 and 2011 through the NORAD Cooperation Agreement. The major part has been support to long term partners, but the number also include one off support to initiatives or small amounts transferred to try out new partnerships. There has been a reduction of the number of partners during the period. Transfers were made to 205 partners in 2008, while in 2011 this had been reduced to 175. All NPA programs worked for the right to assemble and associate, understanding this both as the legal possibilities to organize, the promotion of an enabling environment for organizations, as Norsk Folkehjelp - Solidaritet i praksis / / 4

5 well as the work done by the organizations to push for participation, mobilize for their demands and strengthening their organizations and alliances. The country reports show results both at the local and the national level. Neither organizational nor political developments are linear processes and the results must be evaluated taking into consideration the broader political development and the degree to which the organizations are able to respond to a changing context. The right to assemble and associate has been challenged by the authorities in many of the countries where NPA works. Notably Honduras, Cambodia, Zimbabwe and Ethiopia can be mentioned as examples of this. One result stated in NPAs plans for the period was that NPA partners knowledge and competence contribute to civil societies work for the right to assemble and associate. NPA has not contributed with general analysis of civil society legislation that could be used by partners. We have in different ways supported partners work when this right has been challenged through restrictive legislation or through repression of organized groups. Examples of this are the work done by partners in Cambodia that has halted the approval of restrictive NGO legislation or NPAs own protest against assassinations of members of partner organizations in Honduras and Guatemala. The push for broadening the participation and the recognition of the organizations voice in decision making processes is reflected in the program reports. This has been done in a variety of ways: Partners in 15 countries have worked to improve legislation. Partners influenced the formulation of new constitutions in Bolivia and Ecuador (ref. partner proposals, formulation in the constitution and newspaper reports). Gender sensitive constitutional amendments were approved in South Sudan. In Zimbabwe, partners are closely monitoring and seeking to influence the ongoing constitutional reform process (partner reports, public debate), also promoting increased participation of women in the process (petition submitted to the constitutional reform body COPAC and lobby and awareness document from ZWLA). Some law proposals have sought to improve political processes and access to information, like the proposals for the law on public participation and social monitoring (Ecuador), political campaign financing (Cambodia) and three draft media bills that are under discussion in the parliament of South Sudan. There are some examples of partners presenting law proposals related to privatization and public services, as the proposals for policies regarding water (Bolivia, Nicaragua and Honduras) or improvement of public services like decent housing or consumer defence (Nicaragua). Partners promoted a law on violence against women in Angola that was approved Proposals addressing the management of land and natural resources were presented in 10 countries, also addressing the rights of indigenous/tribal people. Partners have promoted the regulation of mining (El Salvador and Honduras), suggested legislation regarding distribution and restoration of land and territories (South Sudan, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Chile, Colombia) as well as rural development (Guatemala, Bolivia). By-laws to promote positive customary law practices on women s rights were approved in South Sudan. Influence on national democratic change in 5 countries. Political crisis or fundamental transition processes in a country provide challenges and opportunities for organization to influence change. Partners in Bolivia and Ecuador have been drivers in the change process. Especially the large mass organizations (CSTUCB and CONAIE) have mobilised against neoliberal economic policies, for a government that promote a just distribution and for indigenous rights. There is no doubt that this has changed the political participation and state policies substantially. NPA has played an important role in the transition on South Sudan that was established as an independent state in After the coup in Honduras, there has been a setback when it comes to political reform and repression has increased. The spontaneous and long lasting mobilization against the coup, where all NPA partners participated, made it difficult for the new regime to get the expected recognition. It did create new alliances within civil society, alliances that are upheld, though with problems, and sparked increased civil society initiative. 3 Prime Minister Salva Khirs speech when the new state was established July 9, 2011 Norsk Folkehjelp - Solidaritet i praksis / / 5

