lnternational Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

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1 lnternational Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda UNITEDNATIONS NATIONS-s Arusha International Conference Centre P.O.Box 6016, Arusha, Tanzania - B.P. 6016, Arusha, Tanzanie Tel: or Fax: or Before: Registrar: The Trial Chamber Designated Under Rule 1 Ibis (A) Mr. Adama Dieng a Date tiled: 28 Novemher Case No. ICTR N,. PROSECUTOR'S REQUEST FOR THE REFERRAL OF THE CASE OF JEAN-BAPTZSTE GATETE TO RWANDA PURSUANT TO RULE 11 BIS OF THE TRIBUNAL'S RULES OF PROCEDURE AND EVIDENCE Office of the Prosecutor Hassan Bubacar Jallow Bongani Majola Silvana Arbia Alex Obote-Odora Richard Karegyesa George Mugwanya Inneke Onsea Francois Nsanzuwera Florida Kabasinga Counsel for the Accused Richard Dub6 Julie Veillette

2 _ I ' A. NATURE OF THE APPLICATION 1. The Prosecutor hereby respectfully submits this request, pursuant to Rule 11 bis of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the Tribunal for Rwanda (hereinafter "the Tribunal" or "the ICTR), for the referral of the case of Jean-Baptiste GATETE (hereinafter "the Accused"), who is charged under the Tribunal's confirmed Indictment as amended on 10 May 2005 (also hereinafter referred to as "Amended ~ndictment"'), to the authorities of the Republic of Rwanda, so that those authorities may forthwith assign the case to an appropriate court in Rwanda (namely, the High Court of ~wanda') for the trial of the Accused. The Prosecutor respectfully requests the President of the Tribunal to designate a Trial Chamber, pursuant to Rule 11 bis (A), to determine whether the Accused's case may be referred to the authorities of Rwanda for prosecution by an appropriate court in Rwanda. 2. The Accused is a Rwandan citizen. He was born in 1953 in Rwankuba secteur, Murambi commune, in Byumbaprefecture of Rwanda. The Accused was arrested on 11 September 2002 and was transferred to the Tribunal on 13 September During the period covered by the Amended Indictment against the Accused, the Accused was an Interahamwe leader. Prior to the period in question, the Accused held several portfolios in the public administration, including as Bourgmestre of Murambi commune, Directeur in the Ministry of Women and Family Affairs and a member of the national congress of the MRND political party. Though no longer formally affiliated with these portfolios during the period covered by the Indictment, the Accused continued during the said period to exercise influence over the communal police, gendarmes and civilians in Byumba and Kibungo prefectures due to his former status just mentioned. 4. The Amended Indictment charges the Accused with the following crimes perpetrated in Byumba and Kibungo prefectures, Rwanda: Genocide, or in the alternative, Complicity in genocide; Conspiracy to Commit Genocide; and Extermination, I The Amended Indictment was tiled pursuant to Trial Chamber 1's Decision on the rosec cut ion's Requesf for Leave lo File an Amended Indictment, of 21 April This Indictment amends the Indictment that was confirmed against the Accused on 19 December 'Under Rwanda's law (discussed below) all accused persons transferred from the Tribunal will be tried by the High Court, and appeals will lie to the Supreme Court of Rwanda.

3 Murder and Rape as Crimes Against Humanity. At a status conference of 20 September 2002, the Accused pleaded not guilty to all the charges in the confirmed Indictment. The Accused has never changed this plea with respect to the Amended Indictment. 5. By letter dated 16 November 2007 (and annexed to this Application as Annexure "A"), the Government of Rwanda has expressed its willingness and readiness to accept and prosecute the Accused for the above crimes, with assurances that the Accused will have the benefit of a fair trial, that in the event of conviction, the death penalty will not be applied and that Rwanda will comply with all the conditions required by the Trial Chamber in its Referral Order. B. SUMMARY OF THE PROSECUTOR'S SUBMlSSlONS 6. The Prosecutor respectfully submits that the instant request meets the requirements set out in the Tribunal's Rule 11 bis to merit the transfer of the Accused's case to Rwanda. In summary, Rwanda meets those requirements as follows: i. Rwanda has jurisdiction over the Accused. Rwanda is the territory in which the Accused committed the crimes for which he has been indicted by the Tribunal. Rwanda's legislation provides for the prosecution of genocide and other violations of international humanitarian law in terms identical to the provisions of the Tribunal's Statute. ii. Rwanda is willing and adequately prepared to accept the Accused's case. Rwanda possesses a competent, independent and impartial judiciary, and a legal framework that guarantees accused persons fair trial and due process rights identical to those enshrined in the Tribunal's Statute, the Rules and international human rights instruments. Rwanda is a party to several international human rights treaties, and has accepted intemational scrutiny and oversight mechanisms established under those treaties. Rwanda has abolished the death penalty in respect of all cases that may be referred to Rwanda from the Tribunal. Rwanda has also abolished the death penalty from the entirety of its legal system. iii. Rwanda possesses a legal framework which criminalizes the alleged conduct of the Accused as intemational crimes (as distinguished from ordinary crimes), as elaborated by the Appeals Chamber's juri~~rudence.~ Moreover, Rwanda's legal framework provides an adequate penalty structure identical to that enshrined in the Tribunal's Statute and Rules. Like the Tribunal, the most severe sentence that 3 See Prosecutor v. Michel Bagaragaza, Case No. ICTR ARl lbis, Decision on Rule 11 bis Appeal, 30 August 2006, (hereinafter "Bagaragaza Rule 11 bis Appeals Chamber Decision"), paras. 9,

4 Rwandan courts may impose against any person whose case is referred to Rwanda from the Tribunal is life imprisonment. iv. The Accused will receive a fair trial in Rwanda, and the death penalty will not be imposed nor camed out. Rwanda's High Court (as a court of first instance) and Supreme Court (as a court of appeal), have jurisdiction over persons referred to Rwanda from the Tribunal. These courts are composed of trained and experienced lawyers and jurists, who have, among other serious crimes, adjudicated and continue to adjudicate genocide cases. Moreover, Rwanda's legal framework establishes the courts as independent and impartial tribunals. v. Rwanda's legal framework also guarantees all other Rule 11 bis safeguards, namely allowing the monitoring of proceedings by monitors appointed by the Prosecutor (in the instant case, the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights has accepted to perform this responsibility), and in case a Trial Chamber revokes the Referral Order, Rwanda's immediate compliance with such revocation. 7. Following are detailed submissions respecting this request's compliance with Rule 11 bis requirements. (i) Rwanda has jurisdiction, being the territory in which the Accused committed the crimes. 8. Rule 11 bis (A) of the Tribunal's Rules of Procedure and Evidence provides for referrals of cases by the Tribunal either to (a) a state where the crimes were committed (in other words a state meeting the territorial jurisdiction principle, in casu, Rwanda and the neighbouring states4); (b) a state of the accused person's arrest (or a state meeting what may be termed the subsidiaiy universality jurisdiction principle); and (c) any other state having jurisdiction and being willing and adequately prepared to accept such a case (in other words, a state embracing the universality jurisdiction principle respecting crimes committed outside such state's territory, and in cam, crimes committed in Rwanda and/or neighbouring states between 1" January until 3 1" December 1994 ). 9. The Prosecutor submits that Rwanda falls under states in respect of which Rule 11 bis makes provision for referral of cases for prosecution (i.e. Rule 11 bis A (i)), as a state where the Accused committed the crimes (hence meeting the territorial jurisdiction principle mentioned above). The Amended Indictment charges the Accused with the following crimes perpetrated in Byumba and Kibungo prefectures, Rwanda: Genocide, 4 See also the preambulatory paragraph to, and Article 7, ofthe Tribunal's Statute 4

5 or in the alternative, Complicify in genocide; Conspiracy to Commit Genocide; and Extermination, Murder and Rape as Crimes Against Humunify. (ii) Rwanda is willing and adequately prepared to accept the Accused's case 10. Rwanda possesses legislation that provides for the prosecution of genocide and other violations of international humanitarian law (as those for which the Accused is indicted) in terms identical to the provisions of the Tribunal's Statute, and Rwanda is willing and adequately prepared to accept the Accused's case for trial by the High Court of Rwanda (any appeals will lie to the Supreme Court) for crimes committed in Rwanda pursuant to a Rule 11 bis decision of this Tribunal. As noted earlier, by letter dated 16 November 2007, the Government of Rwanda has expressed the willingness and readiness to accept and prosecute the Accused for the crimes for which he is indicted by the Tribunal Rwanda fulfils the "adequately prepared to accept" requirement of Rule 11 bis. First of all, Rwanda possesses a legal framework identical to that established under the Tribunal's Statute in criminalizing all the alleged conduct of the Accused and in providing for an adequate penalty structure and fair trial and due process guarantees to accused persons. Rwanda has ratified the 1948 Genocide Convention and other instruments that enshrine the proscription and punishment of other transgressions of international humanitarian law such as those that occurred in Rwanda and for which the Accused is indicted. Rwanda has also adopted legislation that provides for the proscription and punishment of genocide and other transgressions of international humanitarian law. 12. Secondly, Rwanda has enacted a law, namely Organic Law No. 11/2007 of 16 March 2007, Concerning Transfer of Cases to the Republic of Rwanda from the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and From Other States [hereinafter Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases, and Annexed to this Application as Annexure "B"] specifically to deal with cases referred to Rwanda from the Tribunal, including the case of the Accused. This law clearly expresses Rwanda's readiness and preparedness to accept and prosecute cases referred to Rwanda from the Tribunal. The law also empowers the courts specifically mandated to try persons whose cases are referred to 5

6 Rwanda from the Tribunal, namely, the High Court and the Supreme Court, to prosecute those persons for crimes identical to those in the Tribunal's Statute. 13. From the long title of Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases, its preamble, as well as Article 1, the law unquestionably expresses Rwanda's willingness and preparedness to accept cases referred to Rwanda from the ICTR, including the case of the Accused. According to Article 1, Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases is intended [to] regulate the transfer of cases and other related matters, from the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and from other States to the Republic of Rwanda. This Organic Law shall also determine the procedures of admissibility of evidence in Rwanda collected by the ICTR in proceedings before a competent court. 14. Pursuant to Article 2 of the Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases, Rwanda's High Court is conferred with the competence to conduct in the first instance, cases of accused persons referred to Rwanda from the ICTR, and other States. Under Article 16 of the same law, the Supreme Court of Rwanda has the jurisdiction to hear appeals from decisions taken by the High Court. Like the ICTR (Article 24 of the Statute), pursuant to Article 16 of Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases, both the prosecution and the accused have the right of appeal against decisions of the High Court upon the following grounds: an error on a question of law invalidating the decision, or an error of fact which has occasioned a miscarriage of justice. Like Article 25 and Rule 120 of the ICTR's Statute and Rules of Procedure and evidence respectively, Article 17 of Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases provides for review of cases. 15. As is shown in more detail below,5 Rwanda's High Court and Supreme Court are established as competent, independent and impartial tribunals. They are composed of trained and experienced lawyers and jurists, who have adjudicated, and continue to adjudicate cases of genocide, a crime which Rwanda's legal framework incorporates in terms identical to those under the Genocide Convention and the Tribunal's Statute. Under an examination of Rwanda's legal framework in relation to the guarantee of fair trial and due process rights to accused persons, and more specifically in relation to the right to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial court (see infra)). 6

7 .fg-qo 16. According to Article 2 of the Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases, persons whose cases are referred to Rwanda from the Tribunal "shall be prosecuted only for crimes within the jurisdiction of the ICTR." This means that Rwanda's High Court and Supreme Court are conferred with the competence to adjudicate the very same international crimes over which the ICTR has jurisdiction pursuant to Articles 2 to 4 of the ICTR's Statute, namely genocide (and all 'other acts' of genocide, namely conspiracy to commit genocide, complicity in genocide, direct and public incitement to commit genocide and attempt to commit genocide); crimes against humanity and violations of Article 3 Common to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and Protocol I1 of 1977.~ 17. It follows that pursuant to Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases, at the end of the trial in Rwanda, the Accused will be convicted and sentenced, or as the case may be, acquitted, for serious violations of international humanitarian law, and not ordinary crimes, in line with Rule 11 bis, and the relevant Appeals Chamber juri~~rudence.~ (ii) Rwandapossesses a legal framework that criminalizes all the alleged conduct of the Accused and provides an adequate penalty structure 18. Rwanda possesses a legal framework that criminalizes all the alleged conduct of the Accused as detailed in the ICTR's Amended Indictment against the Accused, and also provides an adequate penalty structure. (a) Rwanda's legal framework criminalizes the Accused's alleged conduct 19. Rwanda's legal framework criminalizes the alleged conduct of the Accused as international crimes, and not as ordinary crimes, consistent with Rule 11 bis, and Appeals Chamber's Rule 11 bis jurispr~dence.~ Rwanda's legal framework provides for the proscription and punishment of genocide and other transgressions of international humanitarian law in terms identical to those laid down under the Tribunal's Statute. 6 Violations of Article 3 Common to the Geneva Conventions and Protocol I1 of 1977 are also hereinafter referred to as "war crimes." ' Bagaragaza Rule 11 bis Appeals Chamber Decision, paras. 9, See Bagaragaza Rule 11 bis Appeals Chamber Decision, paras. 9,

8 20. Besides ratifying the 1948 Genocide Convention and the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the Protocols of 1977, which means that the provisions of those instruments, including in relation to individual criminal responsibility of those violating them, apply in Rwanda, Rwanda has further adopted domestic legislation which provides for the proscription and punishment of genocide and other transgressions of international humanitarian law such as those for which the Accused is indicted by the Tribunal. For instance, Rwanda's Organic Law of 30 August 1996 on the Organization of the Prosecution of Ofences Constituting the Crime of Genocide or Crimes Against Humunify Committed Since I October 1990 (as amended and/or read with subsequent legislation;'0 this law is annexed hereto as Annexure "C"), provides for the proscription and punishment of genocide and other transgressions of international humanitarian law in terms identical to the provision of the Tribunal. Article 1 provides for criminal proceedings against persons who, since 1 October 1990, committed acts constituting, (a) either the crime of genocide or crimes against as defined in the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide of 9 December 1948, in the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of 12 August 1949 and its additional protocols, as well as in the Convention on the Non- Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity of 26 November 1968, the three of which are ratified by Rwanda; or (b) offences set out in the Penal Code which the Public Prosecution Department alleges or the defendant admits were committed in connection with the events surrounding the genocide and crimes against humanity. See Prosecutor v. Musema, Trial Chamber Judgement, para. 152 (holding that Rwanda acceded, by legislative decree (no. 8/75) to the Convention on Genocide on 12 February 1975, and that the crime of genocide was therefore punishable in Rwanda in 1994"). The application of the Convention in Rwanda applies beyond The provisions of the Geneva Conventions and the Protocols also similarly apply in Rwanda. Pursuant to Article 190 of Rwanda's Constitution, treaties "are more binding than organic and ordinary domestic laws." Moreover, Rwanda is also bound to implement the provisions of those instruments on the basis of the well established principle of in international law of pacta sunt servanda. See e.g. Article 26 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 1969, 23 May 1969, U.N. Doc. AlCONF.39/ For instance, as shown below, under a specific law governing the transfer of cases from the Tribunal to Rwanda, namely, the Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases, the death penalty has been removed in respect of all accused that may be transferred to Rwanda. In addition, Rwanda has abolished the death penalty from the entire legal system pursuant to Organic Law No. 31/2007 Relating to the Abolition of the Death 8

9 21. Secondly, and in line with Rule 11 bis and the Appeals Chamber jurisprudence,ll Rwanda adopted Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases, specifically to adjudicate cases of genocide and other transgressions of international humanitarian law in relation to accused persons referred to Rwanda from the Tribunal, including the case of the Accused. The law empowers Rwanda's High Court and Supreme Court, to prosecute persons whose cases are referred for trial to Rwanda from the Tribunal, for crimes identical to those enshrined in the Tribunal's Statute. 22. As noted earlier, Article 2 of the Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases, expressly empowers the High Court of Rwanda (and the Supreme Court, which has jurisdiction over appeals from the High Court) to prosecute persons whose cases are referred to Rwanda from the ICTR only with crimes identical to those that fall within the Tribunal's jurisdiction, namely genocide (and all 'other acts' of genocide, namely conspiracy to commit genocide, complicity in genocide, direct and public incitement to commit genocide and attempt to commit genocide); crimes against humanity and violations of Article 3 Common to the Geneva Conventions and Protocol I1 of Modes of Criminal Responsibility 23. The Accused is indicted for participating in the crimes by virtue of the modes of criminal responsibility enshrined in Article 6(1) of the ICTR Statute. The Indictment alleges that the Accused participated in the planning, instigation, ordering, committing, or otherwise in aiding and abetting the planning, preparation or execution of the crimes. He is also indicted for participating in a joint criminal enterprise whose objective was the destruction, in whole or in part, of the Tutsi population. Alternatively, the crimes with which the Accused is indicted were a natural and foreseeable consequences of the criminal enterprise and the Accused and other members of the enterprise knew and were aware that such crimes were the likely outcome of the enterprise. 24. Article 6(1) of the ICTR Statute covers both principal perpetrators of crimes as well as accomplices to such crimes. Rwanda possesses an adequate legal framework to try the Accused on similar forms of criminal responsibility. Article 89 of Rwanda's I I See e.g. Bagaragaza Rule 11 bis Appeals Chamber Decision, paras. 9,

10 Penal Code (Rwanda's Penal Code is annexed hereto as Annexure "D") identifies both principal perpetrators and accomplices to crimes. Article 90 of the same Code defines the author of a crime as someone who has executed the crime or has directly cooperated in the commission of the crime. The latter legitimately covers criminal participation widely penalized in criminal law, and includes participation envisaged by the ICTR's joint criminal enterprise. Article 91 of the Code defines the material elements of accomplice liability in a manner similar to that developed under the jurisprudence of the ICTR.IZ Rwanda's legal framework, in a manner similar to that generally developed under the ICTR's jurisprudence, encompasses, inter alia, three forms of accomplice, namely, complicity by instigation, complicity by aiding and abetting and complicity by procuring the means to commit the crime. Pursuant to Article 91 of the Rwanda's Penal Code, an accomplice shall mean any of the following: A person who by means of gifts, promises, threats, abuse of authority or power, culpable machinations or artifice, directly incites to commit such action or orders that such action be committed: A person who procures weapons, instruments or any other means which are used in committing such action with knowledge that they would be so used; A person who knowingly aids or abets the perpetrator of such action in the actions carried out in preparing or planning such action or in effectively committing it; A person who, whether through speeches, shouting or threats uttered in public places or at public gatherings, or through the sale or dissemination, offer for sale or display of written material or printed matter in public places or at public gathering or through the public display of placards or posters, directly incites the perpetrator to commit such an action without prejudice to the penalties applicable to those who incite others to commit the offences, even where such incitement fail to produce results; A person who habours or aids perpetrators under the circumstances provided under Article 257 of this Code. 25. According to the ICTR's jurisprudence, Rwanda's legal framework covers both instigation (which is one of the modes of criminal participation laid down under Article 6(1) of the Statute), and (direct) incitement, which, directly relates to direct and public 12 See e.g. Prosecutor v. Akayesu, Trial Chamber Judgement, paras

11 incitement to commit genocide as a crime pursuant to Article 2(3)(c) of the Tribunal's statute In line with the ICTR's j~ris~rudence,'~ under Article 89 of Rwanda's Penal Code, an accused is liable as an accomplice even where the perpetrator of the principal offence himselfierself has not be tried, or identified, or where, for any reason, the principal perpetrator's guilt could not be proven. (b) Rwanda's legal framework provides for an adequate penalty structure 27. Rwanda's legal framework provides for an adequate penalty structure. Pursuant to Article 21 of Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases, "life imprisonment shall be the heaviest penalty imposed upon a convicted person in a case transferred in [sic] Rwanda from the ICTR." 28. As shown below, Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases, and Organic Law No. 31/2007 Relating to the Abolition of the Death Penalty, exclude the imposition and application of the death penalty, in line with the requirements of Rule 11 bis (C). Moreover, while Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases does not lay down a scale of penalties for each international crime, this does not render the law inadequate, or in violation of any principle of criminal law or international law, such as nullapoena sine lege or equality of protection. 29. By prescribing life imprisonment as the maximum penalty, Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases pursues an approach identical to that taken under the Statute, Rules and jurisprudence of the ICTR, and indeed those of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY). Under Article 23 of the ICTR Statute (which is similar to Article 24 of the ICTY Statute), "the penalty imposed by the [...I Chamber shall be limited to imprisonment." Pursuant to Rule 101 (A) of the ICTR's Rules of Procedure and Evidence (which is similar to Rule 101 (A) of the ICTY's Rules of Procedure and Evidence), "a person convicted by the Tribunal may be sentenced to imprisonment for a fixed term or the remainder of his life." l3 Prosecutor v. Akayesu, Trial Chamber Judgement, paras l4 See e.g. Id., para

12 30. With the abolition of the death penalty, life imprisonment remains the most severe penalty available to those found guilty of international crimes.i5 Life sentence as a maximum sentence is appropriate for convictions for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. 31. The absence in Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases of a scale of penalties for each international crime, does not render the law inadequate, or in violation of any principle of criminal law or international law, such as nuna poena sine lege and equality of protection. The Statute and Rules of Procedure of the ICTR, like those of the ICTY, also do not prescribe a scale of penalties, and the Appeals Chamber of the ICTY, which is shared with the ICTR, has held that this approach is correct at law. explained by the Appeals Chamber of the ICTY, as in national systems, it suffices that the law "prescribes a range of sentences with regard to an offence [...] within that range, judges have discretion to determine the exact terms of a sentence subject to prescribed factors which they consider relevant in the exercise of that discretion."i6 32. Like the ICTR sentencing framework mentioned above, which is similar to that of the ICTY, Rwanda's sentencing framework provides for the consideration of mitigating factors. For instance, under Article 82 of the Penal Code, it is within the judges' discretion to take account of individual circumstances of the accused in determining sentences. Q 33. In line with Rule of the Tribunal's Rules of Procedure and Evidence (which is similar to Rule 101 (C) of the ICTY's Rules of Procedure and Evidence), Article 22 of Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases provides that Rwanda's competent courts (the High Court and the Supreme Court) shall give credit "to the convicted person for the period during which he has been detained in custody, or pending for the appeal." As As noted earlier, with the abolition of the death penalty from Rwanda's entire legal system, life imprisonment also remains the most severe penalty with respect to all other crimes in Rwanda's legal s stem "Prosecutor v. Kunarac, para. 327.

