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1 Voting Influences and Patterns 5.17 Factors that Influence Voters Personal Characteristics. Many things influence how a person votes: gender, age, income and occupation, education, and religious and ethnic background. Below are examples of how these characteristics translate into voting patterns. All Graphs: Percent of Votes in 2000 Presidential Election i i Democrat Republican 100 Gender Women tend to favor Democrats at a higher rate than men do. Age By the end of the 1980s, younger voters began to vote more for Republicans than Democrats, reversing a trend prevalent since the 1960s. However, this pattern reversed itself again in the 1992 presidential election as shown in the graph below. Region Voters in the eastern states tend to vote Democratic at a higher rate than their southern and western counterparts. Iniflfln 560/0 60-I 5 5 % I % 4 9 % ^ _ 4 8 % 46% East Midwest South West 80 Income and occupation Voters with higher incomes tend to vote Republican, while lower-income groups tend to vote Democratic. Labor unions tend to support Democrats at a higher rate than Republicans Religious and ethnic background Protestants in the north tend to vote Republican; ft Catholics and Jews tend to vote Democratic. African Americans have moved toward the Democratic Party since the 1930s and vote overwhelmingly Democratic today. 100n TV 80- to % 5 4 % 4 2 % m "143% Male Female % % 5 2o / o 5 3 % 5 4 % % 4 2 % % < $15,000 < $30,000 < $50,000 > $50,000 > $75,000 > $100,000 n_ White Black Other Factors Family and other group affiliations Members of a family tend to vote similarly. Nine out of ten married couples share the same partisan tendencies. Co-workers and friends also can influence a person's voting behavior. Party identification A person's political party affiliation whether Republican, Democratic, or Independent is a very important factor in determining how he or she votes. Some people support a party with little regard for candidates or issues. Candidates and issues Voters are concerned with the way candidates present themselves and the way they address certain key issues, especially emotionally charged issues such as abortion.

2 5.18 Elections and Election Cycles BALLO^^jl The success of democratic government is based on free, honest, and accurate elections. Specific terms of office and regularity of election schedules help to ensure fairness in our political system. Term Congressional Elections House of Representatives = 2 years, Irt. ^ Jec* 2. Presidential Elections 4 years, (rt. See. /. 07ie &&>uge< of(?lef>resentatioes shall f>e composed' gfmemher& chosen/ eocry SGCOttd year the /People of the several states* Senate = 6 years. Irt. S% Jea. 3. Q?77ie denote of the UnitedStates shalloe com/bosedgftuto senators*jrom each state... (far stay aear*\\ and- eachsenator shall haoe one oote* b 7he eaxcutioe ftotoer shall be oested in a President of the United < Hates ol'yfmerica. fhe shall hold his office durina the term of/barjyears, and, toaether until the licesresident, chosen ^/or the same term, 6e elected ax ^jouowss J Timing First Tuesday following the first Monday in November of every even-numbered year. First Tuesday following the first Monday in November of every even-numbered fourth year. State and Local Elections Are often held on the same day as congressional and presidential elections. However, some state and local elections take place in "off years." Know' Americans elect some 500,000 officeholders in an average election year. The "coattail effect" occurs when a strong candidate at the top of the ballot helps other candidates on the same party ticket gain votes. Example: The popularity of Ronald Reagan in the 1984 presidential election helped many other Republicans win office. Election Schedule 2000 to 2007 November November November November November November November November President President Congress Congress Congress Congress State & Local State & Local State & Local State & Local State & Local State & Local State & Local State & Local