6 The mobilization of organizations in Zimbabwe has been of great importance to the democratization process among others as watchdogs for human rights and lately in the pressure towards the government to stick to the General Political Agreement and not call for early elections. Zimbabwe can also be seen as a test case for democracy and human rights in region. In addition to the results reported from the Zimbabwe program, NPA has been supporting a regional initiative in Southern Africa where our partners Zimbabwe Solidarity Forum (ZSF-Action Support Network) and Crisis in Zimbabwe South Africa have been supporting and coordinating civil society work at a national- and regional level in countries such as Zimbabwe, South Africa, Mozambique, Angola and Zambia with the aim of influencing the political situation in Zimbabwe. The seminars organized have brought together persons representing the three GNU (Government of National Unity) parties (MDC T, MDC N and ZANU PF) in the constitutional process. While ZSF has mobilized and forwarded demands from grassroots level, Crisis has lobbied representatives at the highest political level. This has been done through meetings with the SADC Secretariat, with President Zuma s facilitation Team on Zimbabwe, with the Foreign Affairs Ministers in Zambia, Mozambique, Botswana and South Africa, and the Heads of States for Namibia and Zambia. SADC representatives have expressed that their work towards Zimbabwe is easier with public support for the demands. Demands presented regarding priority to constitutional reform before elections, SADC representation in the constitutional reform process among others have been echoed by SADC that has a much stronger language now than two years ago. This work done by partners in the region is supplemented by Zimbabwe Europe Network (ZEN) where partners in Zimbabwe are members of the reference groups and NPA sits in the board. Campaigns, protests, awareness raising and alliance building to change public policies have taken place on a variety of issues, as for example; Campaigning against Gender based violence (Palestine, Rwanda and Angola), against privatization and general increases payment of basic services (South Africa), the right to know campaign (South Africa), organization of the Broad Movement for Dignity and Justice (Honduras), budget monitoring, gender responsive budgeting and campaigns to influence the national budget for health, education and agriculture (Angola). Management of land and natural resources has by far been the issue that has led to most mobilization of partner organizations over the last years; 18 of 19 programme countries supported partners in the work to avoid negative consequences of privatization of natural resources. NPA has had a long standing work on land rights. In the plan for the perspective was broadened aiming for that CSOs sustain pressure on their governments to avoid negative consequences of privatization of natural resources. The reports show results in the strengthening of organizations and mobilization against negative consequences of large scale land investments or evictions (South Sudan, Mozambique, Angola, Cambodia, Palestine), mining- hydropower- and mega dam projects (Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Zimbabwe). Along with this the work on land tenure and natural resource management (Tanzania, Angola, Chile, Nicaragua, Ethiopia and South Sudan) has continued. NPA has also developed its methods, on the one hand through reports documenting the challenges of large scale land investments, on the other through joint lobbying with partners in Norway. Some examples: The NPA report The New Frontier (2011) documented the scale of large land investments in South Sudan. This has showed very positive results. The information has been spread and discussed in all South Sudanese provinces and groups have organized in the provinces to spread the information further. The report has gained international recognition and has been referred to in international media like the BBC. The access to information has led local groups to raise the problems they face due to large scale land investment with the authorities. South Sudanese authorities have stopped one contract and made a promise publicly to review all contracts on land investment. Norsk Folkehjelp - Solidaritet i praksis / / 6

7 The NPA supported report The Lords of the Land (2011) 4 documented the process of foreign direct investment in land and mining and resulting conflicts with the communities in Mozambique. The report was cited and raised debate in Mozambique media and is being used as an advocacy tool by UNAC. It also contributed to raise awareness and provide information to UNACs members and local chapters. NPA has started a campaign to push Chevron to clean up the mess left from exploitation of oil in the Ecuadorian part of the Amazon. NPA supports the affected communities and the accompaniment of FDA (The Front for Defence of the Amazon) in their legal case in Ecuador is networking with other international organizations. In Norway, the labour federation IndustriEnergi and NPA are seeking to push The Norwegian Government Pension Fund (SPU) to practice an active ownership or else withdraw their investments in Chevron. Chevron should assume responsibility instead of using massive amounts of money on lawyers in court on a case that may seriously harm their reputation. This campaign continues in NPA is not an environment organization, but much of our work with natural resources involves environmental aspects, as the case mentioned above. Other cases can illustrate this; In Bolivia and Ethiopia, partners presented proposals for environmental legislation. NPA partner MELCA has been a central actor in achieving that hectares of Sheka forest land was approved in Ethiopia and by UNASCO as a world biosphere reserve. In Tanzania partners managed to amend the Wild life bill. All programmes have