13 34. In conclusion, Rwanda possesses a legal framework that criminalizes all the alleged conduct of the Accused as contained in the ICTR's Amended Indictment against the Accused. Moreover, Rwanda's legal framework provides for an adequate penalty structure. The penalty structure appropriately addresses, among others, the intrinsic gravity of international crimes, and conforms to accepted principles in criminal law and intemational law, including the principles of nuna poena sine lege and equality of protection. 0 ' Abolition (iii) The Accused will receive a fair trial in Rwanda, and the death penalty will not be imposed nor carried out (a) Abolition of the Death Penalty 35. The Accused will receive a fair trial in Rwanda, and the death penalty will not be imposed nor carried out. Rwanda abolished the death penalty with respect to all cases transferred to Rwanda from the ICTR pursuant to Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases (Article 21). Like Rule 101 of the ICTR's Rules of Procedure and Evidence, pursuant to Article 21 of Rwanda's Orgarric Law on the Transfer of Cases, the maximum penalty to be imposed by Rwandan competent courts (that is to say, the High Court and Supreme Court) upon a convicted persons in cases transferred to Rwanda from the ICTR, is life imprisonment. 36. It is also noteworthy that Rwanda has abolished the death penalty from the entire legal system, pursuant to Organic Law No. 31/2007 of 25/07/2007 Relating to the of the Death (attached to this Application as Annemre "E"). (b) The Accused will receive a fair trial in Rwanda 37. The Accused if transferred to Rwanda from the ICTR, will receive a fair trial in Rwanda as required under Rule 11 bis, and in accordance with established principles of international law. 38. Under established intemational law, the right to fair trial encompasses several guarantees, and Rwanda has in place a legal framework that embraces all those guarantees, as well as the competences for their realization. Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases (Article 13), enshrines all the guarantees of right to a fair trial as

14 those embodied in the ICTR's Statute (Articles 12, 14, 19,20). Moreover, Article 13 of this law does not preclude the application of any other guarantees not explicitly mentioned, but included in the country's Constitution (e.g. Articles 18, 19, 20, 44, 60, and chapter v'~), Rwanda's Code of Criminal ~rocedurel~ ("CCP") as amended,19 (the Code as amended is annexed to this Application as Annexure "G") as well as those enshrined in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). In a nutshell, Rwanda's legal framework embraces the fair trial guarantees recognized by the ICTR Statute, and the various international and regional human rights treaties that Rwanda has ratified, including the ICCPR, 20 the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights ("AFcHPR")~' (as expounded by the jurisprudence of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights (an organ established under the AFCHPR, Art. 30), such as the Resolution of the Commission on the Right to Recourse to Procedure and Fair Trial (hereinafter "RRFT," and is annexed to this Application as Annexure "H") and the Commission's case-law);12 the International Convention on the Rights of the Child ("IcRc"),~~ and Article 3 Common to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and Protocol I and I1 of 1977 ("Common Art. 3, GC & P").24 Those guarantees include: (i) the right to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial court (Art , Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases; Arts. 19 and 44, Rwanda's Constitution; Art. 1, Amendment to I' These and other provisions relevant to this Application are annexed to this application as Annexure "F". Law No of 17/5/2004 Relating to the Code of Criminal Procedure. l9 For instance by Law No , Modlhing and Complementing the Law No. 13/2004 of IVY2004 Relating to the Code of Criminal Procedure [hereinafter "Amendment to CCP] 20 Article The Commission adopted RRFT at its I I' Session. In summary, under this Resolution, the Commission has stated that the right to fair trial in Article 7 ofthe AFCHPR, includes the right to be informed promptly at the time of arrest in a language one understands of the reasons for the arrest and of any charges; the right to be brought before a judicial officer promptly after arrest or detention and the right to be brought to trial within a reasonable time, or be released; the right to have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of that defence; the right to communicate in confidence with counsel of one's choice; the right to free assistance of an interpreter at trial and the right to free legal aid for the indigent. The Commission has also adjudicated cases alleging violations of Article 7. For the Commission's RRFT and jurisprudence in relation to Article 7 of the AFCHPR, see generally George William Mugwanya, Human Rights in Africa: Enhancing Human Rights Through the African Regional Human Rights System Vransnational Publishers, 2003). at DD and 308. " Artic1e.40. " Common Article 3 to the named instruments prohibits "the passing of sentences [...] without previous judgements pronounced by a regularly constituted court, affording all judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples." 14

15 CCP; Art AFCHPR a & b, and RRFT; Art. 3, Common Art. 3, GC & P; Art. 14.1, ICCPR); (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) the right to presumption of innocence (Art , Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases; Arts. 19 and 44, Rwanda's Constitution; Art. 44, CCP; AFCHPR, Art. 7.1.b and RRFT; Art. 3, Common Art. 3, GC & P; Art. 14.2, ICCPR); the right to be informed promptly and in detail in a language which he or she understands, of the nature and cause of the charge against him or her (Art , Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases; Art. 18, Rwanda's Constitution; AFCHPR, Art. 7.1.b and RRFT; Art. 3, Common Art. 3, GC & P; Art a, ICCPR); the right to have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his or her defence, and to communicate with counsel of his or her own choosing (Art. 13.4, Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases; Arts. 18, Rwanda's Constitution; AFCHPR, Art. 7.1.c and RRFT; Art. 3, Common Art. 3, GC & P; Art b, ICCPR); the right to be tried without undue delay (Art , Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases; AFCHPR, Art. 7.1.d and RRFT; Art. 3, Common Art. 3, GC & P; Art c, ICCPR); the right to be tried in his or her presence (Art , Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases; Art. 7, AFCHPR & RRFT; Art. 3, Common Art. 3, GC & P; Art d, ICCPR); the right to defend himself or herself in person or through legal assistance of his or her own choosing; to be informed, if he or she does not have legal assistance, of this right, and to have legal assistance assigned to him or her, in any case where the interests of justice so require, and without payment by him or her in any such case if he or she does not have sufficient means to pay for it (Art , Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases; Art. 18, Rwanda's Constitution; Art. 64, CCP; AFCHPR, Art. 7.l.c and RRFT; Art. 3, Common Art. 3, GC & P; Art b, ICCPR); (viii) the right to examine, or have examined, the witnesses against him or her and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his or her behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him or her (Art & 9, Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases; Art. 18, Rwanda's Constitution; AFCHPR; Arts. 144, CCP; Art. 1, Amendment to CCP; Art. 7.l.c and RRFT; Art. 3, Common Art. 3, GC & P; Art b, ICCPR); (ix) the right not to be compelled to testify against himself or herself or to confess guilt (Art , Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of 15

16 Cases; Art. 19, Rwanda's Constitution; AFCHPR, Art. 7.1.b and RRFT; Art. 3, Common Art. 3, GC & P; Art b, ICCPR). 39. A commentary on Rwanda's legal framework in relation to the above guarantees follows. (i) The right to a fair andpublic hearing by a competent, independent and impartial court 40. Pursuant to Article 13(1) of Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases, accused persons transferred from the ICTR are guaranteed the right to a fair andpublic hearing. While this provision does not expressly mention that the accused are also entitled to trial by a competent, independent and impartial court, Article 13 expressly indicates that the catalogue of guarantees that it expressly enshrines, is not exhaustive. The provision indicates that the catalogue is supplemented by other guarantees enshrined in Rwanda's other laws, including the Constitution, the Code of Criminal Procedure, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The law's use of "including" means that the Accused is also entitled to rights enshrined in other instruments ratified by Rwanda, such as the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights. 41. Article 19 of Rwanda's Constitution (which enshrines the right to a public and fair hearing), read together with Article 44 (which establishes the judiciary as the guardian of rights and freedom); and Chapter V (which embodies provisions on the judicial arm of government, and in particular Article 140, which provides that the judiciary is independent and separate from the legislative and executive arms of government), guarantee the accused the right to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial court. As well, Article 1 of Rwanda's Code of Criminal Procedure as amended, provides that criminal proceedings "must be held in public audience, be fair, impartial, comply with the principles of self-defence, crossexamination, treat litigants equal in the eyes of the law, base on evidence legally produced and rendered without undue delay." *' Similarly, Article 14(1) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, an instrument which Rwanda's Organic law on the transfer of cases expressly refers to in Article 13, enshrines the right 25 Emphasis Added.

17 to a public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal established by law. 42. In relation to the public irial prong of the right, the High Court and Supreme Court sessions (as well as sessions in other courts) in Rwanda are public, and judgements are delivered in the public. Rwanda's legal framework provides that in some situations, "a court can order for hearing to be conducted in camera when it finds that public hearing can be detrimental to public order and good morals."26 This approach is in line with the established position in international law. As shown below, the ICTR Statute and ~ules? (as well as those of the ICTY''), like other international instruments, such as the ICCPR,~~ recognize that in some situations, such as in the interest of the protecting witnesses and victims, in camera proceedings or concealment from the public of the identities of witnesses and victims, may be undertaken. 43. It is noteworthy that, like the ICTR's Statute and Rules (as well as those of the ICTY identified above), Rwanda S Organic law on Transfer of Cases makes provision for the protection and assistance of witnesses by granting measures that may reasonably limit the right to a public trial. Article 14 of Rwanda's Organic law on Transfer of Cases provides that "in the trial of cases transferred from the ICTR, the High Court [...I shall provide protection for witnesses and shall have the right to order protective measures similar to those set forth in Rules 53, 69 and 75 of the ICTR's Rules of Procedure and Evidence." It is a well established principle of the ICTR's Statute (e.g. Article 21) and the Rules just mentioned, as well as the jurisprudence of the ICTR (like that of the ICTY), that measures taken to protect witnesses (both of the Prosecution and the Accused) from the danger of harm, enhance the interests of justice. Therefore, pursuant to Article 14 of Rwanda's Organic law on Transfer of Cases, Rwanda's courts, like the ICTR and the ICTY, will, in the interest of justice, provide witness protection measures which may include, in some instances, such measures as those laid down in ICTR's Article 21 and Rule 75, namely, in camera proceedings for the determination of witness protection 26 Article 145 of Rwanda's Code of Criminal Procedure as amended. 27 See Art. 19, ICTR Statute, and Rules 53,69,75 and 79 of the ICTR's Rules of Procedure and Evidence. 28 See e.g. Art. 22, ICTY Statute, and Rule 75, ICTY Rules of Procedure and Evidence. 29 See Art. 14 (1) of the ICCPR.

18 measures to be granted to witnesses and closed sessions in accordance with ICTR's Rule Concerning the competence prong of the right, it is noteworthy that Rwanda's legal framework provides for a competent court system to try persons transferred from the ICTR. As noted earlier, only Rwanda's High Court (as a court of first instance), and the Supreme Court, shall have jurisdiction over accused persons transferred to Rwanda from the ICTR. All judges of the High Court and Supreme Court are trained lawyers, who hold, as a minimum, a university law degree. Moreover, as one of the prerequisites for appointment as judges, candidates must possess adequate legal 0 experience. The President, Vice President and all Judges of the Supreme Court must have eight years of legal experience, pursuant to Article 147 of the Constitution. Holders of doctoral degrees in law are required to have at least five years of legal experience as prerequisite for consideration as candidates for judges of the Supreme Court, pursuant to Article 147 of the Constitution. Similarly, candidates for the High Court are also required to possess legal experience. Under Article 148 of the Constitution as amended, candidates for the Presidency of the Supreme Court, like the rest of the membership of the Supreme Court, must also have proven managerial competency. This requirement bolsters judicial capacity and independence, given that it promotes the total and effective administrative and financial independence of the judiciary as required under Article 140 of the Constitution It is noteworthy that over the years to date, in addition to other serious crimes, the judges of Rwanda's High Court and Supreme Court, like judges in other ordinary courts, have had the occasion to adjudicate many genocide cases pursuant to Rwanda's legislation (identified earlier) that incorporates the crime in terms identical to those under the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide of 1948, and the Tribunal's Statute. This has augmented the competencies and skills of Rwanda's judges to adjudicate cases of international crimes, including those transferred from the ICTR. 30 Law No. 06 bisl2004 of 14 April 2004 on the Statutes for Judges and other Judicial Personnel, Art. 8 18

19 46. Rwanda has several programs focused on continued reinforcement of the competencies and skills of judges, prosecutors, registrars and lawyers in general. For instance, pursuant to Law No , of 28 April 2006, Establishing the Institute of Legal Practice and Development (annexed to this Application as Annexure "I"), Rwanda has established an institute in Nyanza District, to provide legal professional education to lawyers, as well personnel dealing with justice." academic, financial and administrative autonomy. 32 The institute enjoys 47. Rwanda's legal framework is also noteworthy in relation to the independence and impartiality of courts prong of the right to fair trial. Rwanda's supreme law, the Constitution (and which Rwanda's Organic law on Transfer of Cases specifically refers to in Article 13), enshrines the fundamental principle of the independence and impartiality of the judiciary, and reaffirms the concept of separation of powers. Under Article 140 of the Constitution, "the judiciary is independent and separate from the legislative and executive branches of government. It enjoys financial and administrative independence." These principles are reaffirmed by other legislation and other instruments. Pursuant to Article 64 of Organic Law No , of 25 April 2004 Determining the Organization, Functioning and Jurisdiction of Courts, "courts shall be independent and separate from other state institutions." Article 22 of Law No of 29 April 2004 Relating to the Code of Ethics for the Judiciary (annexed to this Application as Annexure "J"), reaffirms the same principle Although the meaning and the factors for determining and/or ensuring the independence and impartiality of judgeslcourts in international law have been the subjects of debate and deliberations by international human rights courts, it is now widely accepted that some factors are indispensable. For instance, under the European human rights system, the oldest regional human rights system in the world, the independence of a court or tribunal may be determined (and for that matter, be ensured) by, among other factors, the manner of appointment and duration of office and guarantees from outside 31 Article 3, Law No , of 28 April 2006, Establishing the Instilute of Legal Practice and Development. 32 id., Art. 1.

20 interferen~e.~' According to the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, which oversees States' compliance with the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights of 1981, once it is found that a court or tribunal is partial on face value, for instance due to its membership or composition (e.g. if it includes members of the executive or legislature), that partiality overrides any claimed good character or qualifications a member of such court or tribunal may possess It is worthy noting that Rwanda's legal framework enshrines several measures for ensuring the independence and impartiality of the courts, including the High Court and Supreme Court which have jurisdiction over cases referred to Rwanda from the Tribunal. O 50. With respect to appointment, discipline and removal of judges from office, Rwanda's legal framework promotes the independence and impartiality of the judiciary. As shown below, Rwanda's legal framework establishes the judiciary with its own separate and independent supervisory, disciplinary and managerial structures and mechanisms. As well, the judiciary possesses an additional oversight mechanism in the form of an Ombudsman. These, among other factors, bolster the independence and impartiality of the judiciary Overall, the judiciary itself, as opposed to the executive or the legislature, independently deals with the appointment, discipline and removal of judges. Judges of the High Court and Supreme Court are appointed, disciplined or removed from office only by the President of the Supreme Court, pursuant to a decision of the Supreme Council of the ~udiciar~.'~ The law creates this Council as an arm of the judiciary, and thus independent from the executive and legislative arms of government. The majority of the Council's membership comprises judges and lawyers, and as obtains in many national 33 See generally Francis Jacobs & Robin White, The European Convention on Human Rights (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2"ded. 1996), at p See e.g. the Commission's decision in the following cases/communications: No , Constitutional Rights Project v. Nigeria, para. 37; No. 87/93, Constitutional Rights Project (in respect of Lekwot & Others) v. Nigeria, para. 31 and No. 67/91, Civil Liberties Organization v. Nigeria (in respect of the Nigeria Bar Association), para See generally Organic Law No of 20 March 2004 Determining the Organization, Powers and Functioning of the Superior Council of the Judiciary; and Article 22 of Organic Law No of 25 April 2004 Determining the Organization, Functioning and Jurisdiction of Courts. As shown below, there is a different process prescribed for the President and Vice President of the Supreme Court. Overall, that process too, promotes judicial independence and impartiality.

21 systems, a minority of non-lawyers. The Council does not include any member of the executive or the legislature. Under Article 158 of the Constitution, the Superior Council of the Judiciary is composed as follows: The President of the Supreme Court, who is the chairperson; The Vice-president of the Supreme Court; A judge of the Supreme Court elected by his or her peers; The President of the High Court of the Republic; One judge from each of Provincial Court and the City of Kigali elected by his or her peers; One judge of a District, Municipality or Town Court elected by his or her peers from the territorial jurisdiction of each Provincial Court and the Kigali City Court; Two deans of the Faculties of law or recognized universities elected by their peers; The President of the National Commission of Human Rights; The Ombudsman. Also bolstering judicial independence, impartiality and competence is the transparent and open process through which candidates compete for the office of judges of the High Court and other ordinary lower courts. Posts for judges are publicly advertised, for instance through the press. Candidates sit exams administered by the Superior Council of the Judiciary. 53. The President of the Republic nominates candidates for the Presidency and Vice Presidency of the Supreme Court, as well as candidates for the rest of the membership of the Supreme Court, pursuant to Articles 147 and 148 of the Constitution respectively. The President submits list of candidates to Senate for interviews and election. It is noteworthy that in doing this, the President must first consult with Cabinet and the Superior Council of the Judiciary, pursuant to Article 147 and 148 of the Constitution. The President and Vice President of the Supreme Court are elected by Senate for a single term of eight years by simple majority vote of members from two candidates in respect of each post proposed by the President of the Republic after undertaking the consultations

22 just mentioned. Candidates for the rest of the membership of the Supreme Court are elected by an absolute majority vote of the members of the Senate pursuant to Article 148 of the Constitution. 54. Judges of the High Court and Supreme ~burt may be removed from office only for good cause, and with the exception of the President and Vice President of the Supreme Court, the process is entirely in the hands of the judiciary itself. Under Article 142 of Rwanda's Constitution (which applies to all judges, including the President and Vice President of the Supreme ~ourt),)~ judges confirmed in office shall hold tenure for life; they shall not be suspended, transferred, even if it is for the purpose of promotion; retired prematurely or otherwise removed from office. The Law on the Superior Council of the ~udiciar~~' empowers the Council to remove judges from office only on the basis of incompetence, incapacity or serious professional misconduct. The process of removal is meticulous and fosters fairness and judicial independence. The process guards against abuse, including by ensuring that the allegations against the judge are carefully explored and the judge is afforded right to be heard at two levels: at the level of the committee of the Superior Council of the Judiciary, and the plenary of the Council. The Superior Council of the Judiciary has a disciplinary committee which investigates complaints and in practice affords the judge being investigated the right to be heard.38 The committee submits its recommendations to the full Superior Council of the Judiciary, before which the judge in question is afforded a second opportunity to be heard.39 The judge, if he or she wishes, may be represented by an advocate, and he or she, or his or her advocate have the right to access the case file before the proceedings.40 Witnesses may be called, and the judge or his or her advocate has the right to present his defence on all accusations against him or her.41 The decision to remove a judge from office shall be taken on the basis of absolute majority votes of two-thirds of the members 36 With respect to the process of removal of these two judges, see below. 37 Organic Law No of 20 March 2004 Determining the Organization, Powers and Functioning of the Superior Council of the Judiciary. This law in annexed to this application as Annexure "K." As shown below, there is a different process prescribed for the President and Vice President of the Supreme Court. Overall, that process too, promotes judicial independence and competence. " Article 22 of Organic Law No of 20 March 2004 Determining the Organization, Powers and Functioning of the Superior Council of the Judiciary. 39 Id., Article 23. Id., Article 24. 4' Id., Article

23 of the Council present at the hearing.42 The Council must provide a reasoned decision>3 which must be communicated to the judge in question The President and Vice-president of the Supreme Court may only be removed by Parliament and then only for good cause. Under Article 147 of the Constitution, the President and Vice-president of the Supreme Court may only be removed upon a petition of three-fifths of either the Chamber of Deputies or the Senate, and a two-thirds vote of each Chamber of Parliament. Moreover, their removal must only be for a good cause, namely, undignified behaviour, incompetence, incapacity or serious professional misconduct, pursuant to Article 147 of the Constitution. 56. In addition to the supervisory, administrative and other oversight functions exercised by the President of the Supreme Court and the Superior Council of the Judiciary, critical to the independence and impartiality of Rwanda's courts, including the High Court and Supreme Court is the fact that the judiciary possesses its own additional oversight mechanism in the form of an Ombudsman or Inspectorate. This body is appointed by the Superior Council of the Judiciary, which as shown above, is an independent arm of the judiciary. The membership of the Ombudsman is drawn from judges themselves, and is composed of judges who must have at least four years' experience as judges. Candidates are interviewed and appointed by the Superior Council of the Judiciary. Among other functions, the Ombudsman oversees that cases are properly received and that judgements are written in a timely manner. Moreover, the Ombudsman receives complaints from the public on the conduct of judges, and makes recommendations to the President of the Supreme Court who then decides whether to refer the matter to the Superior Council of the Judiciary for further investigation and disciplinary and other action in the manner discussed above. 57. Rwanda's legal framework includes a judicial code of ethics that bolsters an accountable, impartial, transparent and corruption-free judiciary. The code requires 42 Id., Article Id., Article 26. Id., Article 28.

