International Security (Critical Security Studies) PhD/MA, Winter Semester ( ) Paul Roe

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1 International Security (Critical Security Studies) PhD/MA, Winter Semester ( ) Paul Roe Course Description and Aims This course is open to students at both the PhD and MA levels. The main purpose of the course is to provide an overview of the field of Security Studies, but with particular attention being given to the so-called critical turn in the discipline. In its broadest sense, Critical Security Studies can be seen as a collection of approaches united by virtue of their various dissatisfactions with Traditional Security Studies. In short, Critical Security Studies seeks to question, though not always entirely do away with previously dominant state- and military-centric disciplinary foundations. And this course deals explicitly with a number of such approaches; from the more conventional Constructivists, through the Copenhagen and Aberystwyth Schools, to Gender and other more radical Constructivist positions. In doing so, the goal is not only to evaluate the main assumptions underpinning each of the approaches, but also to give thought to the very meanings of traditional and critical. While the course is thus predominantly theoretical in its orientation, great emphasis is also given to empirical application; that is to say, just what is the utility of security theories? Teaching Method For this course, there are no lectures; instead, students will participate in seminars where they are expected to form (possibly re-form) and exchange opinion through a critical examination of the given readings. Seminar discussion will be structured around a short presentation of the topic, where students will (briefly) summarise and critique the readings. For each seminar there will be one such key text.

2 Methods of Assessment Each student will be assessed through a combination of seminar contribution and written work. For both PhD and MA students, in terms of seminar contribution a number of oral presentations are required (the exact number being dependent on the overall class size). In addition, PhD students are also required to write four critiques, each approximately 1,500-2,000 words in length (see guidelines below). For MA students, the number of required critiques is three. Guidelines for the Critique The purpose of the Critique is essentially two-fold: one, to situate the chosen key text within the wider debate(s); and two, to make a critique of the key text explicitly informed by the existing literature. Any text can be situated in a wider debate: its theoretical/conceptual standpoint and the more specific arguments that derive from that standpoint can only be properly understood when set against other works. Together, these texts collectively constitute a written conversation. Some texts may exemplify a particular debate; others might be read as belonging to several, overlapping written conversations. The Critique thus demands that students not only identify the general context within which the key text can be situated, but are also clear as to the specific nature of the debate according to which they will structure their critique. In terms of structure, one or two introductory paragraphs should be devoted to the above task (context and debate). Following on from this, the main body should then put in place a coherent and sustained, critical evaluation of the key text. Some concluding paragraph is also warranted, although the exact content of that paragraph is dependent on the purpose of the critique. The main points of the critical evaluation should derive explicitly from the wider literature. Given the length of the Critique ; just 1,500-2,000 words, it is reasonable to expect that no more than 4-5 other works are utilized, likewise informing no more than just a couple of major critical points. Please keep in mind that the key text remains the focus of the critique, and will thus serve to structure both the general nature of the debate and the specifics of the critical evaluation.

3 Week 1/Seminar 1. Introduction In this introductory class, discussion will be concerned with the nature of the course itself; what is expected from students in terms of seminar contribution and written work. Here, initial oral presentations will be assigned. Week 1/Seminar 2. No Class As there is no class scheduled here, time should be spent engaging in the initial readings for the following weeks. Traditional Security (Strategic) Studies Week 2/Seminar 3. Theorising the Security Dilemma Shiping Tang, The Security Dilemma: A Conceptual Analysis, Security Studies, vol.18, no.3, Week 2/Seminar 4. Offence-Defence Theory Keir Lieber, Grasping the Technological Peace: The Offense-Defense Balance in International Security, International Security, vol.25, no.1, Week 3/Seminar 5. The Security Dilemma in Practice Adam Liff & John Ikenberry, Racing Toward Tragedy? China s Rise, Military Competition in the Asia Pacific, and the Security Dilemma, International Security, vol.39, no.2, Further Reading for 2/3, 2/4 & 3/5: Tang, The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict: Toward a Dynamic and Integrative Theory of Ethnic Conflict, Review of International Studies, vol.37, no.2, Ali Bilgic, Towards a New Societal Security Dilemma: Comprehensive Analysis of Actor Responsibility in Intersocietal Conflicts, Review of International Studies, vol.39, no.1, Robert Jervis, Dilemmas About Security Dilemmas, Security Studies, vol.20, no.3, 2011.

