FOUNDATIONS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT

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1 FOUNDATIONS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT WHY DO WE NEED GOVERNMENT? FORMS OF GOVERNMENT THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE INTRODUCING THE CONSTITUTION A GOVERNMENT OF COMPROMISES DEFINING GOVERNMENT IN THE UNITED STATES THE MEANING OF CITIZENSHIP CITIZENS AND CIVIC ENGAGEMENT CITIZENSHIP AND CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE WHEN FUNDAMENTAL VALUES AND CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLES CONFLICT

2 WHY DO WE NEED GOVERNMENT? Learning Target: Students will evaluate why people form governments by exploring different views of human nature and how that human nature influences political philosophies. In your own words, 2-3 sentences, answer the question; What is Government? Allow each person to share in your table group. (SOLAR) Opening scene of Lord of the Flies Our Life on the Island (handout) answer as a table-group Ideas about Government, complete using your textbook, laptop or phone as an individual. Help each other as the need arises.

3 WHY DO WE NEED GOVERNMENT? Learning Target: Students will evaluate why people form governments by exploring different views of human nature and how that human nature influences political philosophies. Ideas About Government Term or Concept Definition Example State of Nature The natural condition of mankind What would exist if there were no government, no civilization, no laws, and no common power to restrain human nature

4 Learning Target: Students will evaluate why people form governments by exploring different views of human nature and how that human nature influences political philosophies. Ideas About Government Term or Concept Definition Example Absolute Freedom Similar to a state of nature Freedom to do, act, think without limits No higher authority over the individual Natural Rights A political theory Holds that all individuals have certain basic rights and that no government can deny these rights Life, liberty, and property, have been identified as natural rights by different philosophers over time. Social Contract Idea about government This idea is based on the notion that people can give their consent, through the social contract, to limitations on their rights. Equality Equality has served as one of the leading ideals of government in the United States Equality was a central tenant of natural rights philosophy as demonstrated by the idea that all people have the same natural rights. Lord of the Flies

5 Learning Target: Students will evaluate why people form governments by exploring different views of human nature and how that human nature influences political philosophies. Ideas About Government Term or Concept Definition Example Civil Society It is created by voluntary participation by individuals. A civil society includes not just the individuals who participate, but the institutions they participate in. When people form a social contract, they willingly enter into a civil society. Sovereignty Sovereignty is use of power with authority Under natural law, every individual is sovereign When people enter into a social contract, they give up some of their sovereignty in exchange for participating in a civil society Authority The legitimate use of power

6 Learning Target: Students will evaluate why people form governments by exploring different views of human nature and how that human nature influences political philosophies. Ideas About Government Term or Concept Definition Example Power The ability to get something done Legitimacy It is the foundation of governmental power Power is exercised both with a consciousness on the government's part that it has a right to govern and with some recognition by the governed of that right When both the government and the governed agree to the scope and limits of power with authority

7 WHY DO WE NEED GOVERNMENT? Learning Target: Students will evaluate why people form governments by exploring different views of human nature and how that human nature influences political philosophies. Thoughts about Government Plato Aristotle Niccolo Machiavelli Thomas Hobbes John Locke Charles Montesquieu Jean-Jacques Rousseau In your table group, read the assigned philosopher. Record; 1. Their view of the NATURE OF MAN 2. PURPOSES of Government 3. What KIND OF GOVERNMENT would your philosopher create on the island?

8 Philosopher Graphic Organizer WHY DO WE NEED GOVERNMENT? Philosopher Views of Human Nature Views of Government Plato Injustice causes civil war, hatred and fighting Justice provides unity in a community Aristotle Man is a political animal Must participate in politics to live a truly ethical life Machiavelli Generosity would lead to loss of power Cruelty could be justified All political systems were corrupt Best form of gov t is an Aristocracy or Monarchy believed that in a democracy (mob rule) the poor would always outnumber the wealthy, attempts to level would lead to CIVIL WAR Stability of the state was most important Must have a strong foundation good laws and good arms