24 judges to regularly submit financial statements to the office of the ~mbudsman.~~ Under Article 7 of the code, Judges must refrain from acts of corruption, and pursuant to Article 17 of the same code, they are required to declare their assets and liabilities to the Ombudsman. Judges are required to adjudicate cases before them without undue delay; they must maintain order and decorum in all matter before court, and must devote their professional capacity in the interest of their work as judges Finally, the independence of the judiciary in Rwanda is also assured by its overall financial independence. Like various judiciaries in other national jurisdictions, Rwanda's 0 judiciary cannot raise its own monies, but depends on the national budget. It is noteworthy, however, that Rwanda's judiciary, and not the executive or legislature, manages the budget allocated to it by the government. Moreover, salaries of judges (and therefore the quantum of the judiciary's budget) are determined by the legislature on the recommendations of the judiciary. The Office of the Public Prosecutor 59. Related to and re-enforcing the independence and impartiality of the judiciary, is the existence of a competent and independent ODce of the Public Prosecutor. Like the courts, the law guarantees financial and administrative autonomy of the Office of the Public rose cut or!^ Under Rwanda's Constitution, as amended, the Prosecutor General c and Deputy Prosecutor General shall be holders of at least a Bachelors of laws degree and have a working experience of eight years in the legal profession and proven managerial skills!' (ii) The rights to have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of one's defence; to defend oneself, or to counsel of one's choice, or if indigent, to legal representation. 60. Rwanda's legal framework provides for the protection and realization of the right to equality of arms. In addition to other aspects of this discussed below, pursuant to This Code was promulgated pursuant to Law No of 29 April 2004 Relating to the Code of Ethics for the Judiciary. 46 Code Relating to the Code ofethics for the Judiciary, id, Article 9. " See Rwanda's Constitution, Art See also Organic Law No Determining Organization, Powers and Functioning of the Prosecution Service (as amended), for instance, Article 2. This Organic Law is annexed to this application as Anuexure "L." Rwanda's Constitution, Art

25 Article 13 (4) Rwanda's Organic law on the Transfer of Cases, the accused is entitled to adequate time and facilities to prepare his defence. Moreover, under Article 13(6), the accused is entitled "to counsel of his choice in any examination. In case he or she had not means to pay, he or she shall be entitled to a legal representation." In addition to the above, Rwanda's Constitution (Article 18), guarantees that "the right to be informed of the nature and cause of charges and the right to defence are absolute at all levels and degrees of proceedings administrative, judicial and all other decision making organs." Article 14(3) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (an instrument which Article 13 of Rwanda's Organic law on the Transfer of Cases expressly refers to), as well as other international instruments ratified by Rwanda, such as the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (Art. 7(c)) enshrine similar guarantees. 62. It is widely accepted under international human rights jurisprudence that the "adequate time" prong of the right is logically linked with the right that that the accused be informed promptly about the charges.49 Among other legislation and instruments ratified and binding on Rwanda, under Article 13 (3) of Rwanda's Organic l m on the Transfer of Cases, Rwanda's legal framework enshrines the latter right. It provides that "the accused shall be informed promptly and in detail in a language which he or she understands, of the nature of the cause of the charge against him." Similarly, as noted above, Article 18 of Rwanda's Constitution provides for the same guarantee. 63. Rwanda's legal framework enshrines programmes in relation to legal aid. While existing Rule 11 bis Appeals Chamber jurisprudence holds that, once a Trial Chamber is satisfied that a referral State would supply defence counsel to the accused, "it is not 9.50 obligated in its opinion to itemize the provisions of [a referral State's] budget, it. is noteworthy that Rwanda has put in place programmes in relation to legal aid, including an item in the national budget on legal aid. 49 See generally Andrew Grotrian, Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights: The Right to a Fair Trial, (Council of Europe Publishing, 1994), p. 50. See e.g. Prosecutor v. Stankovic, para

26 64. Moreover, Rwanda possesses an adequate and competent Bar. At the moment, the membership of Rwanda's Bar is over 200, and continues to expand. Under the law governing the bar, members of the Bar are under an obligation to provide legal aid, or pro bono se~ices.~' It is also important to note that the law governing Rwanda's Bar flexibly allows foreign lawyers to represent accused in Rwanda, and in practice, some foreign lawyers have provided such representation 65. Rwanda's legal framework includes measures for the facilitation of the Defence, like the Prosecution, in the preparation of its case. Under Article 14 of Rwanda's Organic law on The transfer of Cases, In the trial of cases transferred from the ICTR, the Prosecutor General of the Republic shall facilitate the witnesses in giving testimony including those living abroad, by the provision of appropriate immigration documents, personal security as well as providing them medical and psychological assistance. All witnesses who travel from abroad to Rwanda to testify in the trial of cases transferred from the ICTR shall have immunity from search, seizure, arrest or detention during their testimony and during their travel to and from their trials. The High Court of the Republic may establish reasonable conditions on a witness's right to safety in the country. As such, there shall be determination of limitations of movements in the country duration of stay and travel Rwanda's legal framework specifically provides for measures to facilitate Defence counsel, and in line with international human rights jurisprudence, 52 the framework proscribes any interference with the counsel in the performance of their responsibilities. Under Article 15 of Rwanda's Organic law on the Transfer of Cases, Notwithstanding the provisions of other laws of Rwanda, defence counsel shall have the right to enter into Rwanda and move freely within Rwanda to perform their duties. They shall not be subject to search, seizure, arrest or detention in the performance of their legal duties. 67. As established in international human rights jurisprudence, another aspect of the right of the accused to have adequate facilities to defend oneself, concerns access to the '' See Article 56 Loi No du 19/3/1997 Portant Cr2afion du Barreau au Rwanda. 52 See e.g. decisions of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Right in the following communications: No. 87/93, Consfifufional Righfs Project (in respect of Lekwof and Six Others) v. Nigeria; and No Consfitufional Righfs Project v. Nigeria, para. 33 (holding that the harassment and intimidation of counsel forcing them to withdraw from the case is a violation of the right to defence guaranteed in Article 7(l)(c) of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights). See generally George Mugwanya, Human Rights in Africa: Enhancing Human Rights Through the African Regional Human Rights System, supra, at p

27 prosecutionfile.53 Indeed the Rules and jurisprudence of the ICTR (including R. 66,68), in relation to disclosures, fulfils the requirements set by international human rights law just mentioned. Rwanda's legal framework, including Article 64 of Rwanda's Code of Criminal Procedure, respects this principle. Under Article 64, counsel for the defence is entitled to read the prosecutor's file and to communicate to the accused. (iii) Other Rights of the accused As shown above, Rwanda's framework also guarantees fair trial and due process rights recognized in international human rights law, including the right to presumption of innocence; the right to be tried without undue delay; the right to be tried in one's presence; the right to examine or have examined the witnesses against him or her, and to obtain attendance and examination of witnesses on his or her behalf; and the right not to be compelled to testify against himself or herself. 69. Also relevant to the above guarantees, is the principle that the Prosecution bears the burden of prooj: Rwanda's legal framework recognizes this. In addition to the legislation and instruments mentioned earlier, Rwanda's Code of Criminal Procedure provides that "an accused is presumed innocent until proved guilty. Prior to proof of offence, the accused shall not present his or her defence."54 Once a prima facie case is established by the Prosecution, the accused is entitled to provide his defence.55 Under Rwanda's Organic law on the transfer of cases, "the High Court shall not convict a person solely on written statements of witnesses who did not give oral evidence during the In reaching a verdict, a court is entitled to consider the totality of the evidence "provided that the parties were entitled to discuss such evidence."" 70. The same legal framework guarantees the right of the accused to examine or have examined witnesses. The fact that the witnesses may be questioned by the Judge, " See e.g. Jespers v. Belgium, Application N (European Commission of Human Rights). 54 Rwanda's Law No. 13/2004 of 17 May 2004 Relating to the Code of Criminal Procedure, Art. 44 " Id. 56 Article 7. '' Rwanda's Law No of 17 May 2004 Relating to the Code of Criminal Procedure, Art. 45. See also Article

28 does not mean that this right is violated. As explained by the European Court of Human Rights, the right of the accused to examine or have examined witnesses generally involves an adversarial hearing of witnesses and means in principle that all evidence relied on by the prosecution should be produced in the presence of the accused at a public hearing with a view to adversarial argument." Rwanda's legal framework mentioned above, as well as Article 144 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, meets these requirements. Article 114 lays down the trial procedure under Rwanda's Court. Following the case for the prosecution and the defence, "witnesses for the prosecution and defence are examined, anything against them is pointed out and the court admits or rejects them."59 (iv) Rwanda's Ratifiation ofglobal and regional human rights treaties 71. The ratification by Rwanda of various global and regional human rights treaties that enshrine, among other rights, the right to fair trial and due process, enrich the country's legal framework. Rwanda is a party to the following international and regional human rights instruments that also provide for the right to fair trial and due process: (i) the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Art. 14), ratified by Rwanda on 16 April 1975, pursuant to Rwanda's Decree No. 08/75, of 12 February This treaty is specifically referred to by Article 13 of Rwanda's Organic law on the Transfer of Cases; (ii) the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (Art. 7) which Rwanda ratified on 15 July The Charter establishes an independent Commission composed of eleven members mandated to investigate allegations of human rights violations by states parties.60 As noted earlier, the Commission has adopted a Resolution on the Right to Recourse to Procedure and Fair Trial, and developed jurisprudence through the adjudication of individual cases against states alleging violation of Article 7:' all of which are binding on Rwanda in addition to the provisions of the Charter. Barbera, Messegue and Jarbado Judgement of 6 December 1988, Series A No. 146, p. 33, para. 78. See also Andrew Grotrian, Article 6 ofthe European Convention on Human Rights: The Right to a Fair Trial, supra, p Rwanda's Law No of 17 May 2004 Relating to the Code of Criminal Procedure, Art. 144(6). 60 See Article 45,47,55, and 62 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights. The Commission adopted the Resolution at its 11" Session. As noted earlier, under this Resolution, the Commission has explained that the right to fair trial in Article 7 of the AFCHPR, includes the right to be informed promptly at the time of arrest in a language one understands of the reasons for the arrest and of any charges; the right to be brought before a judicial ofticer promptly after arrest or detention and the right to be brought to trial within a reasonable time, or be released; the right to have adequate time and facilities

29 (iii) the International Convention on the Rights of the Child (Art. 40), which Rwanda ratified on 24 January 1991 ; (iv) the Geneva Conventions of 1949 (whose Article 3 Common enshrine fair trial and due process guarantees) and Protocol I and I1 of Rwanda ratified the Geneva Conventions on 5 May 1964 and the Additional Protocols on 19 November In line with established principles of international, including the principle ofpacta sunt servanda enshrined in Article 26 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties of 1969, by ratifying the above human rights treaties, Rwanda is bound to give effect to their provisions, including those that enshrine fair trial and due process guarantees It is noteworthy that under Rwanda's legal framework, treaties and obligations under those instruments are accorded a high status. Pursuant to Article 190 of Rwanda's Constitution, treaties "are more binding than organic and ordinary domestic laws." 74. It is also important to note that besides incorporating the provisions of various human rights treaties into the Constitution, the Organic law on the Transfer of Cases, and other legislation, Rwanda takes actions to observe obligations imposed by those treaties and accepted international scrutiny established under those treaties. For instance, Rwanda has filed for examination and scrutiny biennial reports before the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, on the legislative and other measures it has adopted in order to give effect to the provisions of the Charter, as required under Article 0 62 of the Charter. In addition, Rwanda has accepted scrutiny under a new optional programme established under the African Union, the New Partnership for Africa's Development review (NEPAD). Among the objectives of the NEPAD programme is the promotion of sustainable development, good governance and human rights.62 NEPAD establishes an African Peer Review Mechanism, as an oversight mechanism states freely choose to be subjected to. The mechanism provides for the appointment of a Panel of for the preparation of that defence; the right to communicate in confidence with counsel of one's choice; the right to free assistance of an interpreter at trial and the right to free legal aid for the indigent. The Commission has also adjudicated individual cases or complaints against states alleging violations of Article 7. For the Commission's Resolution and jurisprudence in relation to Article 7 of the AFCHPR, see generally George William Mugwanya, Human Righfs in Africa: Enhancing Human Rights Through the A rcan Regional Human Righfs System, supra, at pp , and 308. *&e New Partnership for Africa's Development, Declaration on Democracy, Political, Economic and Corporate Governance, AHG/235(XXXVIII), Annex I, sects. 10 and

30 Eminent Persons to conduct peer review performance of member states in respect of democracy, political governance and human rights i~sues.~' Rwanda has accepted to be part of this mechanism and was accordingly subjected to review in Rwanda's above compliance actions under treaties and programmes mentioned above, not only enables Rwanda to draw from the expertise of the members of those bodies in an effort to progressively enhance her compliance with human rights obligations, including those in relation to fair trials and due process, it is also a demonstration of transparency and a willingness to accept international scrutiny in the field of governance and human rights. While not expressly required under Rule 11 bis, Rwanda's actions constitute a further manifestation of a willingness and readiness not only to accept monitors pursuant to Rule 11 bis, but also of enhancing the success and effectiveness of the monitor's work of overseeing the fairness of the trials. As shown below, it is established jurisprudence of the Appeals Chamber that the fact that monitoring of trials would occur is a reasonable variable that a Chamber may include in a Rule 11 bis equation.64 A State's practices of transparency and willingness to accept international scrutiny as those exhibited by Rwanda should constitute further reassurance to the Trial Chamber that Rwanda would comply with its obligation to afford fair trial guarantees to the Accused, in compliance with Rule bis requirements. (v) Monitoring 76. In further pursuit of ensuring that the Accused shall received a fair trial in Rwanda, the Prosecutor has entered an agreement with the African Commission on Human and Peoples' ~i~hts,~~ to monitor proceedings of the Accused in Rwanda's courts, pursuant to Rule 11 bis (D) (iv) of the Tribunal's Rules of Procedure and Evidence. A letter of acceptance from the Commission is attached. As noted earlier, the Commission, composed of eleven members, is an independent organ established under the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights to promote and ensure protection of human and peoples' rights. Under Article 31(1) of the Charter, members must possess 63 See The New Partnership for Africa's Development, African Peer Review Mechanism, AHGl235 &XXXVIII), Annex 2. See e.g. Prosecutor v. Stankovic, para This agreement is annexed to this application as Annexure "M." 30

31 p~~ certain qualifications, including high morality, integrity, impartiality and competencies in matters of human rights. The African Commission has a wide experience in the monitoring of court proceedings and in the protection of judicial independence, fair trial and human rights in general. In relation to these, the Commission has adjudicated cases, and adopted important resolutions, such as the Resolution on the Right to Recourse to Procedure and Fair Trial, which elucidates the fair trial and due process guarantees enshrined in Article 7 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights. It also has adopted important resolutions on Judicial Independence, and the Role of the State, the Judiciary and the Bar in Integrating and Incorporating the African Charter on Human and c2 Peoples' Rights and International Human ~ i~hts.~~ 77. Rwanda possesses a legal framework for the acceptance and operation of monitors that may be appointed by the Prosecutor. The framework allows monitors to observe not only proceedings in court, but also access documents and places of detention. Pursuant to Article 19 of Rwanda' Organic law on the Transfer of Cases, The Prosecutor shall have the right to designate individuals to observe the progress of cases transferred to Rwanda in accordance with Article (sic) 11 bis D) iv) of the ICTR Rules of Procedure and Evidence. Observers appointed by the ICTR Prosecutor shall have access to court proceedings, documents and records relating to the case as well as access to all places of detention. 78. Moreover, Rwanda's legal framework specifically provides for the protection of 0 persons who may be appointed by the Prosecutor as monitors of cases referred to Rwanda from the Tribunal to enable them fully discharge their responsibilities without interference. Such protection is identical to that accorded the staff of the Tribunal under Article 29 of the Tribunal's Statute pursuant to the Vienna Convention of 13 February, 1946, on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations. According to Article 19 of Rwanda's Organic law on the Transfer of Cases, 66 These include: Resolution on the respect for and the strengthening of the independence of the judiciary, (AHGl207 (XXXII), Annex VII; Resolution on the Establishment of Committees on Human Rights or other Similar Organ at National, Regional or Sub-regional Level (Annex VllI to the 2nd Activity Report of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, adopted on June 14, 1989); Resolution on Some Modalities for Promoting Human and Peoples' Rights (Annex IX, 2nd Activity Report of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights). See generally George William Mugwanya, Human Rights in Afrca: Enhancing Human Rights Through the African Regional Human Rights System, supra, at pp Article

32 The Vienna Convention of 13 February, 1946, on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations shall apply to the observers so appointed by the ICTR Prosecutor in accordance with Article 29 of the ICTR Statute. C Furthermore, in addition to providing that any person transferred to Rwanda from the ICTR "shall be detained in accordance with the minimum standards of detention in the United Nations Body of Principles for the Protection of all persons under any Form of Detention or Imprisonment, adopted by the General Assembly resolution of 9 December 1998 (this guarantee relates both to detention upon transfer and after conviction), Rwanda's legal framework enshrines a right by the International Committee of the Red Cross, or an observer appointed by the ICTR, "to inspect the conditions of detention of persons transferred to Rwanda by the ICTR and held in detenti~n.'"~ The International Committee of the Red Cross, or an observer appointed by the ICTR, are entitled "to submit a confidential report based on the findings of these inspections to the Minister in charge of Justice of Rwanda and to the President of the ICTR."~' In the event an accused dies or escapes from detention, the law provides Rwanda will immediately notify the President of the ICTR; it will also immediately conduct an investigation and submit a report to the President of the ICTR.~~ 80. While not expressly required under Rule 11 bis, Rwanda's acceptance of monitors to oversee its judicial proceedings, (as well as the International Committee of the Red Cross to visit conditions of detention), besides its undertakings in relation to the welfare and safety of detainees (see above), are important in relation to determination of a Rule 11 bis application. As noted earlier, it is established jurisprudence of the Appeals Chamber that the fact that monitoring of trials would occur is a reasonable variable that a Chamber may include in a Rule 11 bis equation.70 Rwanda's practices of transparency and willingness to accept, not only monitors, but international scrutiny in general, constitutes further reassurance to the Trial Chamber that Rwanda would comply with its obligation to afford fair trial guarantees to the Accused, in compliance with Rule 11 bis requirements. 67 Rwanda's Organic Law on the Transfer of Cases, Art. 23 Id. " Id. 10 See e.g. Prosecutor v. Stankovic, para

33 (vi) Recognition of the ICTR 'spowers to Revoke Transfer and Obligation to Comply 81. Rwanda' Organic luw on the Transfer of Cases also recognizes that the Tribunal's Rule 1 l bis empowers the Tribunal to revoke a referral order for certain reasons, and the obligation for Rwanda to comply with such revocation. Rwanda's law provides that if such revocation occurs, "the accused shall be promptly surrendered to the ICTR together with any files, documents, exhibits and all other additional materials as stipulated in the order."71 Summary Submission 82. Accordingly, the Prosecutor submits that Rwanda has jurisdiction over the offences with which the accused has been indicted; that Rwanda bas accepted to prosecute the accused before its courts; that Rwandan law criminalizes in the same terms as the ICTR Statute the offences which fall within the jurisdiction of the ICTR, that Rwandan law provides adequate guarantees for the fair trial of the Accused in Rwanda; that the accused will not, in the event of conviction, suffer the death penalty; that adequate arrangements have been made for the monitoring of the trial of the accused in Rwanda by the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights. The Prosecutor hrther submits that by reason of the foregoing, the Trial Chamber should grant referral of the Amended Indictment against the Accused to the authorities of the Republic of Rwanda for the assignment of the appropriate court in Rwanda for the trial of the 0 Accused. (C) RELIEF SOUGHT 83. For the foregoing reasons, the Prosecutor requests that: (a) the President of the Tribunal designates a Trial Chamber, pursuant to Rule 11 bis to determine whether the Accused's case may be referred to the authorities of the Republic of Rwanda for the prosecution of the Accused by the appropriate court within Rwanda (namely, the High Court of Rwanda); (b) the Trial Chamber so designated, to grant referral of the case of the Accused to the authorities of the Republic of Rwanda, so that those authorities 71 Rwanda's Organic lmv on the Transfer of Cases, Art

34 may forthwith assign the case to the appropriate court in Rwanda for the trial of the Accused; (c) the designated Trial Chamber, to also grant the Prosecutor the opportunity to be make oral submissions before the Chamber, if the Chamber deems it appropriate in reaching a decision; (d) the Trial Chamber so designated, to provide an opportunity to the authorities of the Republic of Rwanda to make written submissions on this Request, and if the designated Trial Chamber deems it appropriate in reaching a decision, to also allow the Republic of Rwanda to make oral submissions before the Chamber. (e) the Trial Chamber so designated, upon referral of this case, to order that any protective measures for victims and witnesses granted by any Chamber of the Tribunal to remain in force until comparable protection can be provided in Rwanda's proceedings against the Accused. Dated and signed this 27 day of November 2007, Arusha, Tanzania. Hassan Bubacar Jallow Prosecutor.

35 ANNEXURES 1. Annexure A: Letter from Rwanda, dated 16 November Annexure B: Rwanda's Organic Law No of 16 March 2007, Concerning Transfer of Cases to the Republic of Rwanda from the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and From Other States. ' Annexure C: Rwanda's Organic Law of 30 August 1996 On the Organization of the Prosecution of Offences Constituting the Crime of Genocide or Crimes Against Humanity Committed Since 1 October Annexure D: Rwanda's Penal Code. Annexure E: Rwanda's Organic Law No of 25 July 2007 Relating to the Abolition of the Death Penalty. 5. Annexure F: Provisions of Rwanda's Constitution relevant to this Application. 6. Annexure G: Rwanda's Code of Criminal Procedure, as amended. 7. Annexure H: Resolution of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Right to Recourse to Procedure and Fair Trial. 8. Annexure I: Rwanda's Law No , of 28 April 2006, Establishing the Institute of Legal Practice and Development. C 9. Annexure J: Rwanda's Law No of 29 April 2004 Relating to the Code of Ethics for the Judiciary. 10. Annexure K: Rwanda's Organic Law No of 20 March 2004 Determining the Organization, Powers and Functioning of the Superior Council of the Judiciary. 11. Annexure L: Rwanda's Organic Law No Determining Organization, Powers and Functioning of the Prosecution Service (as amended by Organic Law No. 15 of 2006). 12. Annexure M: Agreement between the Prosecutor of the ICTR and the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights (in relation to the monitoring of proceedings in Rwanda).