4 Charles Glaser, Political Consequences of Military Strategy: Expanding and Refining the Spiral and Deterrence Models, World Politics, vol.44, no.4, Glaser, The Security Dilemma Revisited, World Politics, vol.50, no.1, Paul Roe, Actors Responsibility in Tight, Regular, and Loose Security Dilemmas, Security Dialogue, vol.32, no.1, Collins, State-Induced Security Dilemma: Maintaining the Tragedy, Cooperation and Conflict, vol.39, no.1, Ken Booth & Nick Wheeler, The Security Dilemma: Fear Cooperation and Trust in World Politics (New York: Palgrave Macmillan 2008). Robert Jervis, Was the Cold War a Security Dilemma?, Journal of Cold War Studies, vol.3, no.1, Jervis, Cooperation Under the Security Dilemma, World Politics, vol.30, no.2, Glaser & Chaim Kaufman, What is the Offense-Defense Balance and How Can We Measure it?, International Security, vol.22, no.4, Sean Lynne-Jones, Offense-Defense Theory and Its Critics, Security Studies, vol.4, no.4, Stephen Van Evera, Offense, Defense, and the Causes of War, International Security, vol.22, no.4, Jeffrey W. Taliaferro, Security Seeking Under Anarchy: Defensive Realism Revisited, International Security, vol.25, no.3, Evan Braden Montgomery, Breaking out of the Security Dilemma: Realism: Reassurance, and the Problem of Uncertainty, International Security, vol.31, no.2, Lieber, The New History of World War I and What it Means for International Relations Theory, International Security, vol.32, no.2, Jack Snyder & Lieber, Defensive Realism and the New History of World War I, International Security, vol.33, no.1, Week 3/Seminar 6. The Theory and Practice of Deterrence Andrew Brown & Laura Arnold, The Quirks of Nuclear Deterrence, International Relations, vol.24, no.3, 2010.

5 Jervis, The Confrontation Between Iraq and the US: Implications for Theory and Practice of Deterrence, European Journal of International Relations, vol.9, no.2, Karen Ruth Adams, Attack and Conquer? International Anarchy and the Offense-Defense- Deterrence Balance, International Security, vol.28, no.3, Maria Sperandei, Bridging Deterrence and Compellence, International Studies Review, vol.8, no.2, Keir Lieber & Daryl Press, The End of MAD? The Nuclear Dimension of US Primacy, International Security, vol.30, no.4, Richard Ned Lebow, Thucydides and Deterrence, Security Studies, vol.16, no.2, Ward Wilson, The Winning Weapon? Rethinking Nuclear Weapons in Light of Hiroshima, International Security, vol.31, no.4, Rajesh Basrar, Michael Cohen, Ward Wilson, Do Small Arsenals Deter?, International Security, vol.32, no.3, 2007/08. Barry Buzan & Eric Herring, The Arms Dynamic in World Politics (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1998): Chapter 8, Threats ; Chapter 9, Symbols ; Chapter 10, Military Means as a Source of Security Problems. Nuno Monteiro & Alexandre Debs, The Strategic Logic of Nuclear Proliferation, International Security, vol.39, no.2, Constructivist Security Studies Week 4/Seminar 7. Strategic Culture Edward Lock, Refining Strategic Culture: Return of the Second Generation, Review of International Studies, vol.36, no.3, Jeffrey Legro, Military Culture and Inadvertent Escalation in World War II, International Security, vol.18, no.4, Nina Tannenwald, Stigmatizing the Bomb: Origins of the Nuclear Taboo, International Security, vol.29, no.4, 2005.