9 Philosopher Graphic Organizer WHY DO WE NEED GOVERNMENT? Philosopher Views of Human Nature Views of Government Hobbes Locke Montesquieu Rousseau No Laws in Human Nature Do what you must to survive No enforcement of Laws Live in Fear of violent death People have the ability to think People have the natural ability to govern themselves Property is most important People were so fearful that they avoided violence and war Seek out others to live with in a society, war with each other, leads to rules and gov t. People are born good, independent and compassionate Inequality, murder and war happened when ppl claimed ownership of property. King should have absolute power Created to impose order Individuals give up natural rights to a sovereign, who makes and enforces laws Governments are formed to PROTECT Right to Life Right to Freedom Right to Property Maintain law and order 3 branches of Gov t Separation of Powers Direct Democracy Ppl entered into a social contract Ppl had to give up individual rights for the whole community Citizens must obey laws or be forced to do so. Tomorrow s Lesson is on FORMS OF GOVERNMENT

10 FOUNDATIONS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT FORMS OF GOVERNMENT LEARNING TARGET: STUDENTS WILL EXAMINE THE CONNECTION BETWEEN HUMAN NATURE AND PURPOSES OF GOVERNMENT BY RESEARCHING THE MANY TYPES OF GOVERNMENTS GOVERNMENT; WHAT IS IT? FORMAL INSTITUTIONS OF A SOCIETY WITH THE AUTHORITY TO MAKE AND IMPLEMENT BINDING DECISIONS ABOUT MATTERS SUCH AS:; 1. DISTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES 2. ALLOCATION OF BENEFITS AND BURDENS 3. MANAGEMENT OF CONFLICTS

11 FORMS OF GOVERNMENT Governmental System Definition Historical or Contemporary Examples Anarchy No government; rule by no one Constant state of war State of nature This can happen when a government has been destroyed and rival groups are fighting to take its place Aristocracy/Oligarchy Rule by small group of the society s elite Unlimited power in the hands of a few Authoritarian Those in power hold absolute and unchallengeable authority Communist Based on state ownership and control of property and the means of production In economic policy, the government answers the questions of what is produced, how it is produced, who gets it? Government controlled by a single party that professes to rule until all goods are shared equally by the people and a classless society is achieved Somalia after 1991 Ancient Greece Soviet Union..Cuba, Laos, Vietnam, China

12 Governmental System Definition Historical or Contemporary Examples Confederation Decentralized form of government Alliance of independent states or regional governments that creates a degree of national unity Regional governments have authority over central government Democracy Ruled by majority Rule of the people Everyone who is eligible to vote has a chance to have their say over who runs the country Dictatorship Rule by one single leader, not elected Uses force to keep control Fascist Political movement commonly focused upon community decline, humiliation or victimhood Centralized government headed by a dictatorial leader Suppression of the opposition Violently and aggressively nationalist Government controls the economy and acts in the interest of the nation The individual is subordinate to the state U.S. under the Articles of Confederation abandoned in 1789 U.S. Nazi Germany, Franco in Spain, Castro in Cuba WWII era Italy

13 Governmental System Definition Historical or FORMS OF GOVERNMENT Contemporary Examples Monarchy Rule by one Can be limited or unlimited Has a king or queen In traditional monarchies, the monarch has absolute power. A constitutional monarchy has a democratic government that limits the monarch's control Military Junta Rule by small group of military leaders, usually following an overthrow of the prior regime Unlimited power Ruled by force Republic Government is made up of elected representatives of the people A republic is a country that has no monarch The head of the country is usually an elected president 45 countries with some sort of Monarchy.Brunei, Monaco, Morocco, Thailand, 2014 U.S. Socialist Economic and political theory advocating government ownership of the economy The government answers the questions of what is produced, how it is produced, and who gets it? Can be authoritarian or democratic Theoretically seeks a more equitable distribution of property Theocracy Rulers claim to be ruling on behalf of a set of religious ideas or as direct agents of a religion Sweden Iran

14 COMMON WAYS TO CHARACTERIZE GOVERNMENTS WHO RULES? Monarchy- Rule by ONE Oligarchy/Aristocracy- Rule by MINORITY Republic- Rule by REPRESENTATIVES of the people. Democracy- Rule by MAJORITY WHO DECIDES WHAT IS PRODUCED, HOW IT IS PRODUCED AND WHO GETS IT? Capitalism- buyers and sellers in the marketplace Socialism- All factors of production owned and controlled by Strong Central gov t, that in reality becomes a dictatorship ruling the workers. Communism- Single party holds power, eliminates private ownership of property, claiming equally shared goods HOW DO RULERS RULE? Dictatorship- single leader, not elected, may use force to keep control Totalitarian- Rule by a single party. Theocracy- rules based on a set of religious ideas Representative Gov t- ppl select representatives by voting for set period of time. Constitutional Gov t- authoritative document that sets the fundamental laws and principles that determine the nature, functions and limits of gov t