36 REPUBLIQUE DU RWANDA REPUBLIC OF RWANDA PARQUET GENERAL DE LA REPUBLIQUE OFFICE OF THE PROSECUTOR GENERAL OF THE REPUBLIC B.P KIGALI v' Justice Hassan B. JALLOW Prosecutor 0 UNICTR Arusha I Tanzania Dear Sir, The Prosecutor vs. Jean Ba~tiste GATETE I case N0.ICTR ) I have the honour to confirm, in response to your letter reference OTP/2007/P/GM/266 of 15/11/2007 that the Government of Rwanda is willing to accept the above case upon referral from the ICTR for prosecution before the court of Rwanda. I wish to assure you that the accused person will be afforded a fair trial and if convicted, will not be subjected to the death penalty. Rwanda will also comply with any requirements contained in any referral order which may be issued by the judges of the ICTR. Please accept my compliments and assurances of my highest consideration. \ - Hon. Attorney ~eneral I Minister of ~ustice KIGALI

37 TEGEKO NGENGA No RYO WWA 16/03/2007 RIGENA CWIMURIRA MUM REPUBULIICA I'U RWANDA IMANZA ZIVUYE MU CUKIKO MPANABYAHA tfpuzamahanga CWASHYIRIWEHO U RWANDA VIZIVUYE MU BIND1 BIHUGU. IRGANIC LAW No OF 6/03/2007 CONCERNING TRANSFER )P CASES TO TIIE REPUBLIC OF <WANDA FROM THE NTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR RWANDA AND irom OTHER STATES.,OI ORGANIQUE No DU 6/03/2007 RlCLATIVE AU RENVOI v~1jfnlnes A LA RI~L~UULIQUE DU :WANDA PAR LE.TRIBUNAL 'BNAL INTERNATIONAL POUR LE :WANDA S PAL< D'AUTRES TATS. TABLE OF CONTENTS UMUTWE WA MBERE: INGINGO RUSANGE ZHAPTER ONE: GENERAL ~novts~o~s :HAPITRE PIIEMLER : DES )ISPOSITIONS GENERALES [ngingo ya 1: Ibirebwa n'iri ngengn. tegeka 4rticle 1: Scope of application lngingo ya 2 : Urukiko rufite ububashr bwo kuburanisba izt nlnnza Article 2: Court with competent jnrisdiction to try the cases [ngingo yn 3: Ibyalln bishoborr gukurikiranwa n11 nkiko zo mu ~wandn Ingingo ya 4: Inyandiko y'ibirego.., Article 4: Indictment Article 4 : Aclcs d'nccusation hiingo ya 5: ' lfntwa n'ifungw: ry'uregwa Article 5: Arrest and detention of tl~c accused person Article 5 : Arrestation ct dbtcntion (18 I'nccusi.

38

39 -- Ingingo yn 14 : Un~ntclu~no 2rticlc 14: Protection nnd nssistancc to w'nbntnngnb~~hnn~yn ivitnesses n'inkongn il,ngcnc~.ivn 4rticle 15: Defence Counsel krticle 14 : Protection ct assistance nux tkmoins 4rticle 15 : Des Conseils de la Defense UR/IUTWE WA IV: UBUJURIRE NO GUSUBIRAMO URUBANZA Ingingo yn 16 : Imnnzn z'nln~jnrirc URlUTWE WA V: IMIKORANIRE I-IAGATI YA LETA Y'U RWANDA NA TPIR NYUMA YO KWIMURA IMANZA CHAPTER T\I: APPEALS AND CASE REVIEW Article 16: Appeals Article 17: Case Review CHAPTER. V: COLLABORATION BETWEEN ~- - THE GOVERNMENT ~- OF RWANDA ANQ THE ICTR SUBSEQUENT TO TRANSFER OF CASES CHAPITRE N : DE L'APPEL ET DE LA REVISION Article 16 : Appel Article 17 : Revision CHAPITRE V : RELATIONS ENTRE LE GOWERNEMENT DU RWANDA ET LE TPIR APRES LE TRANSFERT D'AFFAIRES Ingingo yn 18 : Inkungn ya 'I'PIR n111 rwcgo rwn tcltinilti t i c 18: Tccl~nicnl nssistnncc from the ICTR Article 18 : De I'assistnnce technique du TPIR UMUTWE WA Vl: lblhano lngingo yn 21 : lgihnno gisnml)~ ibindi Ingingo yn 22 : GuI~nrn nlu gilmw igihe nmuntn nl~nmwt n'icynl~n nmnzc nfunzc by'agntcgnnyo Articlel9: Moditoring af proceedings Article 20: Dcfcrrnl CHAPTER VI: PCNALTIES Article 21: Henviest penalty Article 22: Credit for time spent ir custody Article 19 : Suivi des instnnces Article 20: Dessnisissement CHAPITRE V1: DES PEINES Article 21 : Peine maximnle Article 22 : Deduction de In pkriode 'dl detention provisoire

40 Ingingo ya 23: Ifungwn UMUTWE WA VII: INGINGO ZISOZA lngingo ya 24 : Ikorcshwn ry'iri tcgcko ngcngn mu bindi bibnzo bpcrclccyc iyimrrrwn ry'imanzn hngnti y'u Rwanda n'il~indi bihugu. Ingiago yn 25 : Iyubnhirizwn ry'iri tcgcko ngcngn Article 23: Dctention CHAPTER VII: FINAL PROVISIONS Articlc 24: Applicability of this law to other matters of transfer between Rwanda and other states Article 25 : Applichtion of this Organic Law Article 23 : Conditions de detention CHAPITRE VII : DES DISPOSITIONS FINALES Article 24 : ApplicnbilitC de la presente loi H d'autres questions relatives au renvoi d'affaires entre le Rwanda et d'autres tats Article 25: Application de la presente Ioi Ingingo yn 26 lgil~c iri tcgcko ngcriga ritnngira gukurilcizrva. Article 26: Coming into force of this Orgnnic Law Article 26 : EntrCe en vigueur de la prcscnte loi organique.

41 0 ITEGEKO NGENGA No RYO IWWA 16/03/2007 RIGENA KWIMURIRA MURI REPUBULIKA Y'U RWANDA IMANZA ZIVUYE MU RUI<II<O MPANAOYAHA MPUZAMAIIANGA RWhSI-IYIRI\VEIIO U RWANDA N'IZIVUYE MU OlNDl OIIIUGU ORGANIC LAW No OF 16/03/2007 CONCERNING TRANSFER OF CASES TO THE REPUBLIC OF RWANDA FROM THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR RWANDA AND FROM OTHER STATES LO1 ORG ANIOUE No DU 16/03/2007 RELATIVE AU 'RENVOI D'AFFAIRES: A LA REPUBLIQUE DU RWANDA PAR LE TRIBUNAL PENAL INTERNATIONAL POUR CE RWANDA ET PAR D'AUTRES ETATS Tivebiizc, KAGAME Pnul, Perezida wa Repubulika; We, KAGAME Paul, President of the Republic; Nous, KAGAME Paul, Prdsident de la Rtpublique ; INTEKO ISHINGA AMATEGEKO YEMEJE, NONE NAT\VE DUMAMI.TE, DUTANCAJE ITEGEKO NGENG A RITEYE RlTYA UANDl DlJTEGETSE KO RYANDII<\VA MU IGAZETI YA LETA YA REPUOULIKA Y'U RWANDA. THE PARLIAMENT HAS ADOPTED AND WE SANCTION, PROMULGATE THE FOLLOWING ORGANIC LAW AND ORDER IT BE PUBLISHED IN THE OFFICIAL GAZETTE OF THE REPUBLIC OF RWANDA. LE PARLEMENT A ADOPTE ET NOUS SANCTIONNONS, PROMULGUONS LA LO1 ORGANIQUE DONT LA TENEUR SUIT ET ORDONNONS QU'ELLE SOIT PUBLIEE AU JOURNAL OFFICIEL DE LA REPUBLIQUE DU RWANDA. INTEKO ISHINCA AMATEGEKO: TI-IE PARLIAMENT: LE PARLEMENT : Umutwe w9abadepite mu nama yawo yo kuwa 26 Gashyantare 2007; The Chamber of Deputies, in its session of February 26,2007; La Chambre des Deputts, en sa seance du 26 fdvrier 2007; Uniutwe wa Sena, mu nama yawo yo kuwa 1.7 Gashynntare 2007; The Senate, in its session of February 13, 200f; Le Shat, en sa sgance du 13 fevrier 2007 ; i i Ishingiyc ku ltcgcko Nshinga ryn Ilcpubulika y'u Rwanda ryo kuwa 04 Kamena 2003, nk'uko ryavuguruwe kugeza ubu, cyane cyane mu ngingo zaryo, iya 62, iya 66, iya 67, iya 88, iya 89, iya 90, iya 92, iya 93, iya 94, iya 95, iya 108, iya 118, iya 143, iya 145, iya 149, iya 160, iya 162. iya 190 n'iya20l; Given the Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda of June 4, 2003 as amended to date, especially in its articles 62, 66, 67, 88, 89, 90, , 94, 95, 108, 118, 143, 145, 149, 160, 162, 190 and 201: Vu la Constitution de la RBpublique du Rwanda du 4 juin 2003 telle que rtvisee B ce jour, specialement en ses articles 62, 66, 67, 88, 89, 90, 92, 93, 94, 95, 108,118, 143,145, 149,160, 162,190 et201; I!

42 Ishingiyc ku Mnsczcrano y'urnllrynngo w'abibunibye yo kuwa 9 Ukuboza 1948 yerekeye gukumira no guhana icyaha cya jenoside yemejwe n'ltegeko- kka 11" ryo kuwa I2 Gashyantare 1975; Ishingiye ku Itegeko Ngenga no ryo kuwa 25/04/2004 rigena imiterere, imikorere n'ububasha by'lnkiko, nk'uko ryahinduwe kandi ryujujwe kugeza ubu; Ishingiye I ~ I I ltegeko Ngenga 11' iyo kuwa 20/03/2004 rigena imilcrcrc. imiliorerc n'ububasha bw'ubuslii~ijacyalia. nli'uko ryahinduwe kandi ryujujwe kugcza ubu; haze kubona Amategeko agenga Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga rwashyiriweho u Rwanda, rwitwa "TPIR mu ngingo zikurikira, n'amntegeko yarwo agenga imiburanishirize n'itangwa ~y'ibirnenyetso; haze kubona Ibyemezo by'lnama lshinzwe Amahoro ku isi, icy'i 1503 cyo mu 2003 n'icy'i 1504 cyo mu 2004 byerekeye kurangiza imirimo ya TPIR, cyane cyane ibyangombwa bisabwa kugira ngo imanza zimwe zo!nu Rukiko Mpanabynha Mpuzamahanga rwashyiriweho 11 Rwanda zimurirwe mu nkiko z'ibihugu birimo n'u Rwanda; Givcn United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the crime of Genocide of 9 December 1948 ratified by the Decree law no 08/75 qf I2 February 1975; Givcn Organic Law no of 25/04/2004 determining the organization, functioning and jurisdiction of courts as modified and complemented to date; Given Organic Law no of 20/03/2004 determining the organization, fmctioning and powers, OF the prosecution setvice as modified and complemented to date; Considering Statute of the International Cribinal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and its Rules of Procedure and Evidence; Considering United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1503 of 2003 and 1504 of 2004 relating to completion of the mandate of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, and particularly the requirements to transfer cases from the ICTR to national jurisdictions, including Rwanda; Vu la Convention des Nations Unies pour la pr6ven'tion et la repression du crime de g61iocide du 9 d6cembre 1948 ratifiie par le dkcret-loi n' 08/75 du 12 fevrier 1975; I Vu la Loi organique no du 25/04/2004 portant Code d'organisation, fonctionnement et compbtence judiciaires telle que modifi6e et compl6tte B ce jour; Vu la Loi organique n" 03/2004 du 20/03/2004 portant organisation, competence et fonctionnement du Ministbre public telle que modifi6e et complctce B ce jour; ConsidQant le statut du Tribunal Penal International pour le Rwanda ci-aprks denornmd (t TPIR/N ainsi que son Rhglement de proccdure et de preuvek ConsidCrant les Rtsolutions 1503 et 1504 du Conseil de SBcurit6 des Nations Unies respectivement adopt6es en 2003 et 2004 et relatives B I'achbvement des travaux du Tribunal PBnal International pour le Rwanda et plus particulierement les conditions requises pour le transfert de certaines affaires aux juridictions nationales, y compris celles du Rwanda;

43 YEMEJE: ADOPTS; ADOPTE : UMUTWE WA MBERE: INGINGO CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL PROVISIONS RUSANGE Inein~o va rnhere: Ibircbivn n'iri tcgcko Article one: Scope otapplicetion ngcnga Iri tegeko ngenga rigena kwimurira muri This Organic Law shall regulate the transfer of Repubulika y'u Rwanda inianzn zivuyc muri cases and other related matters, from the TPIR n'izivuye mu bindi bihugu n'ibindi bibezo International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and buyana n'iryo yimurwa. from other States to the Republic of Rwanda. Iri tegeko ngenga rinagena uburyo ibimenyetso This Organic Law shall also determine the byakusanyijwe na TPIR byakirwa mu manza procedures of admissibility of evidence in ziburanishirizwa mu Rwanda mu Rukiko Rwanda collected by the ICTR in proceedings rubifitiye ububasha. before a competent court. CHAPITRE PREMIER : DES DISPOSITIONS GENERALES Article oremier: Du champ d'applieation La prcstnte loi organique s'applique au transfen au Rwanda d'affaires provenant du Tribunal Pdnal International pour le Rwanda (TPIR) et d'autres pays et h toutes les questions y relatives. Elle dktermine Cgalement les modalit& d'admissibilitd devant les juridictioris rwandaises competentes des preuves recueillies par le TPIR. Ineingo YO 2: Urukiko rulite ubuhasha bwo kuburanisl~a izo mama Article 2: The Court with competent jarisdiction to try the cases Article 2: Juridiction compctente N'ubwo andi mategeko yabiteganya ukundi, Notwithstanding any other law to the contrary, Urukiko Rukuru rwa Repubulika rufite ububasha the High Court of the Republic shall be the bwo kuburanisha kt1 rwego rwa nibcre inianza competent court to conduct On the first instance ziniuriwe mu Rwanda nk'uko biteganywa n'iri the trial of cases transferred t~ Rwanda as tegeko ngenga. provided by this organic law. Nonobstant toutes dispositions lkgales contraires, la Haute Cour de la Rkpublique est comp6tente pour connaitre en premier ressort des affaires transf.rces au Rwanda en vertu de la prksente Loi organique. Ku rwego rwa mbcre, urubaim ruburanishwa n'uniucamanza umwe. At the first instance, the case shall be tried by a single Judge. La Cour statue en premier ressort B juge unique.

44 Ineinao va 3: lbyaha bishobora gukr~rilciranii~a mu nltikn zo niu Rwanda Hatitawe ku biteganywa n'andi mategeko asanzwc akurikizwa mu Rwanda, abnrcgwa manza zimuriwe mu Rwanda zivuye niuri TPIR bakurikiranwnho gusa ihyaha TPIR ifiliye ububasha. Incineo vn 4: Inyandiko y'ibircgo lbiro by'uniushi~ijacyaha Mukuru wa Repuhulika bifata inyandiko y'ibirego yakozwe na TPIR bikayihuza n'ibiteganywa n'igilabo cp'amategeko agenga imiburanishirize y'imanza z'insiiin.jabyaha mil Rwanda, bikayishyikirizn Perezidn rv'llrukiko Ruhuru rwa Repubulika. Urukiko Rukuru rwa Repubulika rweniera inyendiko y'ikirego ari uko runiaze gusuzuma niba ikozwe mu buryo buteganywa n'lgitabo cy'amategeko agenga imiboranisiiiri2e yy'imanza z'inshinjabyaha mu Rwanda. Uretse iyo iri tegeko ngenga ribiteganya ukundi, abaregwa bafatwa kandi bagafiingwa nk'uko biteganywa n'lgitaho cy'amategeko agcnga imiburanishirize y'imanza z'inshinjabyaha mu Rwanda. Article 3: Crimes triable in Rwanda Notwithstanding the' provisioos of other laws applicable in Rwanda, a person whose case transferred by the ICTR to Rwanda shall be liuble to be prosecuted only for crimes falling within the jurisdiction ofthe ICTR. Article 4: Indictment The Prosecutor General's Office of the Republic shall adapt the ICTR indictment in order to make them compliant with the provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure of Rwanda, and it shall be rorwardcd to the President of the High Court of the Republic. The High Court of the Republic shall accept the indictments after verifying they fulfill the formal requirements of the Code of Criminal Procedure of Rwanda. Articlc 5: Arrest and detention of the accused person Except as otherwise provided in this Organic Law, the arrest and detentinn of the accused persons shall be regulated in accordance with the Code of Criminal Procedure of Rwanda. Article 3 : Crimes s~lsceptibles d'ktre pnursuivis par les juridietions nvandaises Nonobstant les dispositions d'autres lois en vigueur au Rwanda, les personnes dont les dossiers sont transfiris au Rwanda en.provenance du TPIR ne peuvent &re poursuivies que pour les crimes relevant de la compttence de ce dernier. Article 4 : Acte d'accusation Le Bureau du Procureur GCnCral de la Rtpublique harmonise I'acte d'accusation dtabli par le TPIR avec les dispositions du Code de proctdure ptnale rwandais et le traosmet au Prhident de la Haute Cour de la Rtpublique. La Haute Cour de la Rtpublique accepte I'acte d'accusation aprts s'ktre assur6.e qu'il a &ti dtabli conformdment aux conditions de forme prescrites par le Code de prnctdure ptnale rwandais. Article 5 : Arreststion et dhientlon de I'accus6 Sauf dispositions contraires de la pdsente Loi organique, I'arrestation et la ditentioo des personnes accustes se fait conformiment au Code de proctdure pinale rwandais.

45 Article 6: Right to inforntation' Article 6 : Droit 2i I'information Mu gihe cy'iminsi icumi (10) uhereye igihe icyemezo cy3urukiko Rukuru rwa Repubulika cyafatitee, Umwanditsi Mukuru w'urwo Rukiko amenyesha icyo cyenieza Umushinjacyaha wa TPIR hakurikijwe iri tegeko ngenga. Within a period of ten (10) days, from the time when the High Court of the Republic makes a decision, the Registrar of the High Court shall notify the Prosecutor of the ICTR of the decision made in accordance with this Organic Law. Le greffier de la Haute Cour de la Rdpublique communique, conformcment i la prdsente Loi organique, au Procureur du TPIR toute dtcision rendue par cettc juridiction dans un ddlai de dix (10) jours B compter de la date de la prise de la dccision. UMUTM'E WA 11: ITANGWA RY'IBIMENYETSO CHAPTER 11: PRODUCTlON OF EVIDENCE CHAPITRE 11: DE LA PRODUCTION PREUVES DES Ingineo va 7: Amahame rusange yerelwye ibimenyetso Article 7: General Principles in evidentiary matters Article 7 : Principes gkniraux de la preuve Ibimenyctso byakusanyijwc hakuriki,iwc Sitati n9amatcgeko Agcnga Imihuranishirizc n'ltangwa ry'ibinienyetso bya TPIR bisliobora gukoreshwa mu manza zibul-anisiiwa n'urukiko Rukuru rwa Repubulika. Urukiko Rukuru rwa Rcpubulilia ntirushobora guhamya uniuntu icyeha rushingiye gusa ku buhamya bwanditse bwatanzwe rnbere n'abatangabuhamya batigeze batanga ubuharnya mu iburanisha. Icyakora, urukiko rushobora guliamya umuntu icyaha rushingiye ku gaciro k'ubwo bdiamya bwanditse iyo ubwo buhaniya bufite ubundi bubushyigikira. Evidence collected in accordance with the Statute and the Rules of Procedure and production of evidence of ICTR may be used in proceedings before the High Court of the Republic. The Nigh Court of the Republic shall not convict a person solely on'wrinen statements of witnesses who did not give oral evidence during the trial. However, the High Cou~t of the Republic may convict a person on the probative value of a written statement if it is corroborated by other witnesses. Les dldments de preuve recueillis conforrndment au Statut et au Rhglement de procidure et de preuve du TPIR sont recevables devant la Haute Cour de la Rhpublique. La Haute Cour de la RCpublique ne peut condamner une personne en se fondant uniquement sur des ddclarations Bcrites antirieures des tdmoins qui n'ont pas ddposb au cours du procbs. Toutefois, si une ddclaration Ccrite faite antdrieurement ail procis est corroborce par d'autres tdmoins au proc&s, la Haute Cour de la Republique peut statuer en s'y fondant.