3 Political Parties: Overview and Function 5.19 A political party is a group of people who seek to control government by winning elections and holding public office. Usually the group joins together on the basis of common principles. A party seeks to implement its own public policies and programs. Some political parties simply focus on gaining power they are election-oriented, not policy-oriented. Political parties serve five major functions in our society. Great State of UTAH 4 Ballots' * *k it it + Garden State of NEW JERSEY Votes to Nominat, GORE ***** Nominating Parties name the candidates who run for political office. Nominees are recruited and presented to voters. Parties ensure that their candidates have a solid base of voter and financial support. Informer-Stimulator Parties keep the public informed and stimulate them to participate in public affairs. They accomplish this through campaigning and taking stands on public issues. They use pamphlets, buttons, and stickers as well as television, radio, newspapers, and the internet. * ^ ^ * * ^ * Seal of Approval The party plants a "seal of approval" on its candidates. This creates loyalty in the candidate and helps to ensure that officeholders do a good job so that the party can stay in power. If the party falls out of favor or an office-holder embarrasses the party, both candidate and party will suffer in upcoming elections. Government Function State legislatures and the U.S. Congress conduct much of their business on a partisan basis. Under the system of separation of powers, the party is the agent through which the different branches of government cooperate with one another, especially the executive and legislative branches. Watchdog The parties monitor public business. In particular, the party out of power monitors the policies of the party in power.

4 5.20 Development and Highlights of the Two-Party System s s Federalist and Anti-Federalist parties emerge out of conflict over the ratification of the Constitution. Federalists and Democratic-Republicans become the two established parties. Federalist John Adams becomes president. Federalist Party splits over Adams's refusal to declare war on France. High Federalists break with Adams and side with Alexander Hamilton. Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republican Party wins the presidency, marking the Federalists' decline. Democratic-Republicans dominate U.S. politics until conflicts over banking, tariffs, and slavery shatter the party. Democratic-Republican Party splits into two factions. President Andrew Jackson sides with the group calling themselves Democrats; the other group becomes the National Republican or "Whig" Party. The first National Nominating Conventions are held for the Whig and Democratic Parties. Internal conflict over slavery wracks the Democratic Party. Many Whigs join a new anti-slavery party, the "Republicans." Abraham Lincoln becomes the first Republican president. Republican Party dominates U.S. politics during the Civil War and until the Great Depression. Democrats hold presidential office only four times during this period. Former President Theodore Roosevelt breaks with the Republican Party and forms the Progressive Party (Bull Moose Party). Roosevelt runs for president and gains a majority of Republican voters, but the Democratic candidate Woodrow Wilson wins the election. By 1917, the Progressive Party dies out. A liberal coalition from both the Republican and Democratic Parties forms a second Progressive Party; it wins 16.5% of the popular vote in the presidential election. Its influence does not last beyond the election. A faction of liberal Democrats who disagree with both major parties forms another Progressive Party. It gains one million votes in the presidential election but their popularity fades following the election. Former Alabama Governor George Wallace runs for president on the American Independent Party ticket. Supporting anti-desegregation policies, he wins 13.5% of the popular vote and 46 electoral votes from five states in the south. Independent candidate Ross Perot challenges the two parties in the presidential election; he wins 18% of the popular vote. Green Party candidate Ralph Nader runs for the presidency; although he wins only 3% of the popular vote, Nader's candidacy affects the outcome of the closely contested race between George W. Bush and Al Gore. Democrats Anti-Federalist Whigs Republicans

