1 SOCI 423: THEORIES OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT SESSION 5: MODERNIZATION THEORY: THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS AND CRITICISMS Lecturer: Dr. James Dzisah College of Education School of Continuing and Distance Education 2014/ /2017
2 SESSION OVERVIEW In this session, we focus attention on the Theoretical, methodological assumptions of modernization theory as well as the general criticisms leveled against the theory. Goals /Objectives: by the end of the session, the student will be able to: Explain the Theoretical and the methodological assumptions underpinning modernization theory Identify the various criticisms leveled against modernization theory.
3 SESSION OUTLINE Theoretical Assumptions Methodology Assumption Criticisms of Modernization theory Unidirectional Development The Need to Eliminate Traditional Values Methodological Problems The Ideological Critique Neglect of the Issue of Foreign Domination Activity References
4 THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS The modernization school presents a multidisciplinary effort to examine the prospects for Third World development. Each discipline contributes in its own way to identifying key issues concerning modernization. Thus sociologists focus upon the change of pattern variables and structural differentiation, economists stress the importance of speeding up productive investments, and political scientists highlight the need to enhance the capacity of the political system.
5 THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS Despite the school's multidisciplinary nature, however, research, however, researchers in the modernization school do share two sets of assumptions and methodology in their study of Third World development. Since the modernization theorists fail to spell out their assumptions and methodology explicitly, it may be fruitful to review them. The first set of assumptions shared by modernization researchers are certain concepts drawn from European evolutionary theory. According to the evolutionary theory, social change is unidirectional, progressive, and gradual, irreversibly moving societies from a primitive stage to an advanced stage, and making societies more like one another as they proceed along the path of evolution. Building upon such a premise, modernization researchers have implicitly formulated their theories with the following traits (see Huntington 1976, p ).
6 THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS 1. Modernization is a phased process: Rostow's theory, for instance, distinguishes different phases of modernization through which all societies will travel. Societies obviously begin with the primitive, simple, undifferentiated traditional stage and end with the advanced, complex, differentiated modem stage. In this respect, Levy argues that societies can be compared in terms of the extent to which they have moved down the road from tradition to modernity. 2. Modernization is a homogenizing process: Modernization produces tendencies toward convergence among societies. As Levy (1967, p. 207) contends, As time goes on, they and we will increasingly resemble one another... because the patterns of modernization are such that the more highly modernized societies become, the more they resemble one another."
7 THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS 3. Modernization is a Europeanization (or Americanization) process: In the modernization literature, there is an attitude of complacency toward Western Europe and the United States. These nations are viewed as having unmatched economic prosperity and democratic stability (Tipps 1976). And since they are the most advanced nations in the world, they have become the models the latecomers would like to emulate. In this respect, modernization is simply a process of Europeanization or Americanization, and is often defined as such. For example, since Western Europe and the United States are highly industrialized and democratic, industrialization and democracy have become the trademarks of the modernization perspective.
8 THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS 4. Modernization is an irreversible process: Once started, modernization cannot be stopped. In other words, once Third World countries come into contact with the West, they will not be able to resist the impetus toward modernization. Although the rate of change will vary from one country to another, the direction of change will not. Thus Levy calls modernization a "universal social solvent" that dissolves the traditional traits of the Third World countries.
9 THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS 5. Modernization is a progressive process: The agonies of modernization are many, but in the long run modernization is not only inevitable, but desirable. For Coleman, the modernized political system has a much better capacity to handle the functions of: national identity, legitimacy, penetration, participation, and distribution than the traditional political system. 6. Modernization is a lengthy process: It is an evolutionary change, not a revolutionary change. It will take generations, or even centuries, to complete, and its profound impact will be felt only through time.
10 THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS The other set of assumptions shared by modernization researchers are drawn from functionalist theory, which emphasizes the interdependence of social institutions, the importance of pattern variables at the cultural level, and the built-in process of change through homeostatic equilibrium. Influenced by these Parsonian ideas, modernization researchers have implicitly formulated the concept of modernization with the following traits. 1. Modernization is a systematic process: The attributes of modernity form a consistent whole, thus appearing in clusters rather than in isolation (Hermassi 1978).
11 THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS Modernity involves changes in virtually all aspects of social behavior, including industrialization, urbanization, mobilization, differentiation, secularization, participation, and centralization. 2. Modernization is a transformative process: In order for a society to move into modernity, its traditional structures and values must be totally replaced by a set of modern values. As Huntington (1976) points out, the modernization school considers "modernity" and "tradition" to be essentially asymmetrical concepts. Although the traits of modernity are clearly laid down, those of tradition are not. For the sake of convenience, everything that is not modern is labelled traditional.