46 Inginpo ya 8: Ibynbnye byen~e,jn~e na TPIR Kubisabwe n'umuburanyi cyangwa rubyibwirije kandi runiaze kumva icy0 ababuranyi babivugaho, Urukiko Rukuru rwa Rcpubulilia rusliobora kwemera ibyabaye byenie.iwe na TPIR cyangwa rukemera kwakira ubuhhmya bugizwe n'inpandiko buvuye mu nianza zaciwe na TPIR kandi bwerekeye ibivugwa mu rubanza ruburanishwa. Article 8: Facts established by ICTR The IHigh Court of the Republic, At the request of a party, or on its own motion and after hearing of the parties, may accept facts established by the ICTR or may accept documentary evidence from proceedings of the ICTR relating to the matters referred to in the case under trial. fzrticle 8 : Faits Ctablis par le TPIR A In demande d'une pattie ou de sa propre initiative, la Haute Cour de la Rdpublique, aprbs audition des parties, peut decider de considcrer comme prouvds des faits dtablis par des dccisions rendues par le TPIR ou d'ajouter foi A des moyens de preuve documentaires qui ont BtC adrnis dans d'autres affaires rendues par le TPIR et qui sont en rapport avec les affaires dont elle est saisie. Ineineo va 9: Ubuhamya ahntangahul~amyn batanze muri TPIR Article 9: witnesses Evidence provided to ICTR by Article 9 : Dfposition des tfmoins devant lc TPIR Inyandikomvugo z'ubuhamya bwatanzwe muri TPIR liamwc n'inyandiko z'111111homyn butatangiwe mu rukiko, liakurikijwe Aniategekn Agenga Imiburanishirize n'ltangwa rj"lbimcnyclso, byakirwa n'llruhiko Ruku!w rwn Repubt~lika, ubwo buliamya cyang\ea izo nyandiko z'ubuhamya bipra kkuba bifitanyc isano n'ikiburanwa. Urukiko Ruku~u rwa-repubulika rusliobora kutakira ubuhamya bwatanzwe n'umutangabuhaniya urindiwe umutekano iyo bubangamiye uniuburanyi kurusha uko buhamya ingingo igibwaho impaka mu rukiko. lyi ngingo ntivutsa uregwa uburenganzi~a alite bwo gusaba ko abatangnbuhamya bavugwa mu gika cya mbere cy'iyi ngingo bal~amagazwa mu rukiko, kugira ngo babazwe ibibazo binyomoza. lyn ubuhaniya uniutnngabuhamya urindiwc umutekano yatanze mu rukiko cyangwa hanze busliyizwe muri dosiye y'urubanza, urnwirondoro w'uwabutanze ntutangarizwa rubanda, keretse iyo bitangiwe uruhusliya na Statements of testimonies of witnesses given bcrore the ICTR and records of depositions of witnesses made before the ICTR in accordallce with the ICTR Procedure and evidence, shall be ndmissible before thq High Court of the Republic provided that the testimony or deposition is relevant to a fact in issue. The High Court may exclude evidence given by a witness under protective measures where its probative value is outweighed by its prkjudicial value. Nothing in this provision shall prejudice the right of the accused to request the attendance of witnesses as referred to in Paragraph One of this Article for the purpose of cross-exantination. When the testimony or deposition of a witness, who was subject to a protection order of the ICTR. is admitted into the record, the identity of the witness shall not be disclosed to the public unless the ICTR or the witness alrthorizes such Les proc&s-verbaux de dkpositions des tdmoins devant le TPIR et I'acte de dtclarations des thoins hors audience rcdigcs conform6ment B son Reglement de ProcCdure et de Preuve sont admissibles devant la Haute Cour de la Republique pourvu qu'ils soient en rapport avec les faits en cause. La Haute Cour de la RCpublique peut exclure la preuve d'un tdmoin bbndficiant de mesures de protection si la valeur probante de cette preuve ddfavorise une partie au proch et a tnoins d'effet sur les questions prdjudicielles Le present article ne porte pas prejudice au droit de I'accus6 de demander la comparution des thoins vises A I'alinda premier du present article en vue de leur contre-interrogatoire. horsque la deposition d'un thoin b6ncticiant de mesures de protection, faite a I'audience nu non, est versde au dossier de I'affaire, I'identitd du thoin ne peut &re divulguee au public que sur autorisation du TPIR ou de I'int6ressC. En cas de citation du t6moin

47

48 lyi ngingo ntivutsa uregwa uburenganzira bwo gusahn ko inlpuguke ivugwa mu gika cyn rnhcl-c cy'iyi ngingo ihamagazwa mu rukiko kugira ngo ibazwe ihibazo binyomoza, cyangwa guhamagaza impuguke imushinjura kugira ngo anyomoze ubuhamyn indi ~mpugukc yntnngiyc muri TPIR. Inginco ya I I: Ubuhamya b\vahniw abaliozi bn TPlR mu gihc cy'iperercza Inyandikon~vugo z'ubuhamya zisinye zakozwe n'abakozi ba TPlR mu gilie cy'ipcrereza zishobora gushyirwa muri dosiye y'urubanza nk'ikimenyesto nk'uko ikimenyetso nk'icyo cyakwakirwa hakurikijwe ibitcganywa ~l'lgitaho cy'amategeko agenga imiburanishirize y'imanza z'inshinjabyaba Rwanda. Umukozi wa TPIR wakoze iperercza asli0bora no kubazwa kt1 buryo ipcrerezn ryal;oz\ve ildctse ninli~~ru yakusanyijwc ubwo ryakorwagn. no ~ L I lyo inyandiko isinye y'ubuhamya b\+~'umotangabuiia~ilya urindiwe i~mutekano na TPlR bushyizwe muri dosiye y'urubanza cyangwa umukozi wa TPlR wakoze iperereza, akabazwa kuri ubwo buliamya, umwirondoro w'uwo rnutangab~~hamya ntutangazwa, keretse iyo bilangiwe uruhushya na TPlR cynngwa i~~nt~ta~~gabulla~~iya ubwe. Inyandiko y'ubuhamya yakiriwe n'ukora iperereza wa TPlR ntishobora gukoreshwa mu gushinja uwabutanze mu manza zibera mu nkiko z'u Rwanda iyo uwakoze iperereza atasobanuriye uwo mutangabuliamya uburenganzira bwc. This Article shall not deny the accused person of the right to request for the sumqoning of an expert witness referred to in Paragraph One of this Article for cross-examination or to call an expert witness to challenge the statement of another expert witness given before the ICTR. Article 11: Testimony provided to ICTR officials during investigations A transcript of signed statements given to ICTR officials during investigations may be admitted as evidence and in a manner that similar evidence would be admitted under the Code of Criminal Procedure of Rwanda. The relevant investigator of the ICTR may also be csamined with regard to the circumstances of the investigations conducted and information obtained during when it was being conducted. When the signed statement of a witness, who is subject to protection by ICTR is admitted into the record, or an official of ICTR who conducted the investigation is asked on such a statement, the identity of the witness shall not be disclosed unless the ICTR or the witness authorizes such disclosure. No signed statement taken from a witness by an ICTR investigatbr shall be used to incriminate the witness in any proceedings before Rwandan coutts in case the investigstor did not explain to the witness about his or her rights. Le present article ne porte pas prejudice au droit de I'accusC de demander la cornparution du thoin expert visd i~ I'alinda premier du present article en vue de son contre-interrogatoire ou encore de citer son thoin expert B ddcharge dans le but de contredire la declaration faite par le thoin expert devant le TPIR. Article I1 : Preuves recueillies par les enqukteurs du TPIR Le compte rendu des ddclarations signdes faites lots d'enqustes mendes par des fonctiomaires du TPlR peut &he admis B titre de preuve de la m&me faqon qu'un tel moyen de preuve serait admis conformcment au Code de procedure penale du Rwanda. L'enqukteur du TPIR concern6 peut aussi &he interrogd sur les circonstances dans lesquelles s'est dcroul& I'enquSte et sur les informations recueillies B cette occasion. Lorsque la dtclaration sign& d'un thoin bdneficiant de mesures de protection du TPIR est vershe au dossier ou que I3enqu&teur du TPIR qui I'a recueillie est interroge i son sujet, I'identit6 du thoin ne peut Btre divulguee au public que sur autorisation du TPIR ou de I'intdressd. Aucune ddclaration signde d'un thoin recueillie par un enqutteur du TPIR qui n'a pas inform6 le tdmoin de ses droits ne peut servir B I'incriminer devant les juridictions rwandaises.

49 lbazwa r).'umukozi w'iperereza wa 1-PIR rigomba gukorwa hascguriwe ibitcganywa nsamasezerano y'i Vicnw yo lw wn 13 Gashyantare 1946 yerekeye Uburenganzira hwil~ariye n'~ubudahanga~wa by'utnuryango w'abibumbye, ateganya ko abakozi hsumuryango w'abibumhyc badashohora gukurikiranwa n'inkiko. Umunpamabanga Mukuru w'umuryango ~'Abibumbye atabanje kuvnnal~o ubudahangarwa baliabwa n'ayo Masezerano. lneincn va 12 :InyancliIw n'ibimenyctso byatanz\vc na mnganga ufasha inzcgo z'uh11ta1~c1-a l~ignlwsanywa nn TPIR Urukiko Rukuru a l<cpubulika rusiiobora gukoresha inyandiko z'umwirnerere cyangwa kopi yazo yernejwe ko ihwanye n'umwimercre cyangwa ihimcnyetso byatanzwe nn muganga cyang\va indi nzobere, bigakusilnywa na TPIR. rukabifata nk'ibyakusanyijwe n'inzego zibishinzwe mu gihugu. IIhIUTWT: WA Ill: UMURENCANZIRA N'UMUTEKANO The examination of the ICTR investigator is expressly conducted subject to the Vienna Convention on the Privileges and lmrnunities of the United Nations of 13 February 1946, which provides that UN Staff?re uot subject to legal process unless the UN Secretary General has waived the immunlty provided by the Convention. AI-tick 12: Documents and Forcnsic Evidence collcctcd by ICTR The High Court of the Republic may use original docunlents or their certified copies or forensic evidence provided by a doctor, or an expelt and which are collected by ICTR and (hey shall be used by the High Court of the Republic and treated as if they were obtained by relevant national authorities. ' CI3APTERIII: RIGHTS AND SECURITY Article 13: Guarantee of rights of an accused person L'interrogatoire d'un enqu&teur du TPIR se fait express6ment sous reserve de la Convention de Vienne sur les privilbges et imrnunitis des Nations Unies du 13 fevrier 1946 prcvoyant que les fonctionnaires de l'organisation des Nations Unles jouissent de l'immunite de juridiction B moins que ie Secretaire general des Nations Unies ne ihe I'immunitd que leur confire la Convention. Article 12 : Documents et preuves medico-icgales recueillis par le TPIR La Haute Cour de la Rkpublique peot utiliser ies originaux ou copies certifides confones des documents et des preuves medico-iegales ou les timoignages d'autres experts recueillis par le TPIR et les traiter comme s'ils avaient dti recueillis par les organes nationaux competents. CHAPITRE 111 : DES DROITS ET DE LA SECURITE Article 13 : Droits de I'accusk Ilaseguriwe ubundi burenganzira butangwa Without prejudice to other rights guaranteed n'acnategeho yo mu Rwanda arinm ltcgcko under the laws of Rwanda, including the Nshinga rya Repubulika y'u Rwanda ryo huwa 4 Kamena 2003, nk'uko ryavuguruwc hgcm ubu Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda of June as amended to date or Laws relating to cyangrva amalegeko yel-ekeye i~nihuranisl~irize the Code of Criminal Procedure of Rwanda and y'imanza z'inshiniabyaha Rwanda 1i.c International Covenant on Civil and Political n'amasezerano Mpuza~nahatiga ycrekeye Rights, as ratified by the Decree Law no 08/75 of Sous reserve d'autres droits reconnus par la lkgislation rwandaise, y compris la Constitution de la RBpublique du Rwanda du 4 juin 2003 telie que rkviske A ce jour, ou le Code de prockdure penale du Rwanda et le Pacte 'international relatif aux droits civils et politiques, tel que ratifie par le dtcret-loi nd 08/75 du 12 fkvrier 1975, les droits qui suivent sont

50 uburenganzira mu by'imbonezamubano no mu hya politiki, nk'uko yemcjwe n'l~cgclto- kka no 08/75 yo kuwa 12 Gashyantare 1975, urcgwa mu rubanza rwimuriwe mu Rwanda ruvuye muri TPIR, afite uburenganzira bukurikira: Februa~y 12, 1975, the dccused person in the case transferred by ICTR to Rwanda is guaranteed the following rights: garantis i3 I'accus8 dans le cadre des affaires ddfdrdes au Rwanda par le TPIR : I" kuburanishwa mu ruharne kandi niu buryo butabogamye; l o the accused shall be entitled to a fair and public hearing; I" il a droit ii ce que sa cause soit entendue equitablement et publiquement; 2" gufatwa nk'umwere kugeza igilie ahnniwe n'icyaha; 2" tlie accused shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty; 2" il est pdsumd innocent jusqu'a ce que sa culpabilite ait ete etablie; 3O kumenyesliwa bidatinze, mu rurimi yumva kandi mu magambo arambuyc. imilcrcl-e n'isliingiro ry'ibyo aregwa; 3 the accused shall be ihformed promptly and in detail in a language which lie or she understands, of tlie nature and the cause of llie charge against him; 3' il est inform6 dans le plus court dblai, dam une langue qu'il comprend et de faqon ditaillte, de la nature et des motifs de I'accusation portte contre lui; 4" guliabym igihe n'ibyangombwa bikwiriye kugira ngo ategure imyiregurire ye; 5 kuburanishwa bidatinze; 6' kungnnirwa na avoka yiliitiyemo mu ihazwa iryo ari ryo ryose. Igilie nla bushobozi afite bwo kumuliemba ahabwa umwunganira; 7' huburanisliwa nliibereye; So kwibal'iza. cyangwa kugira wnuhariza. ahatangabuhamya bamusliinja: 9' gutanga abatangabuhamyn bamus1iin.jura kandi bakabazwa mu buryo bumwe n'ubw'abamushinja; 4' the accused shall be given adequate time and facilities to prepare his defeqse; 5" the accused shall be entitled to a speedy trial without undue delay; 6" the accused shall be entitled to counsel of his choice in any examination. In case he or she has no means to pay, he or she shall be entitled to a legal representation; 7" the accused shall have the right to be tried in his or her presence; 8' to examine, or have a person to examine for him or her tlie witnesses against him; 1.1 obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him or her; 4" il dispose du temps et des facilites nicessaires ti la pr6paration de sa defense; 5' il est jug6 sans retard injustifil; fio il a droit A bineficier, pour toute interrogatoire, de I'assistance d'un difenseur de son choix et, s'il est indigent, i se voir attribuer, sans frais, un defenseur independant; 7O il ale droit d'&tre present au proc6s; 8" il adroit d'interroger ou de faire interroger les temoins A charge; 9" il a droit d'obtenir la comparution et I'interrogatoire des ttmoins a ddcharge dans les mcmes conditions que les temoins i charge;

51 1O0kwifata no kudaliatirwa kuvuga ikintu cyaniushinja. Mu manzn zimurirve mu Rwitnda zivuyc nit~ri TPIR. Urukiko Rukuru rwa Rep~tbulikn rugena uburyo bukwiye bwo kurindn umuteksno w'abatangabuhamya, kandi rufite ububaslia bwo gutegeka ko Iiashyirwalio inganiba zo kubarindira t~mutckano zimczc lkimwc n'izivugwa mu ngingo ya 53, iya 69 n'iya 75 z'amategeko Agenga lniibut-anisliirize n'ltangwa ry'lbinienyetso ya TPIR. Mu manzn zimuriwe mu Rwanda zi:wye niuri TPIR. Umusliinjacyalia Muhuru wa Repubulika agoniba koroheresa abakwgabuhanipa kuza gutanga ubuhamya bwabo, bal-imo ababa mu mahanga. Abafasl~a kubona impnpuro za ngombwa zo kwinjira mu gihug~i. yita ku mutekano wabo, ndetse anabalia inkunga mu byerekeye ubuzima n'ibyabarinda ihungabana. Abatangabulianiyn bose bnturuka mu malianga haza mu Rwanda gutanga ubuhamya mu manza zimuriwe mu Rwanda zivuye muri TPIR, bafite itbudahang;~rwa bwo kudnsakwa, kudafatirwa ibpabo, kudaratwa cyangwa kudnfungwa gihe hatanga ubuhamya. no mu ngendo zabo baza cyangwa barangije gutanga ubuhamya. Urukiko Rukuru rwa Repubulika rusliobora gushyiraho uburyo bukwiye ko bijyanye n'uburenganzira bw'un~utangabiil~aniya bwo kuba mu gihugu mu mutekano. Muri ubwo buryo harimo kugena ibyo atagomba kurengalio igilie agcndn mu giliugri, kugcna igihe nmnra IINI giliugti n'igilie cyo kugisoliokamo. 10" The aocused shall have the right to remain silent and not to be compelled to incriminate him or herself. Article 14: \Vitncsscs Protection and asqistance to In the trial of cases transferred from the ICTR, the High Court of the Rebublic shall provide appropriate protection for witnesses and shall have the power to order protective measbres similar to those set fottli in Articlcs 53, 69 and 75 of the ICTR Rules of Proceduie and Evidence. In the trial of cases transferred from the ICTR, the Prosecutor General of the Republic shall facilitate the witnesses in giving testimony including those living abroad, by the provision of appropriare immigration documents, personal security as well as providing them with medical and psychological assistance. All witnesses who travel from abroad to Rwanda to testify in the trial of cases transferred from the ICTR shall have immunity from search, seizure, arrest or detention during their testimony and during their travel to and from the trials. The Iligli Cou~t of the Republic may establish reasonable conditions towards a witness's right of safety in the country. As such there shall be determination ~f limitations of movements in the country, duration ofstay and travel. 10' il adroit de garder le silence et de ne pas &re contraint 6 s'incriminer; Article 14 : Protection el assistance des thoins Dans les affaires tiansf6rces au Rwanda par le TPIR, la Haute Cour de la RCpublique assure une protection appropride aux tdmoins et est habilitbe?i prescrire les m&mes mesures de protection que celles qui sont prdvues aux articles 53, 69 et 75 du Rhglement de Procddure el de Preuve du TPIR. Dans les affaires transftrdes au Rwanda par le TPIR, le Procureur GenCral de la Rdpublique assure les ddpositions des tdmoins, y compris ceux qui demeurent?i I'dhanger, en leur facilitant I'obtention des documents d'immigration requis, en veillant B leut sdcuritd personnelle et en leur prodiguant uoe assistance mddicalo et psychologique. Tous les tdmoins venant de I'Ctranger pour tdmoigner au Rwanda dans le cadre des affaires transfdrkes par le TPIR ne peuvent Ctre soumis B des mesures de fouille, de saisie, d'anestation ou de detention pendant qu'ils tdmoignent et pendant leur voyage aller el retour. La Haute Cour de la RCpublique peut imposer des conditions raisonnables au droit du thoin B un sauf-conduit el notamment assonir de restrictions ses ddplacements et la durce de son skjour et de son voyage.

52 lneinen va 15 : Ubwunganizi tlaseguriwe ibiteganywa n'nndi mategeko y'u Rwanda, ovoka n'abalaslia be bolitc uburenganzira bwo kwinjira mu Rwanda no kugenda mu gihugu mu bwisanzure bakora imirimo bashinzwe. Ntibashobora gusakwa, ibintu byabo ntibishobora gufatirwa, ntiliashobora gufatwa cyangwa gufungwa mu gihe bakora imirimo yabo ijyanye n'amategelto. Article 15: Defence Counsel Without prejudice to the provisions of other laws of Rwanda. Defence Counsel ahd tneir support staff shall have the right to enter into Rwanda and move freely within Rwanda to perform their dutles. They shall not be subject to search, seizure, arrest or detention in the performance of their legal duties. Article 15: Cnoseils de la Defense Sous reserve des dispositions d'autres lois rwandaises, les conseils de la defense et leur personnel d'appui on1 le droit d'entrer au Rwanda et de s'y deplacer librement dans le cadre de I'exercice de leur profession. Ils ne peuvent Ctre soumis B des mesures de fouille, de saisie, d'arrestation ou de detention du fait de I'exercice rkgulier de leurs fonctions. Avokn n'nbnlisha bc, bnbyisiihiyc. lx~ri~~dirwn Tlic Dcrcnce Counsel and their support starf uniutekano. shall, at their request, be provided with appropriate security and protection. II cst accord4 au Conseil de in dhfense et son personnel d'appui, A leur demande, des mesures de securit6 et de protection adiquates. UMUTWE WA IV: UIJU.IUIIIIIE NO GUSUBIRAMO URUBANZA Ingineo va 16 : Imanzn z'ubujurire Umushinjacyaha n'uregwa bafite bombi uburenganzira bwo kujuririra icyeniezo icy0 ari cyo cyose cyafashwe n'urukiko Rukuru rwa Repubulikn mu gihe hari imwe cyangwn zose mu mpanivu zikurikira: I" ukwibeshya gushingiye ku ngingo y'itegeko gutuma icyo cyemezo gita agacil-o, cyangwa; 2" ukwibeshya gushingiye ku byabaye kwatumye urubanza rucibwa nabi. Urukiko rw'lkirenga rushobora kwemeza ibyemezo byose by'urukilto Rukuru rwa Repubulika cyangwa biniwe muri byo, cyangwa kutabyemeza byose. lyo bibaye ngombwa, rushobora gutegckn Urukiho I<uht~rt~ rwn Repubulika ko urubanza rusi~birwamo CllAPTER IV: APPEALS AND CASE REVIEW Article 16: Appeals Both the prosecution and the accused have the right to appeal against any decision taken by the High Cou~t ofthe Republic upon one or all of the following grwndb: I" an error on a question of law invalidating the decision, or; 2" an error of fact which has occasioned a miscarriage ofjustice. The Supreme Court may uphold or invalidate some or all of the decisions of the High Court of the Republic. Where necessary, it may order the I ligli Court ofthe Republic to review the case. CHAPITRE IV : DE L'APPEL ET DE LA REVISION Article 16 : Appel Le Ministhe public et I'accusi ont chacun le droit d'interjeter appel de toute decision rendue par la Haute Cour de la RCpublique pour I'un ou tous les motifs suivants: lo erreur sur un point de droit qui invalide la decision, ou; 2' erreur de jugement fond6 sur des fails inexacts. La Cour suprhe peut confirmer ou infirmer I'une ou toutes les d6cisions de la Haute Cour de la RCpublique. Elle peut, s'il y a lieu, ordonner B la Haute Cour de la Republique de reviser le procbs.