contributed to partners organizational development. The NORAD organizational review recognizes NPAs contribution, but also states that given NPAs strategic approach to strengthen organizations capacity to mobilize and influence political decisions, the evaluators found too much emphasis on technical aspects in some countries. The need for greater consistency is also recognized by NPA. At the same time, the partner and program reports do show significant results; In Cambodia, NPA works with less organised grassroots groups emerging from land conflict situations. These have a great capacity for social mobilization but lack sufficient standards for financial and administrative management. NPA has dedicated a lot of effort and time to support these organizations in this respect, but also faces challenges in terms of resources to follow up. During the last years, these groups have developed networks and increased coordination. The Zimbabwe Chamber of Informal Economy Associations (ZCIEA) expanded its membership base. In 2008 ZCIEA had presence in 12 territories, organised 65 chapters and had members. In 2011 the presence had been expanded to 15 territories, the organisation had 265 chapters and members. NPA provided support to capacity building and consultative meetings. One result of the organizational strengthening was that ZCIEA was requested by the Ministry to give input to the Small and Medium Enterprise bill and 2191 members were allocated residential stands, while 2260 got operational stands. In Palestine, there were 55 farmers committees with 344 members in In 2011, the total number of members reached 960 forming 131 committees in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, including 6 fishermen committees. 34,5% of the members are women. NPA provided support to the partner UAWC for networking, training among others in rights based approaches, leadership, syndicate organizing, social discussion and teamwork. The farmers and fishermen committees have gained trust, shown capacity to respond to crisis situations, 2096 female and male farmers have designed their own micro- enterprises and 3800 participated in the olive picking campaign. The Union of Journalists in South Sudan is now functioning. UJSS held their first democratic election of leadership in 2010, have increased their membership and established three suboffices. At the same time, the Association of Media Women in Southern Sudan (AWISS) has increased the visibility of gender and women s issues in the audio visual and printed media. NPA has closely accompanied the process and provided support to the general assembly, training, information material and exchange visits. 4 Lords of the Land, Justicia Ambiental & Uniao Nacional dos Camponeses (UNAC), 2011 Norsk Folkehjelp - Solidaritet i praksis / / 7

8 A tool used in many of NPA programs is Women can do it (WCDI). Since it started in 2001, the WCDI had been introduced in 23 country programs by the end of Burma is the newest country program that included the WCDI into the program portfolio. The WCDI methodology has primarily been used as a tool for mobilizing women to engage in organized civil society forums and in politics, but it has also been used by our partners as an organizational development tool to strengthen women`s role and influence within the organizations (like in the Small scale farmers union in Tete (UPCT/UNAC) in Mozambique). In 2012 there will be an external evaluation of the WCDI. In 2008 NPA introduced a simplified framework for results based planning, monitoring and reporting (PMR). The hand book Observing Change was written and published late 2010, and is used in most program countries. Since 2008, more than 20 workshops have been held to train NPA staff, and some partners, to establish more realistic PMR routines, relevant baselines and indicators to measure change, and to encourage the use of simple monitoring methods (quantitative and qualitative). The hand book has been translated to Portuguese and Khmer. In 2011 NPA decided to do more in-depth PMR work more in-depth in some program countries: Angola, Iraq, Cambodia. There have been 4 workshops in these pilot countries and extra follow up., In addition training on PMR has taken place with NPA staff from Palestine (in Oslo). In August and October 2011, the M&E advisor conducted PMR workshops and trainings in Oslo and Kenya for Norwegian and International members of the Atlas Alliance on monitoring of Organizational Development. In 2011, a questionnaire on practices and challenges regarding monitoring was sent to all program countries. The findings are that most program countries have formal M&E systems in place, but that these often are not used as practical tools because they are top heavy and too ambitious. Two program countries work more informally on monitoring. Among the challenges are to find adequate qualitative indicators, that the previous systems (formats, number and type of indicators) are too demanding in terms of skills, time and capacity. In addition, base lines are often not relevant or they are too broad. NPA has been active in lobbying Norwegian international and development policies. Some of the main issues we have raised over the last years are; Norwegian policies towards Palestina and promoting withdrawal of SPU investments in Israeli enterprises that contribute to the occupation of Palestinian territories; Norwegian policies towards Sudan, Burma and Zimbabwe; campaigning in coordination with Norwegian networks and Colombian organizations that until now successfully has halted the Norwegian