5 Independent and Third Parties 5.21 What Are Third Parties? A "third," or independent, party is any party other than the Republican or Democratic parties. In an election, more than one party may run against the two major parties, yet they are all considered third parties. Most Americans do not support third parties, yet they have influenced American politics. Third parties play key roles as critics and innovators. They are much more willing to confront divisive issues than candidates of the major parties. Also, a strong third party candidate can take votes away from the major party candidates, changing the outcome of an election. BALLOT Votes for Leading Third Party Presidential Candidates, (percent of votes) Year Candidate Party % of Votes 1960 Eric Hass Socialist Labor less than 1% 1964 Eric Hass Socialist Labor less than 1% 1968 George Wallace American Independent 14% 1972 John Schmitz American 1% 1976 Eugene McCarthy Independent 1% 1980 John Anderson Independent 7% 1984 David Bergland Libertarian less than 1% 1988 Ron Paul Libertarian less than 1 % 1992 Ross Perot Independent 19% 1996 Ross Perot Reform 9% 2000 Ralph Nader Green 3% Three Types of Third Parties TYPE & NATURE OF PARTY Single-issue party Focuses on one major social, economic, or moral issue. DURATION Brief. Tends to fade away quickly when the issue is no longer important or is adopted by one of the major parties. EXAMPLES The Citizens Party was organized in 1979 around opposition to nuclear power and nuclear-arms development. In 1980, Barry Commoner was the party's presidential candidate. He won only 0.3% of the vote. Ideological party Focuses on effecting overall change in society, rather than on a particular issue. The views of these parties tend to be extreme. Long-term. The Socialist Party was organized in 1898 by Eugene V. Debs and other labor activists. In its best year, 1912, the Socialist Party won 6% of the presidential vote. It still exists today. Splinter party Splits away from a major party because of a disagreement. Most splinter parties have formed around a strong leader, usually one who failed to win the party's nomination. Lasts as long as candidate has support or until party's goals are reabsorbed by a major party. Theodore Roosevelt's "Bull Moose" Progressive Party splits from the Republican Party in 1912.

6 5.22 Third Party Case Study: 2000 Presidential Election The Green Party was established in 1996 to promote such causes as environmental justice and grassroots democracy. In the 2000 presidential election, Ralph Nader, the Green Party presidential candidate, received 3 percent of the popular vote, taking critical votes away from the Democratic candidate, Al Gore, and, according to some analysts, costing the Democrats the election. Ralph Nader on the Issues On Foreign Policy Nader believed that the pursuit of human rights should dictate U.S. foreign policy. His platform focused on aid to Third World countries and a cessation of arms to belligerent nations. mm Foreign aid must be addressed in the context of retiring this [Third World countries'] debt and not forcing structural adjustments via the IMF and World Bank on the economies of the underdeveloped world. ' I support the end of the economic blockade of Cuba. Unjust economic coercion by one state against another constitutes a violation of human rights. On Health Care Using Canada's health care system as a model, Nader suggested that the nation should create a universal nonprofit health care plan. \t W\ I think we are in a real transitory period, which gives us a real opportunity to recast our health care system in a nonprofit mode and implement universal health care. I Price restraints should be placed on all drugs especially [those] developed with taxpayer money, and multiple licenses should be issued for those drugs in order to stimulate competition and bring prices down. On the Environment An environmentalist, Nader proposed more federal funding for the National Park system as well as cutbacks on commercial logging to protect the nation's forests. { 6391 I would veto any legislation that makes it impossible to consider increasing fuel efficiency... We need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 50 percent to 70 percent immediately just to keep global warming from getting any worse. I advocate the immediate cessation of commercial logging on U.S. public lands and the protection from road-building of all 60 million acres of large forest tracts remaining in the National Forest system. On the Economy An advocate of small government, Nader wanted to reduce the federal budget and spend any surplus funds on the nation's infrastructure and public works. \UW\ We've got priorities. Abolishing child poverty should be one. Rebuilding and repairing America, the public works, the drinking water systems. Citizens must have full legal standing to challenge in the courts the waste, fraud, and abuse of government spending. States with the highest voter percentage for Green Party, 2000 Democratic Popular Vote Republican Popular Vote Green Popular Vote Alaska 79, ,398 28,747 Vermont 149, ,775 20,374 Massachusetts 1,616, , ,564 Rhode Island 249, ,555 25,052 Montana 137, ,178 24,437 Hawaii 205, ,845 21,623 Percent Green Vote of Popular Vote A A k / Montana^H 5.9% j5p ~ Massachusetts ^ lr"" /k Vermont 6.3% JHk 6.9% / i?i Ik / ^ / Note: Percentages based on total votes ^-^.M