6 Alistair Ian Johnson, Thinking About Strategic Culture, International Security, vol.19, no.4, Peter Katzenstein (ed.), The Culture of National Security (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996). Theo Farrell & Helene Lambert, Courting Controversy: International Law, National Norms and American Nuclear Use, Review of International Studies, vol.27, no.3, Theo Farrell, Transnational Norms and Military Development: Constructing Ireland s Professional Army, European Journal of International Relations, vol.7, no.1, Emily Goldman, Cultural Foundations of Military Diffusion, Review of International Studies, vol.36, no.3, Week 4/Seminar 8. Strategy and Morality: Dresden, Morality, and Supreme Emergency Key Texts: Michael Walzer, Just and Unjust Wars (London: Harper Collins, 1992): Chapter 16, Supreme Emergency. A.C. Grayling, Among the Dead Cities (London: Bloomsbury, 2006): Chapter 7, The Defence of Area Bombing. Robert Holmes, On War and Morality (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1989): Chapter 3, Reason of State, Military Necessity, and Domestic Security. Nick Wheeler, Dying for Enduring Freedom: Accepting Responsibility for Civilian Casualties in the War Against Terrorism, International Relations, vol.16, no.2, Just and Unjust Wars: 30 Years On, Journal Of Military Ethics (Special Issue), vol.6, no.2, 2007: Jeff McMahan, The Sources and Status of Just War ; Cian O Driscoll, Learning the Language of Just War: The Value of Engagement ; Barrie Paskins, Realism and the Just War ; Jean Bethke Elshtain, Regime Change and Just War: Reflections on Michael Waltzer ; Martin Cook, Michael Waltzer s Concept of Supreme Emergency ; Asa Kashar, The Principle of Distinction. Cheryl Abatte, Assuming Risk: A Critical Analysis of a Soldier s Duty to Prevent Collateral Casualties, Journal of Military Ethics, vol.13, no.1, Anne Schwenkenbechen, Collateral Damage and the Principle of Due Care, Journal of Military Ethics, vol.13, no.1, 2014.

7 Week 5/Seminar 9. Security Communities Laurie Nathan, Domestic Instability and Security Communities, European Journal of International Relations, vol.12, no.2, Emmanuel Adler & Michael Barnett (eds.), Security Communities (Cambridge: CUP, 1999) Adler, The Spread of Security Communities: Communities of Practice, Self-Restraint, and NATO s Post Cold War Transformation, European Journal of International Relations, vol.14, no.2, Michael J. Williams & Iver Neuman, From Alliance to Security Community: NATO, Russia, and the Power of Identity, Millennium, vol.29, no.2, Morten Boas, Security Communities: Whose Security?, Cooperation and Conflict, vol.35, no.3, Frank Moller, Capitalizing on Difference: A Security Community or/as a Western Project, Security Dialogue, vol.34, no.3, Veronica Kitchen, Argument and Identity Change in the Atlantic Security Community, Security Dialogue, vol.40, no.1, The Continuing Utility Strategic Studies (?) Week 5/Seminar 10. Deterring Terrorism Robert Trager & Dessislava Zagorcheva, Deterring Terrorism: It Can be Done, International Security, vol.30, no.3, Andrew Kydd & Barbara Walter, The Strategies of Terrorism, International Security, vol.31, no.1, Jacob Stump & Priya Dixit, Toward a Completely Constructivist Critical Terrorism Studies, International Relations, vol.26, no.2, 2011.