15 LEARNING TARGET: STUDENTS WILL EXAMINE THE CONNECTION BETWEEN HUMAN NATURE AND PURPOSES OF GOVERNMENT BY RESEARCHING THE MANY TYPES OF GOVERNMENTS LIMITED - UNLIMITED GOVERNMENT Limited government provides a basis for protecting individual rights and promoting the common good. Rule of law is an essential component of limited government. The central notion of a rule of law is that society is governed according to widely known and accepted rules followed not only by the governed but also by those in authority. Constitutional governments are limited by written law that determines the nature, functions, and limits of government. In unlimited governments, those in power are not regulated or restrained by laws or rules in their use of power CENTRALIZED - DIFFUSED POWER This refers to the geographic distribution of power. These are defined as unitary, (practically all political power rests with the central gov t) federal, ((division of Power between states and national gov t) parliamentary, (there is no clear cut separation of executive and legislative power) and confederal.(states or Regional gov ts have the ultimate authority) RULE BY ONE - RULE BY MANY This refers to the number of people who participate in the decision-making and take part in the governing process. Also be sure to distinguish direct and representative democracy

16 COLONIAL INFLUENCES What s the big idea? Rule of Law o All people must follow the laws, and the laws should be enforced fairly. Self Government o People can make decisions on how their government should work. Due Process o People have the right to fair and reasonable laws. Officials have to follow rules when enforcing laws and need to treat all people in the same way. Limited Government o A government that has been limited in power by a constitution, or written agreement. Rights o A set of things that people believe they should be free to do without restrictions.

17 Cut-and-Fold Instructions 1. Put your name on the paper. 2. Flip the page over to see the side with the check list. 3. Carefully cut along the dashed lines only.

18 Cut-and-Fold Instructions 4. Fold the tabs towards the middle on the left side on the solid line. 5. Fold the tabs towards the middle on the right side on the solid line. 6. Turn the paper so you see a row of images. 7. Use the reading and class discussion to complete all the fields in this activity.

19 Magna Carta Magna Carta The Magna Carta was a government document that limited the power of the king of England and protected the rights of the nobility. It was written by the English nobility in Big Ideas: Limited Government Rights Rule of Law Due Process

20 Magna Carta Mayflower Compact Mayflower Compact The Mayflower Compact was an agreement among individuals that created a government that would provide order and protect the rights of the colonists. It was written by a group of English Pilgrims as they traveled to Massachusetts in Big Ideas: Self Government Rule of Law

21 Magna Carta Mayflower Compact English Bill of Rights English Bill of Rights The English Bill of Rights was a government document that expanded the powers of the English Parliament and expanded the rights of the people, as well as further limited the rights of the king. It was written by the members of the English Parliament in Big Ideas: Limited Government Rights Due Process Rule of Law

22 Magna Carta Mayflower Compact English Bill of Rights Cato s Letters Cato s Letters Cato s Letters were made up of a collection of newspaper articles published to convince people to support the freedom of expression and to fight against the heavy handed rule of the British government. They were written by two anonymous English journalists in the 1720 s. Big Ideas: Rights Rule of Law

23 Magna Carta Mayflower Compact English Bill of Rights Cato s Letters Common Sense Common Sense Common Sense was a pamphlet written to convince the American colonists to support becoming independent from England. It was written by a colonial journalist and circulated in Big Ideas: Self Government Rights

24 From Big Ideas to the Constitution A This Constitution and the laws of the United States... shall be the supreme law of the land. All government officials shall be bound by an oath to support this constitution. U.S. Constitution, Article VI Self Government: Rule of Law: the idea that popular or representative all people must follow the system where the people laws, and that the laws are create and run their own enforced fairly government A Due Process: People have the right to fair and reasonable laws. Officials have to follow rules when enforcing the laws and treat all people in the same way. Rights: A set of things that people believe they should be free to do without restrictions Limited Government: the power of government is limited by the Constitution, and each branch is limited in what it can do