7 AMERICAN GOVERNMENT ON FILE 5.19 Political Parties: Overview and Function A political party is a group of people who seek to control government by winning elections and holding public office. Usually the group joins together on the basis of common principles. A party seeks to implement its own public policies and programs. Some political parties simply focus on gaining power they are election-oriented, not policy-oriented. Political parties serve five major functions in our society. Great State of UTAH 4 Ballots' * *k it it + Garden State of NEW JERSEY Votes to Nominat, GORE ***** Nominating Parties name the candidates who run for political office. Nominees are recruited and presented to voters. Parties ensure that their candidates have a solid base of voter and financial support. Informer-Stimulator Parties keep the public informed and stimulate them to participate in public affairs. They accomplish this through campaigning and taking stands on public issues. They use pamphlets, buttons, and stickers as well as television, radio, newspapers, and the internet. * ^ ^ * * ^ * Seal of Approval The party plants a "seal of approval" on its candidates. This creates loyalty in the candidate and helps to ensure that officeholders do a good job so that the party can stay in power. If the party falls out of favor or an office-holder embarrasses the party, both candidate and party will suffer in upcoming elections. Government Function State legislatures and the U.S. Congress conduct much of their business on a partisan basis. Under the system of separation of powers, the party is the agent through which the different branches of government cooperate with one another, especially the executive and legislative branches. Watchdog The parties monitor public business. In particular, the party out of power monitors the policies of the party in power The Moschovitis Group, Inc. Published by Facts On File, Inc. All electronic storage, reproduction, or transmittal is copyright protected by the publisher.

8 5.20 AMERICAN GOVERNMENT ON FILE Development and Highlights of the Two-Party System s s Federalist and Anti-Federalist parties emerge out of conflict over the ratification of the Constitution. Federalists and Democratic-Republicans become the two established parties. Federalist John Adams becomes president. Federalist Party splits over Adams's refusal to declare war on France. High Federalists break with Adams and side with Alexander Hamilton. Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republican Party wins the presidency, marking the Federalists' decline. Democratic-Republicans dominate U.S. politics until conflicts over banking, tariffs, and slavery shatter the party. Democratic-Republican Party splits into two factions. President Andrew Jackson sides with the group calling themselves Democrats; the other group becomes the National Republican or "Whig" Party. The first National Nominating Conventions are held for the Whig and Democratic Parties. Internal conflict over slavery wracks the Democratic Party. Many Whigs join a new anti-slavery party, the "Republicans." Abraham Lincoln becomes the first Republican president. Republican Party dominates U.S. politics during the Civil War and until the Great Depression. Democrats hold presidential office only four times during this period. Former President Theodore Roosevelt breaks with the Republican Party and forms the Progressive Party (Bull Moose Party). Roosevelt runs for president and gains a majority of Republican voters, but the Democratic candidate Woodrow Wilson wins the election. By 1917, the Progressive Party dies out. A liberal coalition from both the Republican and Democratic Parties forms a second Progressive Party; it wins 16.5% of the popular vote in the presidential election. Its influence does not last beyond the election. A faction of liberal Democrats who disagree with both major parties forms another Progressive Party. It gains one million votes in the presidential election but their popularity fades following the election. Former Alabama Governor George Wallace runs for president on the American Independent Party ticket. Supporting anti-desegregation policies, he wins 13.5% of the popular vote and 46 electoral votes from five states in the south. Independent candidate Ross Perot challenges the two parties in the presidential election; he wins 18% of the popular vote. Green Party candidate Ralph Nader runs for the presidency; although he wins only 3% of the popular vote, Nader's candidacy affects the outcome of the closely contested race between George W. Bush and Al Gore. Democrats Anti-Federalist Whigs Republicans 2004 The Moschovitis Group, Inc. Published by Facts On File, Inc. All electronic storage, reproduction, or transmittal is copyright protected by the publisher.