8 Geir Ulfstein, Terrorism and the Use of Force, Security Dialogue, vol.34, no.2, Timothy Shanahan, Betraying a Certain Corruption of the Mind: How (and How Not) to Define Terrorism, Critical Studies in Terrorism, vol.3, no.2, Alex Wilner, Fencing in Warfare: Threats, Punishment, and Intra-War Deterrence in Counterterrorism, Security Studies, vol.22, no.4, Jacqueline Gray & Margaret Wilson, Understanding the War on Terrorism: Responses to 11 September 2001, Journal of Peace Research, vol.43, no.1, Vasna Danilovic, Deterring International Terrorism and Rogue States: U.S. National Security Policy after 9/11, Perspectives on Politics, vol.2, no.4, Jeremy Ginges, Deterring the Terrorist: A Psychological Evaluation of Different Strategies for Deterring Terrorism, Terrorism and Political Violence, vol.9, no.1, Todd Sandler & Kevin Squiera, Global Terrorism: Deterrence versus Preemption, Canadian Journal of Economics, vol.39, no.4, Week 5/Seminar 11. Cybersecurity Erik Gartzke & Jon R. Lindsay, Weaving Tangled Webs: Offense, Defense, and Deception in Cyberspace, Security Studies, vol.24, no.3, Michael J. Shapiro, Violent Cartographies: Mapping Cultures of War (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997), Chapter 2: Warring Bodies and Bodies Politic ; Chapter 3: That Obscure Object of Violence. Simon Dalby, Geopolitics, the Revolution in Military Affairs and the Bush Doctrine, International Politics, vol.46, no.2, Edward Bennet, Warfare in a New Domain: The Ethics of Military-Cyber Operations, Journal of Military Ethics, vol.12, no.1, Christopher Eberle, Just War and Cyber War, Journal of Military Ethics, vol.12, no.1, Chris Hables Gray, Postmodern War: The New Politics of Conflict (London, Routledge, 1997). Valerie Morkevicius, Tin Men: Ethics, Cybernetics, and the Importance of the Soul, Journal of Military Ethics, vol.13, no.1, 2014.

9 Erik Gartzke, The Myth of Cyberwar: Bringing War in Cyberspace Back Down to Earth, International Security, vol.38, no.2, Lucas Kello, The Meaning of the Cyber Revolution: Perils to Theory and Statecraft, International Security, vol.38, no.2, Reflexive Security Studies Week 6/Seminar 12. Ontological Security Brent J. Steele, Ontological Security and the Power of Self Identity: British Neutrality and the American Civil War, Review of International Studies, vol.31, no.3, Jennifer Mitzen, Ontological Security in World Politics: State Identity and the Security Dilemma, European Journal of International Relations, vol.12, no.3, Jef Huysmans, Security! What do you Mean? From Concept to Thick Signifier, European Journal of International Relations, vol.4, no.2, Bill McSweeney, Security, Identity, and Interests: A Sociology of International Relations (Cambridge: CUP, 1999). Catarina Kinnvall, Globalization and Religious Nationalism: Self, Identity, and the Search for Ontological Security, Political Psychology, vol.25, no.4, Steele, Ontological Security in International Relations: Self-Identity and the IR State (London: Routledge, 2008). Mitzen, Anchoring Europe s Civilizing Identity: Habits, Capabilities and Ontological Security, Journal of European Public Policy, vol.13, no.2, Stuart Croft, Securitizing Islam: Identity and the Search for Security (Cambridge: CUP, 2012), Chapter 1: Ontological Security and Britishness. Steele, Ideals That Were Never Really in Our Possession : Torture, Honor and US Identity, International Relations, vol.22, no.2, Ayse Zarakol, Ontological (In)security and State Denial of Holocaust Crimes: Turkey and Japan, International Relations, vol.24, no.1, 2010.