ratification of the free trade agreement between EFTA and Colombia; promoted the right of indigenous peoples to free prior informed consent in relation to investment in their territories, with special focus on SN Powers investment in Chile and on a Norwegian company s pre-investment study in Guatemala in both cases the companies have withdrawn from the investment. We have worked consistently to push democratization and just distribution up on the development agenda, and prepared a special report on inequalities to be published in We have produced input and to hearing statements to 6 white papers to the Storting as well as to the national budgets each year Ethiopia After the 2005 elections, when protests were brutally knocked down and arrested, the room for civil society has been increasingly diminished and critical voices have been suppressed. New undemocratic legislation on terrorism, media and civil society has been adopted. The NGO law (explicitly prohibiting promotion of human rights, democracy and conflict resolutions) has reinforced pressure away from advocacy to service delivery and poverty reduction. The Ethiopian government s development plan (Growth and Transformation Plan ) includes a land lease program including more than 3 million hectares. Consultations are not done and stable jobs and new infrastructure not delivered. The land lease program is also a threat in many places to pastoralist s traditional way of life and communal management of land and forests. Norsk Folkehjelp - Solidaritet i praksis / / 8

9 As a consequence of the restrictions on NGOs, the goal to strengthen democratization processes in urban and semi urban communities was dropped as the partner organization working on voter education and democratic practices was forced to end their activities. Many organizations were forced to close or change their activities including leading organizations on human rights such as Women Lawyers Association. The work on gender based violence is still possible, although the focus of the program is now more on the criminal act and women victims social and health needs rather than on women s rights or gender equality. For instance, awareness raising and capacity building has led to strengthening police academy curriculum and police training in prevention and handling of gender based violence, and violence and harassment is reported to have decreased in targeted schools in Addis. NPA partner AWSAD is also still active in contributing to legal reforms in cooperation with other gender based organizations and networks. However, it has not been possible to document outcomes (e.g. to see significant effect from awareness raising of authorities when it comes to gender based violence). The NPA Ethiopia program started in 2008 and it may be unrealistic to expect any impact yet. On the other hand, the program has contributed to strengthen pastoralists access and sustainable use of communal land and natural resources while at the same time contributed to the strengthening of democratic practices in institutions on local levels. The target group has engaged in issues related to livelihood and protection of sacred sites and communal land. Partners have mobilized people and engaged key institutions in Borana and in Sheka, resulting in consultative and open decision making on resource management of communal land. An application for biosphere status for the Sheka forest is now sitting in UNESCO for approval. The introduction of participatory forest management in Borana has for example reduced deforestation and wild fires. Although there seems to be room for engagement in capacity building and awareness-raising, and on mobilization on certain local issues, the recently implemented directive on administration of NGOs and charities, could challenge this in the near future. 30 % of the organizations budget can be used for administration, but the definition of administration includes activities such as strengthening organizational capacity and project follow up. It will be clear during 2012 how this will be enforced and if it will further narrow the space for civil society. The main civil society consortium in Ethiopia (in which NPA partners are members) has actively engaged in opposing the directive, but so far to no avail. The first result shown in the matrix has been chosen because it actually document real success that may be sustainable. Planned results Better system in place for natural resource management Main achieved (or not achieved) results 238,750 hectare Sheka forest land is now being considered by UNESCO as one of the world s biosphere reserves. It was approved at all levels up to the federal level in Ethiopia. A draft alternative Environmental Impact Assessment law, drafted by MELCA with the participation of local communities as well as law makers, local, regional and national parliamentarians is now sitting in the parliament to be approved. Two clan leaders associations with now 400 members have been Indicators and other relevant information Government reversed original decision to grant more than ha for a tea plantation. The permit was reduced by two thirds (some ha was already cleared) This happens after NPA partner Melca s activities with government structures and competence building including information seminars and group discussions on threats of deforestation, and after Melca has strengthened traditional institutions such as clan leader association and mapping of sacred sites 5. 5 Re also Report Evaluation of NPA s Development Programme in Ethiopia Norsk Folkehjelp - Solidaritet i praksis / / 9