12 THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS Consequently, tradition has a small role to play and has to be replaced (or completely transformed) in the process of modernization. 3. Modernization is an immanent process: Due to its systematic and transformative nature, modernization has built change into the social system. Once a change has started in one sphere of activity, it will necessarily produce comparative changes in other spheres (Hermassi 1978). For example, once the family has begun the process of differentiation, other institutions-the economy, the mass media, the police, and so on-have to undergo the process of differentiation and integration too. Due to this assumption of immanence, the modernization school tends to focus upon the internal sources of change in the Third World countries.
13 METHODOLOGY ASSUMPTIONS In addition to sharing evolutionary and functionalist assumptions, members of the modernization school also adopt a similar methodological approach for their research. Modernization researchers tend to anchor their discussions at a highly general and abstract level. Since their aim is to explain general patterns, universal trends, and common prospects for Third World development, they do not want to be preoccupied with unique cases and historically specific events. In order to draw high-level generalizations, modernization researchers rely upon Parsons's ideal-type construction (such as traditional societies versus modern societies) to summarize their key argument of dichotomous ideal types becomes a major effort of students of the modernization school.
14 METHODOLOGY ASSUMPTIONS With regard to units of analysis, Tipps (1976) points out that it is the national territorial state that is of critical theoretical significance to the modernization theorist, even if this does remain largely implicit. However it may be conceptualized, whether industrialization or structural differentiation, each component the modernization process is viewed as a source of change operated at the national level. Thus modernization theories are basically theories of transformation of nation-states.
15 CRITICISMS OF MODERNIZATION THEORY Unidirectional Development: 1. Critics have challenged the evolutionary assumptions of unidirectional development. Why do Third World countries need to move in the direction of Western countries? 2. The critics assert that belief in unidirectional development has resulted in modernization researchers overlooking alternative paths of development for Third World countries 3. Critics argue that modernization researchers are overly optimistic. They mistakenly assume that since western countries have achieved development, third World countries can also
16 CRITICISMS OF MODERNIZATION THEORY The Need to Eliminate Traditional Values: 1. Critics attack the functionalist assumption of incompatibility between tradition and modernity. First, the critics ask: what is really tradition? Is it true that third World countries have a set of homogenous and harmonious traditional values? 2. The critics ask, are traditional values and modern values mutually exclusive? The critics assert that in traditional societies, modern values have always been present, and coexisted.
17 CRITICISMS OF MODERNIZATION THEORY The Need to Eliminate Traditional Values: 3. Are traditional values always obstacles to modernization? Do we need to eliminate traditional values in order to promote modernization? For example, in the modernization of Japan, thte value of loyalty to the emperor was easily transformed to loyalty to the firm, which helped to enhance workers productivity and cut down the turnover rate 4. Can modernization totally displace traditional values? Critics point out that traditional values will always be present in the process of modernization.
18 CRITICISMS OF MODERNIZATION THEORY Methodological Problems: 1. According to critics, modernization researcher tend to formulate their arguments at such a high level of abstraction that it is hard to know what country and what historical period that they are discussing. 2. The critics argue that there is a lack of before-andafter historical research undertaken by modernization social scientists. They simply take cross national research at a given period to be historical research over time.
19 CRITICISMS OF MODERNIZATION The Ideological Critique: THEORY 1. From the neo-marxist viewpoint, the modernization perspective is a cold war ideology that is used to justify the intervention of the United States in third world affairs. 2. Bodenheimer (1970) points to the ideology of developmentalism. According to him the literature of development has suffered form four epistemological sins:
20 CRITICISMS OF MODERNIZATION THEORY a. Belief in the possibility of an objective social science free from ideology b. Belief in the cumulative quality of knowledge c. Belief in universal laws of social science, and d. Export of these three beliefs to Third World countries These epistemological sins led to the theoretical errors of belief in incremental and continuous development
21 CRITICISMS OF MODERNIZATION THEORY Neglect of the Issue of Foreign Domination The modernization school is criticized for ignoring the crucial element of foreign domination such as the history of colonialism, the control of multinational corporations over Third World economies
22 ACTIVITY a. Critics argue that institutions like the World Bank are implicitly, if not explicitly, guided by the tenets of modernization and neo-evolutionary theories. Find a copy of one of the World Bank s recent World Development Reports, or access the Bank s website on www. worldbank.org/ and see what evidence you can find, if any, of ideas or assumptions characteristic of neo-evolutionary, modernization, or neo-modernization theory. b. To what extent are all theories of development about modernization? c. Critically assess the extent to which modernization theories explain the status of the Third World
23 REFERENCES Harrison, D The Sociology of Modernisation and Development. London: Macmillan. Roberts, J. Timmons, and Bellone Hite, A. (eds.) (2007). The Globalization and Development Reader: Perspectives on Development and Global Change. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing So, A. Y Social Change and Development. London: Sage Publishing, chapter 3, pages
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