10 The Copenhagen School Week 7/Seminar 13. Securitization Buzan, Waever, & Jaap de Wilde, Security: A New Framework for Analysis (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1998), Chapter 2: Security Analysis: Conceptual Apparatus. Week 6/Seminar 11. Second Generation Securitization Week7/Seminar 14. Second Generation Securitization Thierry Balzacq, The Three Faces of Securitization: Political Agency, Audience and Context, European Journal of International Relations, vol.11, no.2, Further Reading for 7/13 & 7/14: Balzacq, Securitization Theory: How Security Problems Emerge and Dissolve (London: Routledge, 2011). Matt McDonald, Securitization and the Construction of Security, European Journal of International Relations, vol.14, no.4, Holger Stritzel, Towards a Theory of Securitization: Copenhagen and Beyond, European Journal of International Relations, vol.13, no.3, Stritzel, Security, the Translation, Security Dialogue, vol.42, no.4-5, Paul Roe, Actor, Audience(s) and Emergency Measures: Securitization and the UK s Decision to Invade Iraq, Security Dialogue, vol.39, no.6, Ronny D. Lipschutz (ed.), On Security (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995), Chapter 3: Waever, Securitization and Desecuritization. Juha Vuori, Illocutionary Logic and Strands of Securitization: Applying the Theory of Securitization to the Study of Non-Democratic Political Orders, European Journal of International Relations, vol.14, no.1, Jef Huysmans, Revisiting Copenhagen: Or, On the Creative Development of a Security Studies Agenda, European journal of International Relations, vol.4, no.4, 1998.

11 Olav F. Knudsen, Post-Copenhagen Security Studies: Desecuritizing Securitization, Security Dialogue, vol.32, no.3, Collins (ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, Chapter 9: Ralf Emmers, Securitization. Week 8/Seminar 15. The Ethics of Securitization Stefan Elbe, Should HIV/AIDS Be Securitized? The Ethical Dilemmas of Linking HIV/AIDS and Security, International Studies Quarterly, vol.50, no.1, Floyd, Towards a Consequentialist Evaluation of Security: Bringing Together the Copenhagen and Welsh Schools of Security Studies, Review of International Studies, vol.37, no.2, Floyd, Security and the Environment: Securitisation Theory and US Environmental Security Policy (Cambridge: CUP, 2010). Floyd, Can Securitization Theory be used in Normative Analysis: Towards a Just Securitization Theory, Security Dialogue, vol.42, no.4-5, Huysmans, Minding Exceptions: The Politics of Insecurity and Liberal Democracy, Contemporary Political Theory, vol.3, no.3, Week 8/Seminar 16. No Class The Paris School Week 9/Seminar 17. Securitization as Practice Didier Bigo, Security and Immigration: Toward a Critique of the Governmentality of Unease, Alternatives, vol.27, Special Issue, Ayse Ceyhan & Anastassia Tsoukala, The Securitization of Migration in Western Societies: Ambivalent Discourses and Policies, Alternatives, vol.27, Special Issue, Jef Huysmans, Defining Social Constructivism in Security Studies: The Normative Dilemma of Writing Security, Alternatives, vol.27, Special Issue, Huysmans, What s in an Act: On Security Speech Acts and Little Security Nothings, Security Dialogue, vol.42, no.4-5,

12 Kelstrup & Williams (ed.), International Relations Theory and the Politics of European Integration (London: Routledge, 2000), Chapter 8: Bigo, When Two Become One: Internal and External Securitisations in Europe. Whether Copenhagen or Paris Week 9/Seminar 18. Desecuritisation Lene Hansen, Reconstructing Desecuritization: The Normative-Political in the Copenhagen School and Directions for How to Apply it, Review of International Studies, vol.38, no.3, Faye Donnelly, The Queen s Speech: Desecuritizing the Past, Present, and Future of Anglo-Irish Relations, European Journal of International Relations, vol.?, no.?, Paul Roe, Securitization and Minority Rights: Conditions of Desecuritization, Security Dialogue, vol.35, no.3, Robert Miles & Dietrich Thranhardt (eds.), Migration and European Integration: The Dynamics of Inclusion and Exclusion (London: Pinter, 1995), Chapter 3: Jef Huysmans, Migrants as a Security Problem: Dangers of Securitizing Societal Issues. Jef Huysmans, The Question of the Limit: Desecuritization and the Aesthetics of Horror in Political Realism, Millennium, vol.27, no.3, Mark Salter, Securitization and Desecuritization: A Dramaturgical Analysis of the Canadian Air Transport Authority, Journal of International Relations and Development, vol.11, no.4, Matti Jutila, Desecuritizing Minority Rights: Against Determinism, Security Dialogue, vol.37, no.2, Roe, Reconstructing Identities or Managing Minorities? Desecuritizing Minority Rights: A Response to Jutila, Security Dialogue, vol.37, no.3, Kristian Atland, Mikhail Gorbachev, the Murmansk Initiative, and the Desecuritization of Interstate Relations in the Arctic, Cooperation and Conflict, vol.43, no.3, 2008.