10 Women s capacity to deal with violence is strengthened on a personal level and when dealing with authorities People demand and use their rights to vote and their right to public services registered as a legal entity. Clan leaders have been designated around 300 sacred and cultural forest sites and have negotiated community protection and legal recognition by the local government body for these sites. The extent of rape and sexual harassment has been reduced in the target school compound in 2011 as compared to the project start-up period in Men and women in 28 districts in Amhara, SNNPR and Oromia regions attended teachings, trainings and meetings on basic principles of democratic practices, elections and human rights Baseline and project end period survey show e.g. that rape is reduced from 9.1% in 2008 to 2.5% in Sexual and physical harassments from teachers and students have decreased from 13, 2 % in 2008 to 2,5 in NPAs partner AWSAD, runs a women shelter, and disseminated iinformation and organized seminars, group discussions on gender based violence among teachers, students, school administrators, police officers and parents. The project ended at the end of 2009 The goal of this project was no longer in line with the new legislation and ENWYAY choose not to continue and ended the contract with NPA. In 2008 MELCA gave a Para-legal training on environmental laws and cultural and human rights for 35 community members including youth, women and clan leaders for Masha and Anderacha woreda of Sheka Zone. The training was meant to enhance the awareness of these members of the community regarding their cultural, environmental and human rights. These members of the community reached and shared the idea they got from the training with about fellow community members. Following these, MELCA organized training on national and international environmental laws, culture and human right for law enforcement and justice organs as well as those in the administrative position of Masha Woreda. The purpose of these trainings were to enlighten these organs with national and international laws dealing with environmental issues, cultural rights and make them aware of the challenges relating to the implementation of the environmental impact assessment law of the country. Furthermore consultation meetings with the local government organs continued on the value of conserving the forest of Sheka and the different strategies that can be used to that end. Triggered by these consecutive trainings and consultative meetings, the community of Masha Woreda demanded the forestland granted to East Africa Group for investment in tea plantation should be reversed as it has adverse effect on the forest and livelihood of the community. Through their repeated strive their voice gets the ears of decision makers. Then this idea of the community was supported by the local government organs and resulted in the stopping further of expansion of the tea plantation. Norsk Folkehjelp - Solidaritet i praksis / / 10

11 The East African Group was originally given a permit granting them hectares of forestland for their tea plantation. By the time the community demanded reversal of the investment agreement the East African group has already cleared about 1000 hectares of forestland and planted tea on it. So, the group was ordered by the relevant government organ to restrict its investment to the land it has already planted and to stop further expansion. Accordingly, for over five years now, the company was not able to expand to the forest land and is producing tea from the land it has cultivated before the community demanded its expulsion from the area. Beyond increasing community awareness and spurring political action on forest protection, MELCA-Ethiopia has also expanded the economic opportunities available in non-timber forest products (like honey, spices, animal fattening etc). This is an effort to replace income from charcoal South Sudan The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between North and South Sudan was signed in January The CPA promised hope for a peaceful and democratic future of Southern Sudan with expectations for democratic nation building, wealth sharing and final retribution for the sacrifices of the past decade. On the 9th of July 2011 the Independence of South Sudan was celebrated to the undivided satisfaction of 98.8% of the South Sudanese people. However, the relationship between Sudan and South Sudan was and continues to be marred by lack of trust. Insecurity in the border regions to Sudan has escalated, and inside South Sudan conflicts between neighboring communities over access to resources have been spurred on by a growing population, the impact of climate change, and environmental degradation. Cases where huge areas of land are been leased away to agricultural investors is on the rise (as documented in the report The New Frontier commissioned by NPA and launched in 2011), with the potential to increase conflicts over land. The need for emergency assistance rose throughout 2010 and Considerable efforts have been made to build the capacity of GOSS institutions. The creation of decentralized government institutions takes time and is ongoing. The capacity in these new institutions is low and division of tasks between National and State level is not well defined. Many communities have still to see the improvements they expected when they celebrated independence and education and health indicators remain among the lowest in the world. The situation for women in the country side has not