25 From Big Ideas to the Constitution B The first ten amendments in the Bill of Rights guarantee certain rights and freedoms that include: Freedom of speech, the press, and religion Right to petition the government and to bear arms Prohibition of excessive bail or fines, or cruel and unusual punishments for crimes Self Government: Rule of Law: the idea that popular or representative all people must follow the system where the people laws, and that the laws are create and run their own enforced fairly government Due Process: People have the right to fair and reasonable laws. Officials have to follow rules when enforcing the laws and treat all people in the same way. Rights: A set of things that people believe they should be free to do without restrictions B Limited Government: the power of government is limited by the Constitution, and each branch is limited in what it can do

26 From Big Ideas to the Constitution C The U.S. Constitution created three branches of government. Each branch is given the power to check, or limit the power of the other two. The system of checks and balances keeps any one branch from getting too powerful. Self Government: Rule of Law: the idea that popular or representative all people must follow the system where the people laws, and that the laws are create and run their own enforced fairly government Due Process: People have the right to fair and reasonable laws. Officials have to follow rules when enforcing the laws and treat all people in the same way. Rights: A set of things that people believe they should be free to do without restrictions Limited Government: the power of government is limited by the Constitution, and each branch is limited in what it can do C

27 From Big Ideas to the Constitution D No person shall...be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law U.S. Constitution, 5th Amendment Self Government: Rule of Law: the idea that popular or representative all people must follow the system where the people laws, and that the laws are create and run their own enforced fairly government Due Process: People have the right to fair and reasonable laws. Officials have to follow rules when enforcing the laws and treat all people in the same way. Rights: A set of things that people believe they should be free to do without restrictions D Limited Government: the power of government is limited by the Constitution, and each branch is limited in what it can do

28 From Big Ideas to the Constitution E WE THE PEOPLE of the United States...do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Preamble to the Constitution, 1787 Self Government: popular or representative system where the people create and run their own government E Due Process: People have the right to fair and reasonable laws. Officials have to follow rules when enforcing the laws and treat all people in the same way. Rule of Law: the idea that all people must follow the laws, and that the laws are enforced fairly Rights: A set of things that people believe they should be free to do without restrictions Limited Government: the power of government is limited by the Constitution, and each branch is limited in what it can do

29 EXPLORING THE CONSTITUTION IDEA Defined Why is it there? Checks and Balances Several branches of government are created and power is shared between them. At the same time, the powers of one branch can be challenged by another branch. To protect against abuse of power Due Process Electoral College The idea that laws and legal proceedings must be fair. The idea that laws and legal proceedings must be fair. An assembly elected by the voters to perform the formal duty of electing the president and the vice president of the United States To protect fundamental rights and prevent government from acting arbitrarily. The right to due process of law has been recognized since 1215, when the Magna Carta was adopted. Historically, the right protects people accused of crimes from being imprisoned without fair judicial procedures and with established rules The founding fathers believed in the establishment of a body of wise men, who would not be swayed by emotion and partisanship, to meet and officially elect a president.

30 IDEA Defined Why is it there? Enumerated Powers Congress, and the other two branches of the federal government, have powers that are explicitly given to them in the Constitution. NOTE: The implied powers doctrine has expanded the powers of the federal government beyond those specifically listed. Anti-Federalist objection to the proposed constitution was their fear that the new federal government might have too much power. The Federalists countered that the Constitution contained only enumerated powers, effectively limiting the powers of the various branches. Implied powers arise from general language in the Constitution such as the Necessary and Proper Clause of Article 2, section 8. The Supreme Court first upheld implied powers, such as the power to create a national bank, in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819). Justice Fairness and order. Since ancient times, philosophers have said that justice is achieved when everyone receives what is due to her or him. Federalism This is the division of governmental powers between a central national government and provincial or state governments within the country. Powers granted exclusively to the central government are supreme. Federalism differs from the unitary system of government, which has only one center of authority that prevails throughout the territory of the country. In a unitary system, subdivisions within the country are entirely subordinate to the national government and exist merely to administer or carry out its commands. In response to the problems under the Articles of Confederation, the Founding Fathers created a system of government that divided power between state and national governments. Similar to the system of checks and balances between the branches of government, the division of power between levels of government is further protection against abuse of power by one level or the other. When federal and state laws conflict however, Article VI of Constitution declares that federal law is supreme.