13 Reflexive Security Studies Week 10/Seminar 19. From Threats to Risk William Clapton, Risk in International Relations, International Relations, vol.25, no.3, Michael C. Williams, (In)Security Studies, Reflexive Modernisation and the Risk Society, Cooperation and Conflict, vol.43, no.1, Craig McClean, Alan Patterson & John Williams, Risk Assessment, Policy-Making and the Limits of Knowledge: The Precautionary Principle in International Relations, International Relations, vol.23, no.4, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen, It Sounds Like a Riddle : Security Studies, the War on Terror and Risk, Millennium, vol.33, no.2, Rasmussen Reflexive Security: NATO and International Risk Society, Millennium, vol.30, no.2, Rasmussen, A Parallel Globalization of Terror : 9-11, Security and Globalization, Cooperation and Conflict, vol.37, no.3, Olaf Corry, Securitization and Riskification : Second Order Security and the Politics of Climate Change, Millennium, vol.40, no.2, Claudia Aradau & Rens van Munster, Governing Terrorism Through Risk: Taking Precautions, (un)knowing the Future, European Journal of International Relations, vol.13, no.1, The Aberystwyth School Week 10/Seminar 20. Security as Emancipation Joao Nunes, Reclaiming the Political: Emancipation and Critique in Security Studies, Security Dialogue, vol.43, no.4, Mike Bourne & Dan Bulley, Securing the Human in Critical Security Studies: The Insecurity of a Secure Ethics, European Security, vol.20, no.3, Ken Booth, Anchored in Tahrir Square, European Security, vol.20, no.3, Booth, Security and Emancipation, Review of International Studies, vol.17, no.4, 1991.

14 Ken Booth, Theory of World Security (Cambridge: CUP, 2007). Ken Booth, Human Wrongs and International Relations, International Affairs, vol.71, no.1, Williams & Krause (eds.), Critical Security Studies, Chapter 4: Booth, Security and Self: Reflections of a Fallen Realist; Chapter 11: Booth & Peter Vale, Critical Security Studies and Regional Insecurity: The Case of Southern Africa. Richard Wyn Jones, Security, Strategy, and Critical Theory (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1999), Chapter 6: Emancipation: Reconceptualizing Practice. Booth (ed.) Critical Security Studies and World Politics (London: Lynne Rienner, 2005), Chapter 9: Richard Wyn Jones, On Emancipation: Necessity, Capacity, and Concrete Utopias ; Chapter 11: Booth, Beyond Critical Security Studies. Mark Neufeld, Pitfalls of Emancipation and Discourses of Security: Reflections on Canada s Security With a Human Face, International Relations, vol.18, no.1, Christopher Browning & Matt McDonald, The Future of Critical Security Studies: Ethics and the Politics of Security, European Journal of International Relations, vol.19, no.2, Gender and(in) Security Week 11/Seminar 21. Militarised Feminities Christina Masters, Femina Sacra: The War on Terror, Women and the Feminine, Security Dialogue, vol.40, no.1, Laura Sjoberg & Caron E. Gentry, Reduced to Bad Sex: Narratives of Violent Women from the Bible to the War on Terror, International Relations, vol.22, no.1, Veronique Pin-Fat, The Scripting of Private Jessica Lynch: Biopolitics, Gender, and the Feminization of the U.S. Military, Alternatives, vol.30, no.1, Deepa Kumar, War Propaganda and the (Ab)Uses of Women: Media Constructions of the Jessica Lynch Story, Feminist Media Studies, vol.4, no.3, Sjoberg, Agency, Militarized Femininity and Enemy Others: Observations from the War in Iraq, International Feminist Journal of Politics, vol., no.1, 2007.