improved much, but on a political level there has been improvement with a higher representation of women in national and state parliament. Civil society in Southern Sudan is still weak. It takes time for them to understand the oversight and advocacy role they need to play as a non-government actor. High costs in Juba, brain drain and few funding opportunities are challenges the organizations have to face. NPA partners are chosen based on dedication and constituencies more than on their capacity to write proposals. In some specific areas like oil and environment there has been total absence of possible partners to work with. We therefore reverted to be operational at the same time as we have tried to spark interest and capacity of individuals and organizations to work in these areas. In the South Sudanese context the goal was translated into the following two program goals: Southern Sudanese State co-operating partner organizations have developed legal frameworks, policy guidelines and institutional systems and capacity to implement, monitor and evaluate the policies and services they manage. Southern Sudanese non-state co-operating partner organizations have strengthened their capacity and those of their constituencies to advance and advocate women s equal rights, combating Violence Against Women, advancing freedom of expression, access to information, access to natural resources, access to economic opportunities and efficient public services. It is not possible to show all the good results and achievements that have been accomplished through this project. Therefore we have not included our gender and media activities, as they have Norsk Folkehjelp - Solidaritet i praksis / / 11

12 been highlighted in previous year s reporting. The successes have been achieved due to the flexibility of the long-term funding that allowed us to adjust activities to the needs in a very fluid and volatile environment. We have included activities that show our involvement at community level but also activities supporting the development of the state institutions for the new nation. The only area where we failed to achieve expected result was with traditional authorities. In South Sudan they are very important actors, but there are also many challenges. In the case of Lakes state our support was hampered by local politics that paralyzed the work of the council. Planned results Main achieved (or not achieved) results Health Institutions Yei Civil Hospital handed over to run by NPA (Yei, State ministry of health for Labone, Central Equatoria state Chukudum (MOH/CES), and both Labone Hospitals) to become quality health institutions taken over and under state ministries of health within 2011 A viable and functional Lakes State Traditional Authority Council To mitigate water and pasture related conflicts in Yirol West - Guongbit and Longyier and Chukudum Hospitals to State Ministry of health for Eastern Equatoria state (SMOH/EEQ) Traditional Authority Council of Lakes State has premises from where to operate. Functional Traditional Authority Council of Lakes State has not been accomplished. Community harvesting water structure constructed and water management committees established. Water is now available throughout the dry season. Indicators and other relevant information Ministry of Health guidelines and systems introduced to NPA run hospitals Increased Ministry budget allocations to the hospitals, phased introduction of staff and assets, and HMIS indicated State Ministries of Health continue to deliver health services to the populations in the catch up areas with improved mortality and morbidity rates Renovated premises for Traditional Authority Council of Lakes State Two community harvesting water structure constructed Two Water management committees established and empowered with skills 15 committee members from each project trained. Conflict over access to resources at the community level persists in South Sudan today, spurred on by a growing population, the impact of climate change, and environmental degradation. Thus, variation in long term rainfall patterns, flooding, drought, and changing dry season migratory movements have increased competition over limited water and vegetation cover supplies, causing tensions along resource relevant routes and access to water points. Towards contributing to conflict mitigation, in 2010 NPA RD/COREMAP piloted two community based water harvesting structures that are now proving to be a big success and popular among the communities of Abang and Gengeng Payams of Yirol West County. During the implementation stage, the communities were mobilized and organized by the COREMAP team and two working committees of fifteen people each were selected from among the two communities of Abang and Gengeng. They were later trained by Acacia Consultants from Kenya on Project Management, Operation and Maintenance. Part of that training focused on maintenance of environmental sustainability in relation to the conservation of water dams. By-laws and Operation Manuals were developed through a participatory approach. Management officials were appointed from the cattle camps with the cattle camp leaders as the patrons. This made the Norsk Folkehjelp - Solidaritet i praksis / / 12