31 EXPLORING THE CONSTITUTION IDEA Defined Why is it there Limited Government Natural Rights Popular Sovereignty A type of government in which its functions and powers are prescribed and restricted by law (Constitution) A political theory that holds that all individuals have certain basic rights and that no government can deny these rights. Life, liberty, and property, have been identified as natural rights by different philosophers over time. Popular sovereignty is government based on consent of the people. The government s source of authority is the people, and its power is not legitimate if it disregards the will of the people. Government established by free choice of the people is expected to serve the people, who have sovereignty, or supreme power. The Founding Fathers were afraid of unlimited government which they believed resulted in taxation without representation, suspending colonial laws, dissolving colonial legislatures, imposing trade restrictions with other countries, quartering of soldiers, altering colonial charters, and the restriction of the right to trial by jury of peers. Given their knowledge of history and their experiences with the British government, it is not surprising that the Founders greatly feared the possible abuse of the powers of government. They believed the purpose of government was to protect natural rights. This is most appropriately stated in the Declaration of Independence, and explicitly pronounced in the 5 th and 14 th Amendments. Experiences such as taxation without representation and no voice in government resulted in the founding fathers ensuring the idea of popular sovereignty

32 EXPLORING THE CONSTITUTION IDEA Defined Why is it there? Property Rights Religious Liberty Representative Government The right to own property. These are among the most basic rights in a free society. No right to property, however, is absolute in any society. This includes the right to free exercise of religion and the right to be free from government establishing a religion. It is considered a personal and private right. It is a form of government founded on the principle of elected individuals representing the people, as opposed to either autocracy or direct democracy Property rights were acknowledged by Enlightenment philosophers as one of the natural rights. Experiences with the British government, and with some state governments during the period of the Articles of Confederation, also solidified the importance of property rights to the founding fathers. Virginia Statute of Religious Liberties was the precursor to the religious liberty provisions in the First Amendment. The founding fathers saw religious liberty as an essential element of a free people. This reflects a balance between the Founder s commitment to the principle of Popular Sovereignty and the need to govern such a vast country. Democracy, in the traditional sense, would have been impractical, and monarchy was not palatable after the colonial experience.

33 EXPLORING THE CONSTITUTION IDEA Defined Why is it there? Reserved Powers Rule of Law Separation of Powers Social Compact The powers not granted to the United States were reserved to the States or to the people. In a limited government administered according to the rule of law, the rulers use power following established principles and procedures based on a constitution. By contrast, when the rulers wield power capriciously, there is rule by the unbridled will of individuals without regard for established law. The rule of law is an essential characteristic of every constitutional democracy that guarantees rights to liberty. It prevails in the government, civil society, and market economy of every state with a functional constitution. The constitutional doctrine that allocates the powers of national government among three branches: the legislative, which is empowered to make laws; the executive, which is required to carry out the laws; and the judicial, whose job it is to interpret and adjudicate (hear and decide) legal disputes. An actual or hypothetical agreement among the members of an organized society or between a community and its ruler that defines and limits the rights and duties of each Fear of a strong central government and unlimited government. Fear of arbitrary action by government based on colonists experiences with Great Britain such as suspending colonial laws and dissolving colonial legislatures. To prevent the majority, or a minority, from ruling with an iron fist. Based on their experience, the founding fathers shied away from giving any branch of the new government too much power. Basing their new government on ideas from the Enlightenment, the founding fathers consented to limit some rights in exchange for the preservation of their natural rights.

34 CONSTITUTIONAL COMPROMISES ISSUE OPPOSING ARGUMENT COMPROMISE REPRESENTATION Small States v. Large States * Small states wanted all states to have the same number of representatives to Congress (New Jersey Plan). * Large states wanted representation to be determined by the population of the state (Virginia Plan). The Great (Connecticut) Compromise: The Constitution creates a bicameral legislature. In the House of Representatives, representation is determined by population. A census is taken every ten years to determine the population of each state. In the Senate, all states have the same number of representatives: two.