15 Cynthia Nantais & Martha F. Lee, Women in the United States Military: Protectors or Protected? The Case of Prisoner of War Melissa Rathbun-Nealy, Journal of Gender Studies, vol.8, no.2, Enloe, The Morning After, Chapter 7: The Politics of Constructing the American Woman Soldier. Week 11/Seminar 22. The Gendering of Terrorism Caron Gentry, Twisted Maternalism: From Peace to Violence, International Feminist Journal of Politics, vol.11, no.2, Jessica Auchter, Gendering Terror: Discourses of Terrorism and Writing Woman-as-Agent, International Feminist Journal of Politics, vol.14, no.1, Caroline O. N. Moser & Fiona C. Clarke (eds.), Victims, Perpetrators or Actors? Gender, Armed Conflict and Political Violence (London: Zed Books, 2001), Chapter 8: Ann Cristina Ibanez, El Salvador: War and Untold Stories Women Guerillas. Sjoberg Feminist Interrogations of Terrorism/Terrorism Studies, International Relations, vol.23, no.1, Linda Ahall, The Writing of Heroines: Motherhood and Female Agency in Political Violence, Security Dialogue, vol.43, no.4, Ahall, Motherhood, Myth and Gendered Agency in Political Violence, International Feminist Journal of Politics, vol.14, no.1, Frances S. Hasso, Discursive and Political Deployments by/of the 2002 Palestinian Women Suicide Bombers/Martyrs, Feminist Review, vol.81, no.1, Miranda Alison, Women as Agents of Political Violence: Gendering Security, Security Dialogue, vol.35, no.4, December Eileen MacDonald, Shoot the Women First (London: Fourth Estate, 1991). Week 12/Seminar 23. Positive-, Negative-, and Anti-Security Jonna Nyman, What is the Value of Security? Contextualising the Negative/Positive Debate, Review of International Studies, vol.?, no.?, 2016.

16 Claudia Aradau, Security and the Democratic Scene: Desecuritization and Emancipation, Journal of International Relations and Development, vol.7, no.4, Rita Taureck (later Floyd), Securitization Theory and Securitization Studies ; Andreas Behnke, No Way Out: Desecuritization, Emancipation and the Eternal Return of the Political A Reply to Aradau ; Hayward Alker, On Securitization Politics as Contexted Texts and Talks ; Claudia Aradau, Limits of Security, Limits of Politics? A Response, Journal of International Relations and Development, vol.9, no.1, Jef Huysmans, Minding Exceptions: The Politics of Insecurity and Liberal Democracy, Contemporary Political Theory, vol.3, no.3, David Chandler, The Revival of Carl Schmitt in International Relations: The Last Refuge of Critical Theorists?, Millennium, vol.37, no.1, Ole Waever, Politics, Security, Theory, Security Dialogue, vol.42, no.4-5, Mark Neoclous, The Problem with Normality: Taking Exception to Permanent Emergency, Alternatives, vol.31, no.2, Gunhild Hoogensen Gjorv, Security By Any Other Name: Negative Security, Positive Security, and a Multi-Actor Security Approach, Review of International Studies, vol.38, no.4, Paul Roe, The Value of Positive Security, Review of International Studies, vol.34, no.4, Roe, Is Securitization a Negative Concept? Revisiting the Normative Debate over Normal versus Extraordinary Politics, Security Dialogue, vol.43, no.3, Roe, Gender and Positive Security, International Relations, vol.28, no.1, Bill McSweeney, Security, Identity, and Interests: A Sociology of International Relations (Cambridge, CUP, 1999). A Provocation for Conclusion Week 12/Seminar 24: The Non-Human Referent: Beyond Critical Security Studies? Audra Mitchell, Only Human? A Worldly Approach to Security, Security Dialogue, vol.45, no.1, 2014.

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