History Specification B 40451

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1 General Certificate of Secondary Education June 2013 History Specification B Unit 1: International Relations: Conflict and Peace in the Twentieth Century Monday 3 June pm to 3.15 pm For this paper you must have: an AQA 12-page answer book. Time allowed 1 hour 45 minutes Instructions Use black ink or black ball-point pen. Write the information required on the front of your answer book. The Examining Body for this paper is AQA. The Paper Reference is Choose three topics. Answer all questions on the three topics you have chosen. Do all rough work in your answer book. Cross through any work you do not want to be marked. Information The topics are on the following pages: Topic 1 The Origins of the First World War Page 2 Topic 2 Peacemaking and the League of Nations Page 3 Topic 3 Hitler s foreign policy and the origins of the Second World War Page 4 Topic 4 The Origins of the Cold War Page 5 Topic 5 Crises of the Cold War Page 6 Topic 6 Failure of Détente and the collapse of communism Page 7 The marks for questions are shown in brackets. The maximum mark for this paper is 60. The sources in this question paper have been simplified to make them easier to understand. You are reminded of the need for good English and clear presentation in your answers. All questions should be answered in continuous prose. Quality of Written Communication will be assessed in all answers. Advice You are advised to spend about 35 minutes on each topic

2 2 Choose three topics. Answer all questions on the three topics you have chosen. Topic 1: The Origins of the First World War Answer questions and In 1900 Britain s foreign policy was known as Splendid Isolation. Describe the changes in Britain s foreign policy in the years (4 marks) 0 2 Study Source A. Source A From a private letter sent by the German Chancellor in 1911 after the Moroccan (Agadir) Crisis. It was sent to a member of the German government who supported war. Had I allowed war to break out, our fl eet would have been destroyed by Britain. The German people would then have asked me why. Why risk all this for Morocco or the Congo? Do you agree that the reasons given by the German Chancellor were the main reasons for Germany backing down in the Moroccan (Agadir) Crisis, 1911? 0 3 Which of the following was the greater cause of the outbreak of the First World War: Austria-Hungary s ultimatum to Serbia the Schlieffen Plan? You must refer to both reasons when explaining your answer.

3 3 Topic 2: Peacemaking and the League of Nations Answer questions and In 1935 Emperor Haile Selassie of Abyssinia appealed to the League of Nations for help after Italy invaded his country. Describe how the League of Nations tried to solve the Abyssinian Crisis. (4 marks) 0 5 Study Source B. Source B A British cartoon by Low, published on 24 November 1932, during the Manchurian Crisis, The caption in the bottom right-hand corner of the cartoon reads as follows: Judge: The Court orders you to respect the law and sentences you to a good talking to. Japan: And I order the court to mind its own business and I sentence it to go and chase itself. Wisdom Sanctions Decency Good faith Justice Honour Japan Do you agree with the cartoonist s interpretation of the Manchurian Crisis, ? 0 6 Which part of the Treaty of Versailles made the German people more angry: the land they lost the reduction in their armed forces? You must refer to both parts of the treaty when explaining your answer. Turn over

4 4 Topic 3: Hitler s foreign policy and the origins of the Second World War Answer questions and The Treaty of Versailles did not allow Germany to militarise the Rhineland. Describe how Hitler was able to remilitarise the Rhineland in (4 marks) 0 8 Study Source C. Source C From a speech by Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain to Parliament March, What country in Europe today, if threatened by a larger country, can rely on the League of Nations for protection? Do you agree that Chamberlain s view in this speech is the main reason why he used a policy of appeasement towards Hitler? 0 9 Which of Hitler s policies was more likely to lead to war in Europe: his policies towards Austria his policies towards the USSR? You must refer to both bullet points when explaining your answer.

5 5 Topic 4: The Origins of the Cold War Answer questions and After the death of Stalin in 1953, the new Soviet leader, Khrushchev, introduced a policy called peaceful co-existence. Describe the main features of Khrushchev s policy of peaceful co-existence. (4 marks) 1 1 Study Source D. Source D From a letter written in 1946 to President Truman by an American official who had been in Russia since The leaders of the Soviet Union believe that it is their duty as Communists to overthrow capitalist countries beyond their border. Source D gives one reason for the Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe between 1945 and Do you agree that this was the main reason for Soviet expansion? 1 2 Which was more important to the development of the Cold War: the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan, 1947 the Berlin Blockade, ? You must refer to both bullet points when explaining your answer. Turn over

6 6 Topic 5: Crises of the Cold War Answer questions and Up to 1957 the USA was always ahead in the development of nuclear weapons. Describe the main features of the arms and space race between the USA and the USSR in the years 1957 to (4 marks) 1 4 Study Source E. Source E An American cartoon about the Cuban Missile Crisis published in Do you agree with the cartoonist s interpretation of the Cuban Missile Crisis? 1 5 Which of the following was the greater threat to world peace: the building of the Berlin Wall, 1961 the Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia, 1968? You must refer to both threats when explaining your answer.

7 7 Topic 6: Failure of Détente and the collapse of communism Answer questions and In 1981 Ronald Reagan, who stated that he hated communism, became President of the USA. Describe how President Reagan renewed the Cold War in the early 1980s. (4 marks) 1 7 Study Source F Source F From a statement made by Lech Walesa in We believed that our aims were just, and the best way to achieve them was peacefully. Do you agree that these were the main reasons for the success of Lech Walesa and the Solidarity Movement in Poland, ? 1 8 Which was the more important reason for the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe: the war in Afghanistan, Gorbachev s policies of Glasnost and Perestroika? You must refer to both reasons when explaining your answer. END OF QUESTIONS

8 8 There are no questions printed on this page ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF COPYRIGHT-HOLDERS AND PUBLISHERS Source B: Solo Syndication/Associated Newspapers Ltd. Copyright 2013 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.

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