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55 UMUTWE WA VI: IBIHANO lneineo ya 21 : Igihano gisumba ibindi lgifungo cya burundu ni cyo gihano gisumba ibindi gihabwa uregwa wahamwe n'icyaha mu rubanza rwimuriwe mu Rwanda ruvuye muri TPIR. Ineineo ya 22: Cukura mu gihana igihe umuntu uhamwe n'icyaha amaze afunze by'agateganyo Igihe umuntu uhamwe n'icyaha amaze afunzwe by'agateganyo cyangwa ategereje kuburanishwa ku rwego rw'ubujurire gikurwa mu gihano cy'igifungo cyose yakatiwe. Ineineo ya 23: Ifuugwa Umuntu wese wimuriwe mu Rwanda na TPIR kugira ngo ahaburanishirizwe, afungwa hakurikijwe uburyo bw'ibanze bwo gufunga buteganywa n'amahame rusange arengera umuntu wese ufunzwe mu buryo ubwo ari bwo bwose. Ayo mahame akaba yaremejwe n'lnteko Rusange y'umuryango ~'Abibumbye mu Cyemezo cyayo cya cyo ku itariki ya 9 Ukuboza Komite Mpuzamahanga y'umuryango utabara imbabare cyangwa umugenzuzi washyizweho na Perezida wa TPIR, bafite uburenganzira bwo kugenzura uburyo abantu bimuriwe mu Rwanda bavuye muri TPlR bafunzwemo. Komite Mpuzamahanga y'umuryango utabara imbabare cyangwa umugenzuzi washyizweho na TPIR CHAPTER YI: PENALTIES Article 21: The henviest Penalty Life imprisonment shall be the heaviest penalty imposed upon a convicted person in a case transferred to Rwanda from ICTR. Article 22: Credit for time spent in custody Credit shall be given to the convicted person ror the period during which he has been detained in clistody, or pending for the appeal. Article 23: Detention Any person who is transferred to Rwanda by the ICTR for trial shall be detained in accordance with the minimum standards of detention stipulated in the United Nations Body of Principles for the Protection of all persons under any Form of Detention or Imprisonment, adopted by General Assembly resolution of 9 December, The International Committee of the Red Cross or an obsel'ver appointed by the President of the ICTR shall have the right to inspect the conditions of detention of persons transferred to Rwanda by the ICTR and held in detention. The International Committee of the Red Cross or the observer appointed by the ICTR shall kubnlit a CHAl'ITRE Vl : DES I'EINES Article 21 : Peine n~asini:ile L'emprisonnenient A vie est la peine maximale en cas de jugement d'imputntion de culpabilit6 dans une affnire d6firc'e au Rwandn par le TPIR. Article 22 : Di.duction dc la peine dc la pkiode tie dhtention provisoirc La durt'e de In piriode pedalit laquslle la personne reconnue coupable a eti placee en dilention provisoire ou pr6witive est, en cas de conda~mintion, dcduite de la duree tolale de sa peine. Article 23: Currclilions Je rlitcntion Les conditions de detention de toute personne dont I'affaire a 6tt transierie au Rwanda par le TPIR seront conformes aux conditions minimoles de detention priv~~e dam I'Ensemble de principes pour la protection de toutes les persolines soumises & une forme quelconq~~e de detention ou d'enipriso~inc~~ie~it, adople par I'AssemblCe ginhle des Nations Unies dans sn RCsolution ~ I 9 I decembre Le Comiti interna~ional de la Croix-Kouge ou un observateur nommc par le President du TPIR a le droit de verifier les conditions de detention des personnes qui ont eti transftirtes au Rwanda par le TPIR el qui y son1 detsnues. Le Comitt international de la Croix-l<ouge ou I'observateur nommk par le 3 TPlK rrmel au Miniswe aynnt la Justice d I :ns ses 3

56 bashyikiriza Minisitiri ufite ubutabera mu nshingano ze mu Rwanda na Perezida wa TPIR raporo y'ibanga ishingiye ku myanzuro y'ibyo bagezeho mu igenzura bakoze. confidential report based on the findings of these inspections to the Minister in charge of Justice of Rwanda and to the Ptesident of the ICTR. oltrib:~lions ail Rwand:~ cr i;u President du TPIR un rappolt cunlident~rl lond+i sur les conclusions de ces verifications. Iyo ufunzwe apfuye cyangwa atorotse gereza, Umushinjacyaha Mukuru wa Repubulika ahita abimenyesha Perezida wa TPIR na Minisitiri ufite ubutabera mu nshingano ze mu Rwanda. In case an accused person dies or escapes from, Le Procureur G6niral de la Rkpublique informe detention, the Prosecutor Genkral of the Republic immedintenient le P16sident du TPIR et le Ministre shall immediately notify the President of the ayant la justice dans ses attributions au Rwanda de la ICTR and the Minister of Justice in Rwanda. mort 011 de I'evasion d'uli de~enu. Umushinjacyaha Mukuru wa Repubulika akora anketi ku rupfu cyangwa itoroka ry'umuntu wari ufunze agaha raporo Perezida wa TPIR na Minisitiri ufite ubutabera mu nshingano ze mu Rwanda. UMUTWE WA VII: INGINGO ZISOZA The Prosecutor General of the Republic shall conduct investigations on the death or the escaping of the person who was in detention and shall submit a report to the President of ICTR and the Minister of Justice in Rwanda. CHAPTER VII: FINAL PROVISIONS Le I'rocureur Cineral de la Republique mene une enqu0le stir la mon 011 I'cvasion d'un detenu et tmnsmet un rapport y afferent nu PrCsident du TPIR et au Ministre ayant la justice dans ses attributions au Rwanda. CHAPITRE VII : ii~s DISPOSITIONS FINALES In~ineo va 24 : lkoreshwa ry'iri tegeko ngenga mu bindi bibazo hyerelteye iyimurwa ry'imanza hagati y'u Rwanda n'ibindi bihugu Article 2.1: Applicability of this Organic Law Article 24 : Al~plicaloilit6 111: 111 pr6scnte loi to other niattors of transfer of cases hehvec~i urguuique i d'xutl-es questions rel;~tivcs au rcnvoi Rwanda and other states d';~l'ilires cntt-e le I<\\,:I~~:I et d'xutl-es Etnts Iri Tegeko Ngenga rikoreshwa hahindurwa ibigomba guhinduka ku manza zoherezwa muri Repubulika y'u Rwanda zivuye mu bindi bihugu kimwe no ku byifuzo Repubulika y'u Rwanda ishyikirije ibindi bihugu, isaba kwimura imanza cyangwa abantu bakekwa kuba barakoze ibyaha. This Otganic Law applies nlrrrnris mutmldis in other matters where there Is transfer of cases to the Republic of Rwanda fi-on1 other States or where transfer of cases or extradition of suspects is sought by the Republic of Rwanda from other states. La presente Loi organique s'appliquent rrrlrmtis rnrrlardis aux affaires transferees i la Republique du Rwanda par d'autres Etats, ainsi qu'aus deniandes de transfert d'affaires ou d'cxtmdihn de suspects.

57 Ineineo va 25: lyubahlrizwa ry'iri tegeko ngenga Iri tegeko ngenga ni ryo rikurikizwa, igihe hari aho rinyuranyije n'andi mategeko. Inpineo va 26: Igihe iri tegeko ngenga ritangira gukurikizwa Iri tegeko ngenga ritangira gukurikizwa ku munsi ritangarijweho mu Igazeti ya Leta. ya Repubulika y'u Rwanda. Kigali, kuwa l6/03/2007 Perezida wa Repubulika KAGAME Paul ( 4 Minisitiri w'lntebe MAKUZA Bernard (sq Minisitiri w'ubutabera KARUGARAMA Tharclsse (~6) Minisitiri wlububaoyi nlamahaoga n'ubutwererane Dr MURIGANDE Charles (se) Bibnnywe kandi blsl~yizwel~o Ikirango cya Repubulika : Minisitiri w'ubutabera KARUCARAMA Tharcisse ( ~ 4 Article 25: Application of this Organic Law In the event of any inconsistency between this Organic Law and any other Law, the provisions of this Organic Ldw shall prevail. Article 26: Coming into force of this organic law This Organic Law shall come into force on the date of its publication in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Rwanda. Kigali, on 16/03/2007 The President of the Republic KAGAME Paul (s6) The Prime Minister MAKUZA 6ei-nard (~6) The Minister of Justice KARUCARAMA Tll~rciS~e The Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Dr MURIGAND& Charles ( ~ 4 Sew and sealed with the Seal of the Republic: The Minister of Justice KARUCARAMA Thnrcisse (se) Article 25: Applicqtion dc la prhsente Loi organiquc En cas de conflit de lois, les dispositions de la prhsente loi organique I'empo~tent sur toute autre loi. Article 26 : Entrie en vigueur de la prcsente loi orgunique La prcsente loi organique entre en vigueur le jour de sa publication au Journal Officiel de la Rkpublique du Rwanda. Kigali, le 16/03/20'Ji Le I'risidrnt de la Republique KAGAME Paul (sf.) Lr Premier Ministre MAKUZA Bernard ($6) Lr Ministre de la Justice IaL<UCAIIAMA Thurcissu (~6) Le Ministre des Affaires Etrangires et de la CoopCration D1- NIURLGANDE Clinrlus ( 4 Vu et sccllf du Scuau de 13 Ripublique Lz Ministre de la Justice KAI(UGA11AR'lA Tl~arcissc (s c)

58 Rwanda's ORGANIC LAW No. 08/96 of August 30, Prevent Genocide International Page 1 of 8 - Law Prevent Genocide International odes 1781 ORGANIC LAW No. 08/96 of August 30,1996 on the Organization of Prosecutions for Offences constituting the Crime of Genocide or Crimes against Humanity committed since October 1,1990 E11gii.5-h Genocide Convention Chapter I: Generalities (Article 1) Chaoter 11: Categorization (Articles 2-31 Chapter I E Confession and miltv plea procedure (Articles 4-13) Chapter IV: Penalties LkticleS 14-18) Chanter V: Specialized Chambers [Articles 19-23) Chapter W. Anoeals and Review [Articles 24-26) Chanter W: Damages (Articles 27-41) Chader VIE: Various final provisions [Articles 33-41) 0 CHAPTER I - GENERALITIES Article 1. The purpose of thls organic law is the organization of criminal proceedings against persons who are accused of having since 1 October 1990, committee acts set out and sanctioned under the Penal Code and which constitute: a) either h e crimeof genocide ar crimes against humanity as defined in the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide of 9 December 1948, in the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of 12 August 1949 and its addhonal protocols, as well as in the Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity of 26 November 1968, the three of which were ratified by Rwanda ; or I 0 \- b) offences set out in the Penal Code which the Public Prosecution Department alleges or the defendant adnnts were committed in connection with the events surrounding the genocide and crimes against humanity. CHAPTER 11 - CATEGORIZATION Article 2. Persons accused of offences set out in Article 1 of this organic law and committed during the period between 1 October 1990 and 1994 shall, on the basis of their acts of participation, be classified into one of the following categories : a) person whose criminal acts or whose acts of criminal participation place them among the ~lanners, organizers, instigators, supervisors and leaders of the crime of genocide or of a crime against humanity : b) persons who acted in positions of authority at the national, perfectoral, communal, sector

59 Rwanda's ORGANIC LAW No. 08/96 of August 30, Prevent Genocide International Page 2 of 8 or cell level, or in a political party, the or fostered sucb crimes; c) notorious murderen who by virtue of the zeal or excessive malice with which they committed atrocities, distinguished themselves in tbeir areas of residence or where they passed; d) persons who committed acts sexual torture; Category 2: persons whose criminal acts or whose acts of criminal participation place them among perpetrators, conspirators of accomplices of intentional homicide or of serious assault against the person causing death, Category 3: persons whose criminal acts or whose acts of criminal participation make them guilty of othe~ serious assaults against the person; Article 3. Category 4: persons who committed offences against property. For the purposes of this organic law, an accomplice is a person who provided essential assistance in the commission of the offence or who, by. my. means, diverted criminal prosemtion of persons referred to in Aaicle 2 of this organiclaw or failed to give information about them The fact that any of the acts referred to in this organic law was committed by a subordinate does not relieve his superior of criminal responsibility if he knew or had reason to laow that the subordinate was about to commit sucb acts or had done so and the superior failed to take the necessary and reasonable measures to punish or prevent sucb acts while these measures were available to hun. C CHAPTER ILi - CONFESSION AND GUILTY PLEA PROCEDURE SECTION I: COMING IhTO FORCE, ELIGIBILITY ANDCONDITIONS Article 4. The Confession and Guilty Plea Procedure shall come into force the date this organic law is published in the Official Gazette and shall remain in force for eighteen months ; it may he renewed by presidential order for a period not longer than an addhonal eighteen months. The Officer of the Public Prosecution Department responsible for the investigation shall inform the accused of the accused's rigbt and interest to participate in the Confession and Guilty plea Procedure. The Officer shall note on the record that the accused has been so info~med. Article 5. All persons who have committed offences set out in Article I have the right to participate in the Confession and Guilty Plea Procedure.

60 Rwanda's ORGANIC LAW No. 08/96 of August 30, Prevent Genocide International Page 3 of 8 The right to participate, which cannot be denied, may be exercised at any time before the criminal file is brought to the attention of the President of the competent tribunal. This right can only be exercised once and the confession can be withdrawn at any time before it is pronounced again by the interested person before the COUIt. Notwithstandmg the provisions of paragraph (I), persons who fall within Category 1, as defined in Article 2, shall not be eligible to the reductions in penalties set out in Articles 15 and 16. Article 6, For the purposes of this Section, a confession is admissible if it includes: (a) a detailed description of all the offences set out under Article 1 that the applicant committed, including the date, t ie and the scene of each acf as well as the names of victims and wimesses, Shown; (b) information with respect to accomplices, conspirators and all other information useful to the exercise of public prosecution; (c) an apology for the offences committed by the applicant; (d) an offer to plead guilty to the offences described by the applicant in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph (a) The confession shall be recorded and transcribed by an Officer of the Public Prosecution Department and where the confession is submitted in writing, the Officer of the Public Prosecution Deparfment shall request the applicant to codl~m the confession. The applicant shall sign or mark with a fingerprint the record in the presence of the Officer of the Pnblic Prosecution Department, who shall also sign the record. The Public Prosecution Department shall inform the applicant of the category within which the confessed acts place the applicant in order to allow the applicant to waive or c onfi his choice to proceed with the Confession and Guilty Plea Procedure C Where the applicant renounces his choice to proceed with the Confession and Guilty Plea Procedure, the applicant may withdraw the confession which shall then be inadmissible as evidence against the applicant in any subsequent proceedings. Article 7. The Public Prosecution Depariment shall ver* the accuracy and completeness of the confession and its compliance with the conditions stipulated in Article 6 within a maximum period of three months kom the date of the signature of the record made in accordance with Article 6. A record giving the reasons for the acceptance or rejection of the confession and offer to plead guilty shall be prepared following the verification; tb record shall be signed by an Officer of the Public Prosecution Department. Where a confession and offer to plead guilty is rejected, the Public Prosecution Department shall proceed with the investigation of the casein accordance with orhary procedures and shau not accept a subsequent confession. Article 8.

61 Rwanda's ORGANIC LAW No. 08/96 of August 30, Prevent Genocide International Page 4 of 8 Where the Public Prosecution Department accepts a confession and offer to plead guilty, an end of - investi~ation - memorandum containine - the charges - established by the confession shall be included in the case file and the file shall be forwarded to the competent court which shall then hear and determine the case Article 9. As investigations proceed, a list of persons suspected or accused of acts placing them withm Category I shall be published three months after this organic law is published in the Official Gazette, and shall be republished periodically thereafter as it is updated. Notwithstanding the provisions of article 5, paragraph 3, a person who confesses and pleads guilty, and whose name was not published on the list of Category 1, shall not be placed in Category 1 if the confession is complete and accurate. If his confession should place him in Category 1, he shall be placed in Category 2. Persons who shall have confessed their criminal acts before the list of names of Category 1 is published shall be placed in Category 1 if the acts they have committed place them there. A w Where a person is later found to have committed offences that he has not confessed, he shall at any time, be prosecuted for these offences and placed in the relevant category SECTION 2: HEARING, ADJLDICATION AND EFFECTS OF THE CONFESSION AND GUILTY PLEA PROCEDURE Article 10 Under the Confession and Guilty Plea Procedure, the hearing shall proceed as follows: (1) the clerk shall call the case; (2) the accused shall state his name (3) the Pxesident of the bench shall ask the civil party to idenhfy itself, (4) the clerk shall read the charges; (5) the Public Prosecution Department shall have the opportunity to be heard; (6) the clerk shall read the record of the confession and guilty plea and, if any, the document containing the confession; (7) the bench shall examine the accused to venfy whether the confession and guilty plea have been made in a voluntary manner with full knowledge of the case, including the nature of the charge, the sentence range and the absence of the right of appeal from the criminal provisions of the judgment to come; (8) the civil party shall sate its claim; (9) the accused and, where applicable, any other person legally responsible shall present on after the other their defence to any civil claim or make any other statement in mitigation of their responsibility; (10) the bench shall receive the guilty plea and hearing shall be declared closed

62 Rwanda's ORGANIC LAW No. 08/96 of August 30, Prevent Genocide International Page 5 of 8 Article 11. /7w- Where the confession has been rejected by the Public Prosecution Department following veriiicatioq as set out in Article 7, the accused may confirm to the bench at trial hls request to participate in the Confession and Guilty Plea Procedure. The accused shall make the request afier the clerk has read the charges, but no later than during his interrogation. Where it is determined by the bench at the end of the hearing that the conditions included in Article 7 for a valid confession and guilty plea were met, the bench shall apply Articles 15 and 16. Article 12. Where it is determined by the bench during the course of the hearing that the conditions for a valid confession and guilty plea are not met, the bench shall dismiss the confession and guilty plea. 0 The bench shall similarly dismiss the confession and guilty plea where the accused waives his right to the confession procedure. The competent court may requalify the charges that are before it. Where the bench alters a charge based on facts which the applicant has admitted and confessed the bench shall not dismiss the confession and &ty plea but shall order the reopening of the debates to allow the accused, after being advised of the new categorization, to confirm or waive his choice to offer a confession and guilty plea. Article 13. Where the bench dismisses the confession and guilty plea, it may schedule the case for trial at a later date or retum it to the Off~ce of the Public Prosecutor for completion of the investigation. In subsequent proceedings, the confession and accompanying guilty plea shall be inadmissible as evidence against the accused. CHAPTER IV - PENALTIES The penalties imposed for the offences set out in Article I shall be those provided under the Penal Code, except : (a) that persons whose acts place them in Category 1 are liable to the death penalty; (b) that for persons whose acts place them in Category 2, the death penalty is replaced by life imprisonment; (c) where a confession and guilty plea have been accepted, in which case Arhcles 15 and 16 of this organic law apply ; (d) that the acts committed by persons placed in Category 4 shall only give rise to civil damages determined by amicable agreement between the parties with the assistance of the community, failing which the rules pertaining to criminal proceedings and civil actions shall

63 Rwanda's ORGANIC LAW No. 08/96 of August 30, Prevent Genocide International Page 6 of 8 apply. If the accused IS sentenced to a tern of qmonment, the sentence 1s suspended For the application of th~s article, sub-paragraph (d), the conditions set out in article 97 of the Penal Code do not apply. Article 15. Where a conviction is pronounced following a confession and guilty plea offered prior to prosecution, the penalty shall be reduced as follows: (a) persons whose acts place them within Category 2 shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of between 7 and 11 persons whose acts place them within Category 3 shall be liable to a penalty equivalent to one-third of the penalty the tribunal would normally impose. L Article 16. Where a conviction is pronounced following a confession and guilty plea offered after prosecution, the penalty shall be reduced as foliows : (a) persons whose acts place them within Category 2 shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of between 12 and 15 years; Article persons whose acts place them within Category 3 shall be liable to a penalty equivalent to one half of the penalty the tribunal would normally impose. Persons found guilty under this organic law shall be liable to the withdrawal of theu civic rights in the following manner: (a) for persons whose acts place them within Category 1, the withdrawal for life of au civic rights; for persons whose acts place them within Category 2, the withdrawal for life of civic rights as provided in Article 66 of the Ped Code, sub-paragraphs 2*, 3* and S5*. Persons whose acts place them within Category 3 shall incur the civic consequences provided by law. Article 18. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 94 of the Penal Code, a perpemtor who is sentenced for multiple crimes shall serve the most severe sentence. CHAPTER V. SPECIALIZED CHAMBERS SECTION 1. ESTABLISHMENT AND JURISDICTION OF SPECIALIZED CHAMBERS Article 19. There are hereby established, within the Tribunals of First Instance and the military courts, Specialized Chambers with exclusive jurisdiction over the offences set out in Article 1.

64 Rwanda's ORGANIC LAW No. 08/96 of August 30, Prevent Genocide International Page 7 of 8 Each Spec~alued Chamber may include several benches sltthg s~multaneously. K'& One or more of these benches shdl be composed of magistrates for minors, which shall have exclusive jurisddon over the offences set out in Article 1 committed by minors. A speciaked Chamber may have several benches whch may hear cases as itinerant Chambers in any location wih its territorial jurisdiction for as long a period as its President deems necessary. Chapter V and Chapter VI of this organic law are not applicable to cases where the accused is subject to special rules of jurisdxtion by virtue of holdmg an official position. SECTION 2 - COMPOSITION OF SPECIALIZED CHAMBERS Article 20. O Each Specialized Chamber shall be comprised of such number of career or auxiliary magistrates as are deemed necessary and they shall be placed under the direction of a Vice President of the Tribunal of First Instance or the military couxts. The Vice - President shall be responsible for the organization and the assignment of duties within the Chamber. Career magistrates and Presidents of the Specialized Chambers of the Tribunals of First Instance shall be named by order of the President of the Supreme Court, following a decision of the College of the President and the Vice Presidents of the Supreme Court. Career magistrates shall be named from among the magistrates of the Tribunal of First Instance of which the Specialized Chamber forms a part. Auxiliary magistrates and the President of the Specialized Chamber of the military courts shall be named in accordance with normal procedures. The bench ofthe Specialized Chambers shall be comprised of three magisbted with the President of the bench named by the President of the Chamber. SECTION 3. THE PUBLIC PROSECUTION DEPARTMENT C Article Officers of the Public Prosecution Department for the Specialized Chambers of the Tribunals of First Instance shall be named by the Prosecutor General of the Court of Appeal fiom among those assigned to the Office of the Public Prosecutor on Proposal of the Public Prosecutor. They shall be supervised by the First Deputy designated for that purpose. The Officers of the Public Prosecution Department of the Court of Appeal responsible for handling appeals from decisions of the Specialized Chambers are designated by the Prosecutor General of the Court of Appeal. The Prosecutor General of the Supreme Court shall have supervision and general direction over the lower and hgher lever Offices of the Public Prosector with respect to matters relevant to the jurismction of the Specialized Chambers. Article 23. The Officers of the Public Prosecution Department of the Specialized Chamber of the War Council shall be

65 Rwanda's ORGANIC LAW No. 08/96 of August 30, Prevent Genocide International Page 8 of 8 designated by the Mihtary Auditor. The Military Auditor General of the Military Court sball designate the Officers of the PubIic Prosecution Depment who shall have carriage cases before this court. CHAPTER VI - APPEALS AND REVIEW Article 24. Decisions of the Specialized Chambers are subject to opposition and appeal; the Iitation period for the f hg of an appeal is fifteen days.