35 CONSTITUTIONAL COMPROMISES ISSUE OPPOSING ARGUMENT COMPROMISE SLAVERY Representation and Taxes Slave Trade Southern States v. Northern States * Southern States wanted slaves to count as part of the population for determining representation but not to count when apportioning taxes. * Northern states wanted slaves to count for the purpose of taxation but not for representation. Northern Abolitionists v. Southern Slave Owners * Northern abolitionists wanted the Constitution to ban the (external) slave trade. They believed that slavery would eventually prove unprofitable and die out. *Southern Slave owners argued that slavery was vital to the economic survival of the South. The 3/5ths Compromise: Delegates agreed to count slaves as 3/5ths of a person when apportioning representation and taxation. Slave Trade Compromise: Congress was given the power to ban the slave trade after 1808.

36 CONSTITUTIONAL COMPROMISES ISSUE OPPOSING ARGUMENT COMPROMISE TRADE Southern Plantation Owners v. Northern Businessmen * Southerners opposed tariffs fearing they would damage the Southern economy which was heavily dependent upon trade. * Northerners wanted tariffs to protect their industries from foreign competition. The Commerce Compromise The Constitution regulates interstate commerce and foreign trade. The Constitution allows the federal government to tax imports but not exports.

37 CONSTITUTIONAL COMPROMISES ISSUE OPPOSING ARGUMENT COMPROMISE Powers and Election of President Some delegates believed the president should be elected directly by the people. Others believed that the people could not be trusted with such a decision. Opponents of direct election offered a number of alternatives including election by state legislatures. Compromise on Executive Elections: The president is elected indirectly by the Electoral College to a four year term of office.

38 CONSTITUTIONAL COMPROMISES ISSUE OPPOSING ARGUMENT COMPROMISE Ratification Federalists v. Anti-Federalists Federalists supported the Constitution. Anti- Federalists worried about too strong of a federal government without sufficient protection for individual rights, and were concerned about too strong of an executive and a loss of states rights. Compromise for Ratification A Bill of Rights would be added to the Constitution.

39 DEFINING GOVERNMENT IN THE UNITED STATES Democratic Ideals Liberty / Individual Rights Rule of Law Popular Sovereignty The Common Good Limited Government

40 THE MEANING OF CITIZENSHIP Citizenship is Voluntary The Naturalization Process

41 THE MEANING OF CITIZENSHIP Race and Citizenship Based on the 14 th Amendment All persons born or naturalized in the United States, are subject to the jurisdiction therof, are citizens of the United States and the State in which they reside. Effect of Civil War on Ideas of Citizenship in the United States Naturalization- Process by which a person may become a citizen of a nation they were not born in. The Qualifications of citizenship under the Naturalization Act is determined by Congress

42 THE MEANING OF CITIZENSHIP Role of State and National Governments in Determining Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship

43

44 REFERENCE GUIDE TO RESPONSIBILITIES OF CITIZENSHIP Obeying the Law Respecting the Law Paying Taxes Registering to Vote Voting Knowledgeably on Candidates and Issues Serving on a Jury Serving in the Armed Forces Staying Informed and Attentive on Public Issues Monitoring Public Leaders and Government Agencies Stepping Up to Leadership Positions When Appropriate Performing Public Service Respecting and Protecting Individual Rights of Others

45 Examples of Civic Engagement 1. Write a letter to the editor explaining the problem. 2. Make a speech at a school board meeting. 3. Call or write your Congressperson. 4. Join a group that might be interested in addressing the problem. 5. Picket to protest the action. 6. Create a walk-a-thon or bike-a-thon to raise money and draw attention to the problem. 7. Organize a group committed to resolving the problem. 8. Speak to a policy maker about the problem. 9. Join a service-learning organization. 10.Generate newsletters or leaflets informing others about the problem. 11.Vote for policy makers who support your position. 12. Contribute money to an individual s campaign that supports your position on the issue. 13. Contribute money to a political cause that supports your position on the issue.

46 Examples of Civic Engagement 14.Join a political organization. 15. Voluntary with a community group that is trying to solve the problem. 16. Engage in a boycott. 17. Use social networking technologies to find others who share the same concern. 18. Run for office. 19. Give money to a charity. 20. Contact a reporter to publicize the issue. 21. Create a video and post it on YouTube to draw attention to the issue. 22. Shift your buying habits to support companies/organizations that support your views. 23. File a lawsuit. 24. Circulate a recall petition. 25. Collect signatures to put a referendum or ballot initiative.

47 PAY IT FORWARD

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