13 projects fully community owned and managed. Local authorities were deliberately left out such that their role remains advisory to avoid domination and patronage. Eight months down the line after the completion of the structures and training of the management committees, the good news is that with the onset of the rainy season, the structures have started filling up with Guongbit collecting a large amount and already in use. The cattle camp leader strongly indicated that The water structure has not only enabled them to come back from the toic earlier than normal thereby avoiding further conflict over competition of water with the neighboring section but has also allowed them to carry out timely land preparation and planting. The returning of large herds of cattle from the Toich earlier than normal, eased heavy grazing pressure on the ecologically sensitive Toich area, thereby reducing environmental degradation due to overgrazing. It is hoped that by the end of the rainy season, the amount of water in the dams will be enough to keep some members of the community permanently within these areas, and in essence the projects they suggested during training, ie, health facilities, schools, demonstration gardens, cattle clutch, village expansion and market center, would eventually be initiated by respective sectors Rwanda Since 2008 Rwanda has continued to rebuild and recover from the tragic consequences of the 1994 genocide which left up to 800,000 people dead and almost 2 million accused of complicity in the killings and/or other violent crimes. The Government of President Paul Kagame (re-elected in 2010 with 93% of the vote), although often criticized as being heavy handed and limiting the space for civil society participation, has made considerable progress in the fields of development, delivery of public services, health, and the economy. Similarly it has developed and implemented legislation that, at least on paper, promotes social inclusion and equality for all its citizens. Many CSOs which originally were created to provide service delivery have evolved and adopted governance and accountability issues as their main areas of intervention. Arguably, and still within the frames of self-censorship, partners are careful not to fall out of favor with the authorities. At the same time they appear to embrace any opportunity to engage in more political matters affecting the communities and constituents they represent. It is fair to state that CSOs in Rwanda - although still struggling to find their niche and capacity for intervention have made great leaps in line with the program goal, in organising themselves and the communities they represent to demand greater transparency and accountability from their elected leaders. This, of course, must be measured within the Rwanda context which traditionally has not had a culture of open participation by its citizens.npa s partners have - over the years - demonstrated a growing confidence and ability to publically tackle issues that previously would have not been allowed due to fear of repercussions. As these organizations mature and perhaps are given more freedom to operate in, it is highly likely that they will strengthen their ability to mobilize communities with a view to exerting more influence on the decision-making processes that affect their lives. It is evident from the formulation of the program goal Civil society organizations representing or voicing the causes of excluded and under-represented groups have ability and capacity to mobilize effectively for democratisation, justice and social and economic change that the ambition, as reported in 2010, was set too high to realistically achieve. Therefore, the program concentrated its efforts around activities that would generate achievable results in three results areas. The matrix below shows that this adjustment contributed to a highly positive development, indicating that the partnering CSOs have over the course of the last four years legitimately promoted and represented the interests of their constituents; often under-represented or excluded groups. This can be noted by their successes in sensitizing communities on VaW and mobilizing representative groups in a coordinated manner with local authorities to reduce the causes and consequences of VaW. Norsk Folkehjelp - Solidaritet i praksis / / 13

14 Planned results Main achieved (or not achieved) results Indicators and other relevant information 6 COPRWA, AJPRODHO, Tubibe Amahoro, and ADTS mobilize communities, raise awareness and strengthen capacities towards a coordinated approach to combat violence against women COPRWA, AJPRODHO, Tubibe Amahoro, and ADTS have increased their capacity to promote and strengthen democratic rights and to work effectively with local communities and with authorities to influence development in favor of excluded and underrepresented groups Women and youth at local level are more effectively represented in decision-making processes and participate actively and effectively to ensure good governance and good management of resources in their 7 district level GBV network established to coordinate stakeholders (government, CSOs, community representatives) joint initiatives aimed at combating gender based violence such as the campaign of 16 days of activism against GBV. 225 Ending Violence (EDV) associations established at the community level in all the 9 districts primarily to combat domestic violence 12 community animators (community based identified individuals to represent EDV associations at district level) and 140 focal points (EDV associations representatives at Cell level) trained to sensitize community members and coordinate village level activities aimed at combating GBV. More than members of EDV associations in 10 districts have been sensitized on anti GBV policies and laws Local authorities include anti GBV activities in their performance contracts and reports 250,000 individuals reached and sensitized through community meetings and sensitization campaign, 63 EDV associations trained on anti GBV drama and sketches with message to fight gender based violence Organized and functioning 1,654 groups in 6 districts (Karongi, Ngororero, Musanze, Burera, Nyagatare and Kayonza) comprising 49,139 people 49,139 people increased daily earnings. Members got 6,777 sheep; 786 goats; 16 cows; 55 pigs; 135 mattresses; 1,390 members paid annual medical insurance. 