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100 J. 0. no speciai du 2j/07/2007 8

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103 Isobiye k11 llegeko ngenga 11" I-yo kuwa 19/6/2004 I-igena imite~~ere, ububaslia n'i11iilto1-ere by'inltiko Gacaca zishinzwe gultr~~-ikirana no g~~cira in~anza ahaltoze ihyalia bya jenoside ~~'ibindi byalia byibasiye inyolto milnlil hyakozwe hagali y'ilarilti ya mbere Ultwakirn 1990 n'iya 31 Uk~rboza 1994 nk'uko I-yahinduwe Ita~~di i-yujr~jwe lkugeza ubu, cyaue cyalre mu ngingo yaryu ya 72; ls~~hiye kr~ 1tegek11-leks n" 2 1/77 ryc~ ku wa 18/06/1977 risliyiralio igilnho cy'runotegelto al~ar~a 1n11 Rwa~da ~~k'l~ko I-yahintluwe liantli ryujujwe kugeza ~11111 cyme cyme mil 11gingc1 ZHI-yo iya 26, ~LIW ku ya 28 kugeza ku ya 33, iya 68, iya 118, ~~'iya 453; Ilaving reviewed Organic Law no of Revu la Loi Organique no IG/2004 du 19/06/2004 establishing the 01-ganizalion, 19/6/2004 po~~tant 01-ganisation, compktence et competence and ft~nctioning oi Gacaca Caul-ts ionctionne~nent tles jnl-itlictio~~s Gacaca responsible Tor PI-osecuti~ig and trying the cl~argkes des poursuites ec tlu jugemenl des perj~etrators of the crime of genocide and TI-actions codtulives du el-ime tle gknocide otl~el- crimes against humanity, comn~itted el autres crimes contre I'liuma~iilr! commis between October 1, I990 and December 3 1, en[!-e le le' octuhre 1990 et le 31 d&cembre I994 as modified and comple~nentetl to date, especially in Arlicle 72; I994 (el clue n~otlifike et co~npl&t!e I( spkcialement en sov article 72 ; ce jour, llavi~lg I-eviewed Law Decree no 21/77 or llevu le Dkc~el-loi no 21/77 tlu 18/06/1977 ' 18/06/1977 establishing the Penal Code in insl~luant le Code p611al ail Rwanda, (el que Itwantla, as modified and comple~ne~~letl to modifir! et complktk I( ce jour, specialemenl en dale, especially in AI-tides 26, 28 to 33, 68, ses articles 26, 28 a 33, 68, 1 18 et 453, 1 18 and 453; Isubiye ku lteyeko no !-yo ltr~wa llaving ireviewed Law no ot 28/04/2001. ~ryerekeye r~bwenganzi~m 28/04/2001 relating to the rights and bw'umwn~ra n'rhu~~yo bwo 1tr1111winJa protection of the child against violence, especipllx in AI-licle 35; I<evu la loi 11" dr~ 28/04/2001 ~elative aux tll-oils el I( la prolection tle I'enfant contre les violences, spkcialen~ent ell son al-licle 35 ; C Y lsubiye ku ltegelio no 33bis12003 ryo ltuwa Having reviewed Law no 33 bis12003 of Revu la loi 11" 33 bid2003 tlu 06/09/2003 I- 06/09/2003 rihana icyalin cyajenoside, ibyaha 06/09/2003 repressing the crime of genocide, idpl-imant le crime tle gknocitle, les crimes P byibasiye inyoltom~~ntr~ n'ibyaha crimes against humanity and war crimes, conlre I'l~un~anitt el les crin~es tle gnel-re, a ' 0 by'inta~nbara, cyane cyane inu ngingo zaryo especially in Articles 6, 9 and I I; spkcialement en ses articles 6, 9 el I I ; iya 6, iya 9 n'iya I I; 4 m. 0. 5

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109 ITEGEKO NSHINGA RYA. REPUBLIKA Y'U RWANDA A CONSTITUTION DE LA REPUBUQUE DU THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF I

110 umuntu cyangwa bimuleslia agaciro. Nta wushobol-a gukorerwaho igerageza atabyiyemereye. Uburyo bwo kubyemera kimwe n:ubw'iryo gerageza bugenwa n'itegeko. Nul rle peut faire I'objet d'expdrimentation sans son consentement. Les modalites de ce consentement et de cette experimentation sont regies par la loi. No one shall be subjected to experimentation without his or her infol-med consent. The modalities of such consent and experiments ar-e determined by law. Ingingo ya 16 Article 16 Article 16 Abantu bose barangana irnbere y'amategeko. Itegeko ribarengera lku buryo bumwe nta vangura ityo ari ryo ryose. Tous humains sont egaux devant la loi. Ils ont droit, sans aucune distinction, 8 une &gale protection par la loi. Article 17 I human beings are equal before the law. They shall enjoy, without any discrimination, equal protection of the law. Uburyozwacyalia ni gatozi ku wakoze icyaha. Kuryozwa indishyi bigengwa n'itegeko. La responsabilit6 penale est personnelle. Li responsabilitb civile est d&finie par une loi. Nta wushobora gurungirwa kulubahir-iza Nul ne peut &e detenu pour non exkution inshingano zishingiye ku ~nategeka d'obligations d'ordre civil ou commercial. mbonezamubano cyangwa ay'ubucuruzi. No one shall be imprisoned on the ground of inability to fulfil obligations arising from civil or commercial laws. Ingingo ya 18 Ubwisanzure bwa niuntu bwubahirirwa na Leta. Article 18 La liberte de la personne est garantie pal i'elat. Article 18 The person's libe~ty is guaranteed by the State. Nla wuslioboi-a gukul-ikil-anwa, gufatwa, gufungwa cyangwa guhanii-wa icyaha keretse mu gihe biteganywa n'arnategeko akurikizwa mu gihe icyaha akur-ikiranyweho cyakorewe. Nul ne peut 6tre poursuivi, arrste, detenu ou condamne que dans les cas prevus par la loi en vigueur au moment de la commission de I'acte. No one shall be subjected to plaseculion, arrest, detention or punishment on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a crime under the law in force at (he time it was commilted. Kumenyeshwa iinilerer-e - n'irnpamvu z'icyaiia Etre informe de la nature et des motifs de The right to be informed - of hiature a ~ d

111 z'ubutegetsi, iz'ubucamanza n'izindi zose zifata administratives et judiciaires et devant toutes I a w s l ' w Drgans, ibyemezo. les autres instances de prise de decision. I - I Ingingo ya 19 Article 19 Article 19 Umunlu wese afatwa nk'umwwe ku cyaha Toute personne accusee d'une infraction est aregwa igihe cyose kitaramuhama but-undu mu presumee innocente jusqu'i ce que sa buryo bukurikije amalegelto, niu rubanza culpabilite soit legaiement et definitivement rwabereye mu rullarne kandi i-uboneye, etablie 5 I'issue d'un prods public et equitable f yahawe uburyo bwose bwa ngombwa bwo au cours duquel toutes les garanties kwiregul-a. necessaires 3 sa defense lui aumnt 6t6 accord6es. Nta wushobo~a kuvutswa kuburanira inlbere Nu1 ne distrait, contre son grc, du Nobody shall be denied the right lo appear y'uniucamanza ikgeko ~rimugenera. juge que la loi iui assigne. before a judge competent by law lo heal his or her case. I Ingingo ya 20 I Article 20 I Article 20 I Nta wushobora guhanirwa ibyo yakoze Nul ne peut &re condamn6 pour des actions Nobody shall be punished fol- acts or omissions cyangwa atakoze, iyo amategeko y'igihugu ou omissions qui ile constituaient pas une that did not constitute an orfence under cyangwa amategeko nipuzarnahanga infraction d'aprk ie droit national ou national or internalional law at the time of atabifataga nk'icyaha igihe byakorwaga. international au moment 06 elles ont Ct6 commission or omission. commises. Na none nta wushobora gucibwa igihano DF nu1 ne inflige d'une peine Neither shall any person be punished wilh a kiruta icyari giteganyljwe n'amalegeko mu plus forte que celle qui etait prevue par la loi penalty which is heaviel- than the one that was gihe yakoraga icyaha. au moment ou I'infraction a et6 cornmise. applicable under the law at the time when the offence was committed.

112 Ingingo ya 44 Article 44 Article 44 Ubutegetsi bw'ubucamanza, bwo murinzi w'uburenganzil-a n'ubwisanzure bwa rubanda, bwubahiriza iyo nshingano mu buryo buteganywa n'arnalegeko. e Pouvolr Judiciaire en tant que gardien des lroits et des libertes publiques, en assul-e ie espect dans les conditions definies par la loi. The judiciary as lhe guardian of rights and freedoms of the pubiic ensures respecl thereof in accordance wilh procedures detel-mined by law. UMUTWE WA I1 : IBYEREKEYE UBURENGANZIRA N'INSHINGANO BY'UMWENEGIHUGU Ingingo ya 45 CHAPITRE I1 : DES DROIXS ET DES DEVOIRS DU CITOYEN Article 45 CHAPTER I1 : THE RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF THE CITIZEN Article 45 Abenegihugu bose bafite uburenganrira bwc kujya mu buyobozi bwose bwrigihugu, bab? babukoreslieje ubwabo, cyangwa babinyujije ku babahagaral-iye bihitiyemo nta gahato, hakurikijwe amalegeko. Abenegihugu bose bafite uburenganzirz bungana bwo kujya mu mirimo ya Leta hasliingiwe ku bumenyi n'ubushobozi bwabo. Ingingo ya 46 Umwenegihugu wese afile inshingano zc kutagil-a uwo avangura no kugirana na bagenz be imibanire igamije kubumbatira, guharanir; no gus1iimanqi1-a ubwubahane, ubufalanye :ous les citoyens ont le droit, conform6nient lux r$gles edictees par la loi, de participer ibrement A la direction des affaires publiques le leur pays, soit directement, soit par 'intermediaire de reprksentants libremenl :hoisis. rous les citoyens ont un droit 6gai d'acc6del lux fondions publiques de leur pays, compte enu de leurs comp6tences et capacites. Article 46 rout citoyen a ie devoir de considerer 501- iernblabie sans discrimination aucune el Yentretenir avec iui les relations qu,elmebent de sauvegarder, de promouvoir el Ail citizens have the right to participate in the government of the country, whether directly or through freely chosen representatives in accordance with the law. All citizens have the I-igiil or equal access to public service in accordance wilh lheir competence and abililies. Every citizen has tile duly to relale lo other persons witliout discl~minalion and to maintain I elalions conducive lo safegua~dlng, promoting and reinfo~cing niulual respect, solidalily and

113 UMUTWE WA MBERE : IBYEREKEYE INGINGO RUSANGE CHAPITRE PREMIER : DES DISPOSITIONS GENERALES 3HAPTER ONE: GENERAL PROVISIONS I Inyinyo ya 60 I Article 60 Inzego zqubutegetsi bwa Leta ni izi zikurikira : Les Pouvoirs de I'Etat sont les suivants : Article 60 The bl-anches of government al-e the following lo Ubutegetsi Nshlngarnategeko; 2' Ubutegetsi Nyubahirizategeko; 3" Ubutegetsi bw'ubucamanza. 1" le Pouvoir Legislatif ; 2" le Pouvoir Exkutif ; 3" le Pouvoir Judiciaire. 1" the legislature; Z0 the executive; 3" the judiciary. Ubu butegetsi uko ari bulatu buratandukanye Ces trois pouvoirs sont sepal-es et kandi buri butegetsi burigenga, ariko bwose independants I'un de i'autre rnais ils sont bukuzuzanya. Inshlngano, imiterere compl6rnentaires. Leurs attributions, n'imikol-el-e yabwo biteganywa n'iri Tegeko organisation et fonctionnement sont definis Nshinga. dans la prcsente Constitution. Leta igomba gukora ku buryo imi~imo yo mu L'Etat doit veiller i ce que les rnandats et Bulegetsi Nshingarnategeko, Nyubahirizategeko fonctions au sein des pouvoirs Legislatif, n'iy'ubw'ubucarnanza ikorwa n'abayifitiye Executif et Judiciaire soient exerces par des ubushobozi n'ubwangamugayo bihagije kugira personnes ayant les capacitk et I'int6grit6 ngo buri wese ku birnureba abashe kuzuza nccessaires pour s'acquitter, dans leurs inshingano zahawe ubwo bulegetsi uko ari domaines respectifs, des missions conhr&s?i bulalu. ces trois Pouvoirs. I Inyingo ya 61 I Article 61 Mbere yo gutangira iniirirno, ba Perezida Avant d'entrer en fonction, les Presidents des Ishinga Amalegeko, Chambres du Pal-lement, le Premier Ministre, The tiil-ee branches are sepalate and Independent from one another but are ail :omplementary. Their responsibliities, xganization and functioning are defined by this Constitution. The State shall ensure that the exercise of legislative, executive and judicial power is vested in people who possess the competence and integl-ity I-equi~ed to fulfil the respective responsibilltles accol-ded to the time branches. Before taking orfice, lhe P~wsident of the Senate and the Speaker of the Chamber of

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115 financi6t-e. -- in tlle nane of the people ne peut se rendre justice soi-mhe. a judge in his or her ow11 Ibyemezo by'ubucamanza biyomba Les decisions jirdiciaires s'irnposent a tous Judicial decisions al-e binding on all parties gukurikizwa n'abo bireba bose, zaba inzego ceux qui y sont patties, que ce soit les concerned, be they public aulliol-ities UI z'ubutegetsi bwa Leta cyangwa abantu ku giti pouvoirs publlcs ou ies patticuliers. Elles ne individuals. They shall not be challenged cyabo. Ntibishobora kuvuguruzwa keretse peuvent &re remises en cause que par les except through ways and procedur-es binyuze mu nzira no mu buryo buteganywa voies et sous les forrnes prevues par la loi. determined by law. n'amategeko. I Ingingo ya 141 I Article $41 I Article Imanza ziburanishirinva mu ruhame keretse Les audiences des juridictions sont publiques iyo ut-ukiko twemeje ko habaho urnuhezo mu sauf le huis clos prononce par une juridiction gihe kuburanisliiriza mu ruhame byagira iorsque cette publicile est dangereuse pour ingaruka mbi ku ituze rusange rya rubanda i'ordre public ou les bohnes mceurs. cyangwa bigateta urukozasoni. 141 Court proceedings are conducted in public unless a court delermines that llie proceedings sliould be in camera on the ground that a public heal-ing might have an adverse effect on general public ot-der 01 would outrage public morals. Urubanza rwose rwaciwe rugomba kugal-agaza Tout jugement ou doit dre motive el Every courl decision shall indicate the gt.oundr impamvu rushingiyeho kandi rukalldikwa mu enti6rement redig6 ; ii prononce avec on which it is based, be wl-itten in its entireh, ngingo zalwo zose; rugonlba gusomerwa mu ses motifs et son dispositif en audience and shall be delivered in open coul-l. ruhame hamwe n'inipamvu zose uko zakabaye publique. n'icyemezo cyafasiiwe. Inkiko zikurikiza gusa amateka. iyo Les juridictions il'appiiquent ies r&glements Courts apply 01-det-s and I-egulalions onl) atanyuranyije n'ltegeko Nshinga n'andi que pour autant qu'lls sont conformes a la where they are not inconsistent with lllc mategeko. Constitution et aux lois. Constitution and other laws. Bitabangarniye uburenganzira bwrababuranyi Sans prejudice de I'egalite des just~ciables Without p~ejurlice lo the ptinciple 01 equalrt) devant la justice, la loi o~ganique poltant of lituants befote the law, an oryanic law

116 ngenga ~yerekeye irnitere~e n'ububasha by'inkiko, I-igena ishyinvaho ry'umucamanza umwe mu nkiko zisanzwe zibur-anisha ku rwego ma mbere uretse mu Rukiko rw'ikirenga. hyo tegeko ngenga rigena uburyo ibikubiye I~UI-i iki gika bishyinva mu bikorwa. jes dispositions du present alinea. and jul-isciictio~~ ol shail determine inslitulion of a single in first irislance will- Court. Tlie same the procedure ol application of the provisions of this pal-ag~.apii. ~. Uretse uburyo buteganywa n'amalegeko, abacamanza bashyizweho burundu ntibayegayezwa, ntibashobora guhagarikwa by'agateganyo, kwimuritwa ahandi, n'ubwc byaba ari ukubazamura mu ntera, gushyi~wa mu kiruhuko cyrizabuku~-u cyangwa kuvanwa ku murimo. Article 142 Article 142 Les juges tiommps A titre definitif sont Unless the law otherwise PI-ovides, judger inamovibies ; ils ne peuvent &re suspendus, confilmed in orice shall hold tenure for life; mutes, en avancement, rnis 2 la retraite lhey shall not be suspended, transfel-i-ed, evel~ ou demis de leurs fonctions sauf dans les cas if it is lor the purposes of p~arnotion, retirec prevus par la ioi. prematurely 01- otherwise I-emoved fl-om office. Mu mil-imo yabo, Abacamanza nta kind bakurikiza uretse amalegeko. Itegeko rigenga abacanianza n'abakozi b'inkikc rigena umushahal-a n'ibindi byose bagenerwa. 1.es juges ne sont sournis, dans I'exercice de In the exel-cise of tileit funclions, judge1 leurs fonctions, QU'~ I'autorite de la loi. follow the law and only the law. La loi portant statut des juges et des agenls The law on the slalus of judges and olhe~ de I'ordre judiciaire determine le salaire el judicial personnel shall dele~rnine tllt autres avantages qui leur sont allou6s. remune~alion and othe~ benefils due lo tiie~n Icyiciro cya 2 : Ibye~ekeye inltiko Ingingo ya 143 (Yal7k1duwe n'ivuyunm no 1 rpo ku wa 8/l?/ZOO115/ Section 2 : Des juridictions Article 143 (Modifie'parla Revision n02 du 8.1?/?OOS) Section 2 : Courts Article 143 (Modilied by AmemIn~e17l rto2 of 8/12/2005) Hashyizweho inkiko zisanzwe ~~'inltilto zihariye. II est institue des jutidictions ordinaires et des O~dina~y and specialized cou~~ls a!-e Iiel-ell) juridictions specialis6es. established.

117 Inkiko zihariye ni inkiko Gacaca n'inkiko za Les juridictions spocialisces sont les Specialized courts, are the Gacaca cocl~ls and gisirikare. Juridictions Gacaca et les juridictions militaires. Military courls. Ilegeko ~genga risl-robora yushyiraho izindi Une. loi organique peut instituer d'autres An organic law may eslabiish other specialized nkiko zihariye. juridictions specialisees. courts. Uretse Ur-ukiko tw'ikir-enga, ir~kiko zisanzwe A I'exception de la Cour Supreme, les With the exception of the Supreme Court, zishobor-a kugira ingel-eko zihar-iye cyangwa juridictions ordinaires peuvent &re dotees de ordinary courts lnay have specialised and/or inge~reko zikorera ahandi byemejwe n'iteka rya Chambres sp&iaiis&s ou de Chambres itinerant chambers established by an order of Perezida w'u~wkiko I-w'lkil-enga abisabwe dktachks, par ordonnance du President de la tile President of the Supreme Court upon n'inarna Nkuru yfubucamanza. Cour Supreme sur proposition du Conseil pr-oposai of the Supreme Council of the Supkrieur de la Magistrature. Judiciary. Inkiko zishobol-a gukorer-a a110 ari ho hose mu Les Cours el Tribunaux peuveht, sans 0uir.e Coults may sit in any localily within the limits ifasi yazo iyo bituma irnirimo yazo igenda au jugement des affaires?i leur siege of lheir territorial jul-isdiction if the efficienl neza, ariito bitabanganiiye imanza zicibwa ltu ordinaire, en n'importe quelie localit6 de administration of jusuce so requires and this cyicaro cyazo gisanzwe. leur ressort si la bonne administration de la does not prejudice the normal business of Liie justice le requiert. courts at Llieir permanent seats Ibyo ari byo byose nlil~ashobora gushyirwaho Toutefois, il ne peut &re Cree de juridictions However, no special cour-1s shall be CI-eated inkiko zidasanzwe. d' exception. Itegeko ngenga I-iyena inliterere, ububasha Une loi organique d6te1-mine I'organisation, la An organic law shall delermine the n'irnikorer-e y'inkiko. comp6tence et le fonctionnement des Cours et organisation, jur-isdiction and the lurictionin~ Tribunaux. of Courts.