9 AMERICAN GOVERNMENT ON FILE 5.21 Independent and Third Parties What Are Third Parties? A "third," or independent, party is any party other than the Republican or Democratic parties. In an election, more than one party may run against the two major parties, yet they are all considered third parties. Most Americans do not support third parties, yet they have influenced American politics. Third parties play key roles as critics and innovators. They are much more willing to confront divisive issues than candidates of the major parties. Also, a strong third party candidate can take votes away from the major party candidates, changing the outcome of an election. BALLOT Votes for Leading Third Party Presidential Candidates, (percent of votes) Year Candidate Party % of Votes 1960 Eric Hass Socialist Labor less than 1% 1964 Eric Hass Socialist Labor less than 1% 1968 George Wallace American Independent 14% 1972 John Schmitz American 1% 1976 Eugene McCarthy Independent 1% 1980 John Anderson Independent 7% 1984 David Bergland Libertarian less than 1% 1988 Ron Paul Libertarian less than 1 % 1992 Ross Perot Independent 19% 1996 Ross Perot Reform 9% 2000 Ralph Nader Green 3% Three Types of Third Parties TYPE & NATURE OF PARTY Single-issue party Focuses on one major social, economic, or moral issue. DURATION Brief. Tends to fade away quickly when the issue is no longer important or is adopted by one of the major parties. EXAMPLES The Citizens Party was organized in 1979 around opposition to nuclear power and nuclear-arms development. In 1980, Barry Commoner was the party's presidential candidate. He won only 0.3% of the vote. Ideological party Focuses on effecting overall change in society, rather than on a particular issue. The views of these parties tend to be extreme. Long-term. The Socialist Party was organized in 1898 by Eugene V. Debs and other labor activists. In its best year, 1912, the Socialist Party won 6% of the presidential vote. It still exists today. Splinter party Splits away from a major party because of a disagreement. Most splinter parties have formed around a strong leader, usually one who failed to win the party's nomination. Lasts as long as candidate has support or until party's goals are reabsorbed by a major party. Theodore Roosevelt's "Bull Moose" Progressive Party splits from the Republican Party in The Moschovitis Group, Inc. Published by Facts On File, Inc. All electronic storage, reproduction, or transmittal is copyright protected by the publisher.

10 5.22 AMERICAN GOVERNMENT ON FILE Third Party Case Study: 2000 Presidential Election The Green Party was established in 1996 to promote such causes as environmental justice and grassroots democracy. In the 2000 presidential election, Ralph Nader, the Green Party presidential candidate, received 3 percent of the popular vote, taking critical votes away from the Democratic candidate, Al Gore, and, according to some analysts, costing the Democrats the election. Ralph Nader on the Issues On Foreign Policy Nader believed that the pursuit of human rights should dictate U.S. foreign policy. His platform focused on aid to Third World countries and a cessation of arms to belligerent nations. mm Foreign aid must be addressed in the context of retiring this [Third World countries'] debt and not forcing structural adjustments via the IMF and World Bank on the economies of the underdeveloped world. ' I support the end of the economic blockade of Cuba. Unjust economic coercion by one state against another constitutes a violation of human rights. On Health Care Using Canada's health care system as a model, Nader suggested that the nation should create a universal nonprofit health care plan. \t W\ I think we are in a real transitory period, which gives us a real opportunity to recast our health care system in a nonprofit mode and implement universal health care. I Price restraints should be placed on all drugs especially [those] developed with taxpayer money, and multiple licenses should be issued for those drugs in order to stimulate competition and bring prices down. On the Environment An environmentalist, Nader proposed more federal funding for the National Park system as well as cutbacks on commercial logging to protect the nation's forests. { 6391 I would veto any legislation that makes it impossible to consider increasing fuel efficiency... We need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 50 percent to 70 percent immediately just to keep global warming from getting any worse. I advocate the immediate cessation of commercial logging on U.S. public lands and the protection from road-building of all 60 million acres of large forest tracts remaining in the National Forest system. On the Economy An advocate of small government, Nader wanted to reduce the federal budget and spend any surplus funds on the nation's infrastructure and public works. \UW\ We've got priorities. Abolishing child poverty should be one. Rebuilding and repairing America, the public works, the drinking water systems. Citizens must have full legal standing to challenge in the courts the waste, fraud, and abuse of government spending. States with the highest voter percentage for Green Party, 2000 Democratic Popular Vote Republican Popular Vote Green Popular Vote Alaska 79, ,398 28,747 Vermont 149, ,775 20,374 Massachusetts 1,616, , ,564 Rhode Island 249, ,555 25,052 Montana 137, ,178 24,437 Hawaii 205, ,845 21,623 Percent Green Vote of Popular Vote A A k / Montana^H 5.9% j5p ~ Massachusetts ^ lr"" /k Vermont 6.3% JHk 6.9% / i?i Ik / ^ / Note: Percentages based on total votes ^-^.M 2004 The Moschovitis Group, Inc. Published by Facts On File, Inc. All electronic storage, reproduction, or transmittal is copyright protected by the publisher.