828 VSL groups managed to access funding from financial institutions Approximately 1,500 of previously marginalized people (340 women) are included in communities events More women from VSL groups have been elected to decision making positions at Village, Cell and Sector level: 93 in women council at village level, 31 at Cell level; 12 at Sector level. 45 have been elected as Cell leaders. No anti GBV network existed before Before October 2009 no VSL group existed No baseline data available 6 Source of information: internal NPA monitoring reports; partner reports Norsk Folkehjelp - Solidaritet i praksis / / 14

15 favor Tubibe Amahoro Association (TA) was initiated by a group of 30 enthusiasts, most of them women, in years later, in 2005 they entered into partnership with NPA. Through learning by doing and the NPA s capacity building program, TA has grown into being an important change agent promoting gender equality working with ending domestic violence projects and promoting the forming of village saving and loan (VSL) associations at grass root level in several districts in Rwanda. For Mrs Marie Claire Mukabishaka the most significant capacity building support from NPA has been the development of TA s strategic plan and the VSL project. The guidance in making the strategic plan help us to have a clear vision on what has to be done and how to do it She reaches for the document and holds it in her hands while continuing talking: Whenever there are funds available (whatever the source), we do not have to scratch from our heads to find what to do, we have a document from where to look. Mari Claire puts the strategic plan back on the shelf and picks up a picture. Her laughter is filling the room. Look at this picture; it is from one of the walls in the house of Christine Kankindi, a woman who is benefitting from the VSL project. Before joining the association, Christina had neither house nor land to cultivate. To survive, she was working on other people s land for small amounts of money to buy basic food. Presently, Christine has her own house and one goat; she is able to pay school fees for her children and health insurance for her family. Marie Claire s smile comes however back when she generalizes TA s success story: The VSL project helped many vulnerable people, the majority of them women, to overcome poverty problems and gain respect from fellow villagers. When we in Tubibe Amahoro hear their stories, we feel very proud that we did something tangible and relevant to address people s livelihood issues Tanzania Tanzania has since 2000 been characterized by a steady increase in the headroom provided for civil society to act as a democratic corrective. And the ensuing space has been enthusiastically embraced and filled by media and political opposition parties. There are challenges both legal ((example the NGO Act from 2004) and socio-economic (example the tensions surrounding land investment). However, the tendency is very clear that the CCM dominance is a thing of the past. The ruling party CCM is under pressure to kickstart political reforms. However, there is internal resistance within the CCM itself to this. CCM is just now in part affected by deep conflicts which are basically between old party stalwarts and upcoming young politicians. Some key issues that are pertinent to the NPA program focus on democracy and land rights that have come up (and which will probably continue to come up) are: 1. There is a need to review the constitution. This has been the subject of much debate in And CCM has pledged to have a new constitution in place by 2014 in advance of the presidential and parliamentary elections in Some of the issues debated so far have been a need to limit presidential powers, introduce electoral reforms and allow independent candidates to stand for parliament as well as president. A referendum will be called once this has been approved by parliament. 2. There have been major gas discoveries. Tanzania has emerged as a key player in Africa's energy sector, with amongst other STATOIL recently announcing new gas discoveries. The institutions to manage this are still weak. Though there are some small positive signs the tax reform on mineral resources has resulted in an increasing pressure on some of the mining companies to pay more tax to Tanzania (30% corporate tax). However, we see that many companies are resisting this. The present level is 4% (raised from 3% to 4% in 2010). In this regard the implementation of key regulatory institutions e.g. the Land Acts and the Wildlife Bill will be important as finds of mineral resources and large external investments will increase the pressure on land. The NPA Tanzania program has had an overall objective of promoting the ability and space for oppressed people especially women, young people and those in marginal livelihoods to have secured representation in governance processes and to secure an allocation of natural resources Norsk Folkehjelp - Solidaritet i praksis / / 15

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