11 AMERICAN GOVERNMENT ON FILE 5.27 Defining and Measuring Public Opinion In a democracy, public opinion affects government policy. Therefore, it is essential that public opinion be measured. Public opinion can be gauged through: mi Know* A letter-writing campaign convinced George Washington to seek a second term as president. M Jones 123 Main St. Westbrook, AL 32 U.S. Congress Capitol Hill Washington DC Elections Election results are one measure of public opinion. They can be an imperfect measure, however, as candidates may hold a variety of positions on different issues. Thus a candidate's election does not reflect a clear statement of public opinion. Interest Groups Elected officials try to keep in touch with local interest groups. Because interest groups represent only those specific attitudes of their members, they are not a good measure of broad-based public opinion. Letter Writing Writing letters to public officials is a traditional method of expressing one's political opinion. Today, interest groups stage massive letter-writing campaigns to arouse support on an issue. Political Parties Local and state political party organizations have historically been a reliable source of information about the attitudes of voters, because these organizations offer direct contact with the electorate. Mass Media Politicians keep an eye on the issues as they are reported in the newspapers, on television, on the Internet, and in magazines. These sources may provide a somewhat distorted view of public opinion, however, because of the tendency of the media to focus on news that has entertainment value. Calls, Telegrams, Immediate reactions to speeches, press conferences, or headline events are registered by telephone calls, telegrams, and . Telephone calls can be a distorted measure of public opinion because those who call are often those who already support or dislike a candidate The Moschovitis Group, Inc. Published by Facts On File, Inc. All electronic storage, reproduction, or transmittal is copyright protected by the publisher.

12 5.28 AMERICAN GOVERNMENT ON FILE Opinion Polls Scientific Polls These polls follow careful guidelines designed to ensure the accuracy of their results. 1. A sample group to be questioned is selected from the larger group to be studied. The larger group is known as the "universe." A "sampling error" is a measurement of how much the sample results may differ from those of the universe. 2. Carefully worded questions are presented to the individuals in the sample. The way a question is worded can greatly influence the response. 3. The results are interpreted. Straw Polls Informal, unscientific attempts to measure public opinion carried out by newspapers, radio, or television programs are called "straw polls." Ballots may be printed in newspapers or radio and television programs may ask callers to answer a particular question on an issue. Straw polls are poor indicators of public opinion because the opinions given may not represent the larger population. The opinions represent a biased sample because only certain people choose to respond. Problems With Polling Individuals may give what they think is the "socially acceptable" answer. The respondent might not have any knowledge of an issue. The interviewer may influence the respondent. Polls only give a "snapshof of public opinion at a given point in time. «? I Know Telephone polls are now the most common polling method The Moschovitis Group, Inc. Published by Facts On File, Inc. All electronic storage, reproduction, or transmittal is copyright protected by the publisher.

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