118 ~. ~~~ ~ Akiciw lta mbe~e : Ibye~eheye ittltiho section pr-emisire : ~ ejuridiction;) s one : 01.di11al.y Collll~ zisa rizwe ordinaires I i I A. Ibyerekeye Urukiko rw'ikirenga \. De la Cour Suprhe A. The Supreme Coult Ingingo ya 344 Article 144 I Alticle 144 Urukiko r-w'lkil-enya ni I-wo rukiko I-ukul-iye izindi mu.giliuyu. Ibyemezo byarwo ntibijuril-i~wa ui-else ibyerekeye irnbabazi n'isubiiwarno ry'ur-ubanza. Byubahirizwa n'abo bireba bose, zaba inzego za Leta, abayobozi bose b'imirimo ya Leta, aba gisiviri, aba gisirikare, abo mu rweyo rw'ubucarnanza n'abantu ku gili cyabo..a Cour Supreme est la plus haute juridiction The Suprerne COUI-t is the highest coui-t in the lu pays. Ses dkisions ne sont susceptibles country. The decision of the Supreme Cou~l l'aucun recours si ce n'est en mati6re de ar-e not be subject to appeal save in te~nns of ~rsce ou de revision. Elles s'imposent, B tous petitions lor the exercise of the preroyalive or :&ux qui y sont parties, B savoir les pouvoirs iner-cy or revision of a judicial decision. Its ~ubiics et toutes les autorites decisions ai-e binding on all par-lies concerned ~drninistratives, civiles, rnilitaires et whether such ai-e organs of the State, public uridictionnelles ainsi qu'aux particuliers. officials, civilians, military, judicial officel-s 01 private individuals. Inyingo ya 145 (?ahindowe rr7vuqunffa NO1 i yo kit wa OV12/20033/ Inshingano z'urukiko I-w'lkirenga ziteganywa n'iri Tegeko Nshinya n'andi mategeko ; muri zo hari : Article 145 (Modh%parla Revision NO1 du Article 145 (FludiliedDyA/llendnler7l No1 uf 02/12/2003) 02/12/2003,,.a Cour exelrce les attributions lui The jur-isdiction of the Supreme COUI-t is :onferees par la presente Constitution et les provided lor- in this Constitution and otiw laws ois. Elle doit notamment: and includes, inter alia : lo Itubui-anisha mu mizi ibirego birebana n'ubujur-ir-e bw'inranza zaciwe ku rwego Iwa mbere no ltci rwa kabiri n'urukiko Rukuru I-wa Repubulika ndetse n'urukiko Rukuru Iwa Gisirikare, mu bu~yo buteganyijwe n'amategelto; 2" yukul-iitirana ko inkiko zikurikiza ainategeko, guhuza no kugenzura ibilto~wa byazo ; 3O gufata icyemezu Iw biregg birebana Lo statuer au fond sur les affaires en appel et lo hearing appeals ayainsl decisions of the en dernier degre jugees par la Haute Cour High Cou~t of the Republic and the Military de la Rbpublique et la Haute Cour Militaire High COUI-t rendered in their first or dam les conditions pr6vues par la loi ; appellate degrees as provided fol- by the law;!" veiller B I'appiication de la ioi par les Cours 2" ensul-ing that Coulis act in acco~rdanc~ et Tribunaux, coordonner et contraler leurs with the law, coo~dinating and supeivising activites ; their activities; 3" statuer sur /es remum en 3" hearing pelilioris on Llrc

119 ,!la9lupl]j I/XJjO SJJ~ll/Jlll~O J-JOA /L)uofe~u sp/!rjj-o~j e Aq 'uo!ssas ju!of [I! ~II!J&JLU JuJ[uP!/Xd Jo S/JqLllPl/J qjoq lo ~JOA e 1/6no.qj uayej aq //Pl/5 pnoj alua/d/ls JyJ 1fj!M J!/qfldJU JI/] 10 ~uap!sald all].js~!/e6e sahlelp J/!/ Oj l/o!sljjp all] 'JSPJ I/JflS 111 'uo~n.yjsllo JlJIjO UO!JP/O!A JJPJJq!/Jp pur a/lej6.i0 1/05Pa/j JO SJ~J~IJJ I10 ~!/!,lilfld~u Jl/J j0 JllJp./Sa/d J[/J 6l(/h~.'sZ31)/?p </JIJjjO UQI~~W~SSP alojarl JJJ$lU/H Jll1,Ud Jqj PIE JJ~JIK~J~~ Jl/l JO.JUJP!SJ.ld Jl/l Aq myej auo 40 qeo al/j &~!.~ajs/u!wpe!~a)s!u!~ JILI!.I~ JI/I pue pno3 JIIIJJ~~~ aqj jo juap!sa~d all? 'sa]nr/aa /O JJqUlPl/J 311) /O./ayeads alp 'JJ~UJS Jl/) 40 JUJp.ISa/d Jl/J 'J!/9fld~t) Jl/J og./ jo )I/J,QISJ./d all) jsu!e6e SJWJ /PII~llI!JJ.3JUeJSUl jsq pllp 25/11 Jyj [(I ~LI!&J.g.'SUP~JO J~JPJS JU~JJJ!~.2e~1 JP SU~IJ~?!PJI uaa~jaq bu!s!./e S.IJMO~ aj 6u!~ela/ squa+&!p 531 wesoddo suoynq.uae,p m o6~zll~a gp6e1/ asjnn!z OLI~~U!I/~II! eyed~u! 'JM~~SI~~I "b S~Jnd'!p!]S~flhJ UO&~ 61#~/0Sal S,l!/,IUOJ sj/ ' JpUPlUJp JnS JaL/JUPQ,* ~hya.1~~.3]11~1llgw6piip! XnPUO!JPUJJJU! SpJOJJP.!epl e~llll/a~1~6.'e61j!l/s~ 0yaba~1; 11 J~LI~/P.~~/~IJP ~~IJP~/PI.U~Z~~~LLI Sa!JPJ.L) /~L/O~]P~~/~Jl/J pllp SMP/-JaIJJp ja SF]!PJJ S J )a ~ SIC?/ SJJJJ?~ sap $101 S J ~ oya6a/eu~p,u eya~-oyaba)~u/e 'SMP/ 'SMPI ~!IJP~IO jo ~J!/P~I~IO~J~.JI~S~IOJ ' SJ~b111P6~0 5!0/ 5Jp ' 0 ~ ~ '~fimbll ~ 1 ~ 0~abaj~llle 1 ~ 0yqll - -_p._-_p-, , --d) >

120 go kluenieza ha uniwanya wa Pe~erida vv; I /a vacance du posle du Pre'sidenl Iahy vacaril of ofice of lire fresidem Repubulilca udalile uniurllu uwuriho. de la R+ub/ique en cas de deds, de '0 the Republic in case of lhe President? igil~e yapfuye, yyeguye, yaciwe igihano demission, de condamnation pour haute death, res~gna~on or mnvid~ori am nl~ukiko kubera icyaha cyo bahison ou vio/ation grave et de sentence for lriglr Lreaso/! or grave a70 kug~mdanba ig/~ugu cyangwa kwica la Constitution ; deliberale violalion of lhe Conslilution ; Itegeko Nslli/rga Dilcameye kandi nkana ; 1O0ltu bireba~~a ri'iniilem~e y'inlego looen mati& &organisation du pouvoir lo0on rlmllers relating lo the 01yarlisalio,7 01 z~bucanrar~za, Urukiko nw'lkrenga judiciaire, elle peut proposer au the judiciary, [he Supfenre Court ma) ~~/shodora kugeza kufi Guverinorna Gouvernement touk torm me qui lui parait propose to tlre Governmerit a Dill of an) ~~nruslringa wose w'ivr~gurura rigan~ije confornm d I'int6r.t ggnerat nature amerrding exisling law in public inyu/~gu rrmnge ; inlered; 1l"gulanga ibi5odanurornpaliio ku muco 11 *dunner l'interpr6tatiori authentique de la ll"lo provide aulheniic inlelp,elation 01 yakor~do utar~ditse nlo gihe arrmlegelro muturne en cas de silence de la loi. cusli~nnl wl~ich is unwriiten arid iri respeci yandilse ntacyo adivugaaho. of wl~icfl ihe w~iliwl law is silent. Iteyeko rjge/jya liger~a imil~uriganyirize Une loi organique dgterrnine I'organisation et The organic law.c/ij// delwnri~le 1/7c n%niko/w~ y'urukiika rw'iki~/jga. Ie fon'oionnemgnt de la Cour Suprhe. organizalion and functioning of ([he Suprwri6 Court. I Irigingo ya 146 I Article 146 I Article 146 Urukiko rw'lltirenga ruyoborwa na Perezida La Cour Supl-he est dirigk par un President, The Supreme Coull is headed by a President, wurigir-ijwe na Visi-Pelezida harnwe n'abandi assiste d'un Vice-president et de douze autl-es assisled by a Vice-PI-esident and twelve ohel bacamanza cumi na babiri. juges. judges. Bose ni abacalnanza b'urnwuga. Ils sont tous juges de carripre. They shall all be careel- judges. Bibaye ngombwa ilegeko ngenga I-ishobora Une loi organique peut, en cas de besoin, Where necessaly, an 01-ganic law may incr-eaa kongera cyangwa itugabanya urnubare augmenter ou I-Pduil-e le nombre des juges de or reduce the number or Judges or the w'abacamanza ~'UI-ultiko rw'ikirenya. la Cour SuprGrne. Supreme Coult.

121

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124 -- D. Ibyerekeye UI-ukilro ~w'ibanze Ingingo ya 15lr/ahi1idr~rwe r7'lvr1gurura n02 /yo ku wa 8/12/2Ouy n ~ =1=ce airrsi que ie iesso~t de 'al ju~isd~cliun of cadi liiyirer i~~slarice ~iaque Tr~burial de Graride Instance. 1. Du Tribunal de Base D. Lower Instance Court Wide 151 (Modifieparla revision non02 ryo Article 151(Modilied by A~nie~~d~iie~it u"z of ku wa 8/11/2005) 8/1 Z/ZOOS) -- 7 est irrs#fue' des Wbunaux de Base. There is her-eby esl.al.li11ed Lower Ins(anc~ Courts. Itegeko rige~iga rigena iri~ilwere, uudbas1i~ n7mikslrer~ DyVrukiko 1w7Oanze 11 Tasi ya bur Rulciko I-wTba~rze. Yne loi organique de'terrnine l'organimtion, la An organic law sliall determilre the :omp&ence et Ie fonclionnenient du Tribunal organisaliori, the corrlpete~ice, the llo,ldiorri~ig Ye Rase ainsi que /e ressort de chaque at~d [he te~eiiorial jurisdiciio~i of eadr Lowe! rribunai de Base. firstance C0ul-L: Akicil-o ka 2 : Ibyerekeye inltiko zihal-iye ious-section 2 : Des jurididions ;p6cialis6es. Sub-section 2 : Specialized Coulls A. Ibyerekeye Inkiko Gacaca 11'Urwego ~'Igihugu rushinzwe gukuriltirana ibiko~wa byazo Ingingo ya 152 Hashyizweho Inltiko Ga~aca zishinzwt gukurikirana no gucira irrranza abaitoze ibyah; bya jenoside n'ibincli byaha byibasiyf inyokomunlu byakozwe hagati y'ilariki ya ; Ukwaki~a 1990 n'iya 31 Ukuboza 1994, u~elsc ibyaha a~nalegelto ashirrya izindi nitiko. A. Des Juridictions Gacaca et du Service A. Gacaca Courts and the National National de Suivi de leurs activites Service for the follow-up of thei~ activities 1 Article 152 A~ticle 152 There is hereby establisiied Gacaca Cou~ts responsible lor the trial and judgment of cases against ~~e~-sons accused of ihe c~rinie ol genocide and crimes againsl humanily which were cornmilled between Octobel- 1' 199U and December- 31" 1994 with the exceplion ol WUI-isdiction in [ e ~ c l of which is v2tst

125

126 Ilegeko ngenga risobanura i117il-e,-ere, une ioi organique pr~cise Irorganisation, la An organic law shall dete~mirte the ububas/ra n'imiko~ere by'hama Nkuru compktence et le fonctionnement du conseil y'uducan7anza- Rigend kmd; uwbare ~ ~ ~ e ~, organisation, ~ the ~ powers ~ and the functioning de la ~~~i~~~~~~~~ ainsi que le of the Supreme Council of Uie Judiciary. It w'abdcanlanza b ~ ~ ~ mu gyace l ~ ka a 6 n'aka 7 nomt,re des luges definis points 60 et 70 shall also determine the numbet- of judges lw'iyi 1~gh7go. du prkent article. mentioned in point six and seven of this arlicle. I I Akiciro ha 4 : Ibyerekeye Abunzi Section 4 : Des Conciliateurn Section 4 : The Mediators Ingingo ya 159 (Ilahinduwe n'lwguma n "2 ~ ~ 159 ( i ~ ~ fla ~ l i ~ 02 ~ du ~ Article ~ i ~ 159 ~ (Mw'ilied i by Amendment ~ ~ n02 of /yo kit wa 8/12/200S) 8/11/2005) 8/12/2005) Haslryizweho 'Konrile y2bunzin isl~inz'we 1 est institup un de ~ ~ ~ There ~ is hemby ; i establisl7ed ~ t a ~ 'Wediation ~ ~ ~ kunga adaduranyi igihe cyose mbere yo 2 fournir uff cadre de conc;jatjon Committee" responsible for n~ediating between gushyiki/iza urukiho rudu,ani.5/ia [nu rwego prpalable 2 la saisine des parties lo certain disputes involving nlatfers ~wa n7dere idi,ego nru rturrza zimwe 7igeflwJ ju"dictions de premier deg& s;&ea,jt dans determined by law prior to tire /iling of J case n 7legeko. certaines affaires definies par la loi. with the court of first instance. Konlile y'nbunzi igizwe n'abantu cornit& des ~ ~ ~ est ~ compos~ ~ i de / i The ~ Mediation t ~ Coninliltee ~ ~ ~ sha// con7pise of D 71iyangamugayo kandi bazwil~o ubusl7obozi perso17nes intgres et reconnues pour leur persons of integ~ity ar7d acknowledged forbwo kunga. aptitude d conci/i.er. their 117edialYon sh?lls.

127 INTERURO YA V TITLE V 'B YEREKEYE UBUSHINJACYAHA DU MINISTERE PUBLIC PUBLIC PRO5ECUTION JMUTWE WA MBERE : IBYEREKEYE IBUSHINJACYAHA BUKURU BWA REPUBULIKA Ingingo ya 160 CHAPITRE PREMIER : DU PARQUET GENERAL DE LA REPUBLIQUE Article 160 ZHAPTER ONE : PARQUET GENERAL OF THE REPUBLIC iashyirweho urwego ~rw'ubushinjacyaha II est institue un MinistPre Public apf witwa "Ubusl~injaryalia bukuru bwa "Parquet General de la Republique" cha <epubulikan, mu byo ~rusliinzwe hal-ima notamment de la poursuite des infractions lukul-ikil-ana ibyaha mu Gihugu hose. lout le territoi~e national. rlier-e is hereby established a Naliona 'rosecution Service known as the Parquel Sneral of the Republic responsible inler alia, 'or tlie invesligation and p~osecution of cc-itne: ~onirnitted in Rwanda. <u(ite ubwiyenye rriu micurtgir-e y'abakozi i'i~nari bya~wo. Iugingu yn 16 I (Yahiriduwe n 7vugut.ura no 1.yo ku wa OZ/12/2003 /I Tvc~gc~i~uiu,a n02 ryo ku wa 8/12/2005) II jouit de I'autonomie de gesl adrnlnistrative et financipre. Article 161 (Modi/ie'par/a Revision nol d~ 02/11/2003 et la Revision n02 du 8/11/2001 The p~oseculion se~vice shall enjo) adrnin~slralive and financial autonomy. Al-tick IG I (Modifid by Arrieridnieril iiol of Ol/1&'2003 arid Ar77endnient n OZ of 8/12/2005) (Ivugurura r? * 2) Ubusliirljacyalia Bukuru bwa Repubulika n (Revision no 2) Le Paquet Gen6taI de la R&ublique const, urwego rrmwe. Bugirwe n7din uri organe unique. I1 comprend un ser by'uniushirljacyallaaaia Plukuru wa Repubulika, appele Bumau du Pmcureur General d UDushinjacya/ia bwo ku twego rwwn~buyt RipuWique et un service decentralis6 n'ubushinjacyaha Dwo ku rwego rw7banze. niveau de Gmnde Instance et de base. (Aniendnienl ri * 2) Uie National Prosecutiotl Setvice is a sirrgh institution. It s/ia/i comprise if7e Ofice of th< Prosecutor General of tlie RepuDiic proseculion at tile High Inslar~ce and Lowe Itistance levels.

128 Urwego rw'ibil-o by'umushinjacyalia Mukui-u Le Bureau du PI-ocureur Genbral de la The Orrice of the Pvoseculor General sliall wa Repubulika, rugizwe n'umusl~injacyalia Rkpublique est c~mposp du Procureur G6nkral comprise the P~~osecutor Genel-al, the lleputy Mukul-u wa Repubulika, Urnushinjacyaha de la Rbpublique, du Protureur G6n6ral de la Prosecutor General and PI-osecutol-s with Mukuru wa Repubulika wungirije Rkpublique Adjoint et des procureurs jurisdiction over the whole countly. n'abasliinjacyaha barite ububasha mu Giliugu compktence nationale. hose. I I I (1vugu1-ura no 1) (Revision n O 1) (Amendment n" 1) Un7usl1i1ljacyaha Mukuru wa Repubulika Le Pmcureur G&&l de la Republique et Ie The Pmecutw General and Deputy P~wsecutof rr'un~usl~injacyalra Mukwu wa Repubulika Pmcureur G&era/ Adfoint de la RE;pub/ique General s/rall be llolders of al least a Bacllelof Wungirije bagonrba kuba bafite nfiura doivent avoir au moins un diplbme de licence of Laws Deg~ee and have wo~king experienrr irnpanlyabun7enylyl il~anitse n~u by2mategeko en Dmit et une exp6rienc.e pmfessionnelle de of eight (8) years in [/re legal p~nfession ao n'uduran7be bw7myaka omiinani (8) n1u kazi huit (8) ans au nloins dans une pmfession pmven abiliw of nlanagernerrt al 11ig/l-leve/s o/ karebana n'amatqeko, bakaba kandi jundque ef avoir fait preuve d'apttude dms inslilutions. baragagayeho uor/sl?ooori rnu n~iyoborere l'adnliniistration d7nslitutions au plus haut y7nzeko nkuru z'ubuyobozi. niveau. (Ivugu~ura no 1) (Revision no 1) (Amendment no 1) Abafite i,tlpa~nyabiinien y7k;renga niu Pour Ies d6tenteu1-s d'u di,u/bnle de Doclorat Holders of Doctoral deg~ees irr law shall have by'anralqeko, Dagomba kuba bafite en Drwit rexperience professionnelle requise at least five (5) years of experi=wce in the ubu~ambe nibura bw'inlyaka itam (5) mu est de cinq (5) ans au moim dans une legalp~nfession. mi/imo yer~keye anlalegeko. pmfession juridique. Umusliinjacyaha Multul-u wa Repubuiika Le Procureur G6neral de la R6publique dirige The PI-oseculor Geriel-al of the Republic shall ayobor-a kancli agahuza imirimo et coordonne les activites du Parquet Gkn6al direct and cool-dinale ihe activities of the y'ubushir~jacyaha Bulturu bwa Repubulika. de la Rkpublique. Assist6 d'autres Procureurs prosecution service. With the assistance of the Abilashijwenio n'abancii bashinjacyaha bagize de son Bureau, il exerce I'action publique prosecutors in his or her ofke, lie 01- she shall Biro ye, akuriltirana icyalia imber-e y'ui-ukiko devant la Cour SuprSme et devant la Haute be responsible lol- PI-osecutions belol-e the rw'ikir-enga, n'imbere y'ulukiko Kuku~u rrwa Cour de la ~bpublique dans les conditions Supreme Cour-l arid the I-ligh Caul-t of the Repubulika mu buryo buteganywa prpvues par la loi. Republic in accordance with pr-ovisioris of the n'amatey eko. law.

129 ~&/rinjac~a/ia Mulm wa Repubulika Le P~wur. G&&a/ de /a Rgpublique est The Proseculor General of Ifre Repubiic ic ahagararirwa niu mirinio ye n' repksente' dam ses fonctions par un represent~d by a p~wseculw at tile Nigl, U~nusliirljacyaha wo ku Rwego Rwisu~nbuye Procureur au niveau de la Grande Instance et Inslance level and a PI-usecuto~- at tlie grass^ n'unwshlrl/bcyaha wo hu Rwego 1w7banze. un Prwureurau niveau de base. mot level. Ivugurura no 2. RCvision no 2 Anrendnlent no 2 Un~uslii~ljacyalia Mukuru wa Repubulika Le Pmcureur G&n&ral de la Republique The Proserolur General of the Republic nraj ashobom guha buri 1t1usl7lnjacyaalla aniabwirila dunner des injondions &rites tout Pmcureur give wrilien inslr"clio,rs to any Pmseculnr. I yandike. Icyakora nta bubaslia alite bwo et Officier du MinistGre Public, Cependant ce However, he or she has no powers to yivt kubuza umi~sliinjacyaha kuba yakurikirana pouvoir n'emporte pas Ie dmif de dess&ir Ie insin~ctions to a Prnserutor llo refrain ~ I I ; urriuntu, kuglra ngo abe ari we ubwe Procureor des dossle~ a' instmire dans Ieurs pmse~uting any person and lo defer lfie ' urnwikurikiranira. ressorts respectifs et de se subwtuer a' eux. rnalter to him or liersell I Ingingo ya 162 I Artitle 162 I Article 162 Ubuslhinjacyaha Buku~u bwa Repubulika Le Parquet G6n6rai de la R$ublique est place The p~rosecution service shall be under the bugengwa mu rnirimo yabwo na Minisiliri urte sous I'autorit6 du Ministre ayant la justice dans authority 01 the Minister having luslice in hi5 Ubutabel-a mu rrshingano ze. ses attributions. or her functions. Mu byerekeranye no gultul-iltil-ana ibyaha, En matiere de poursuite d'infractions, le In nialters relating to the pr-osecution ol Minisitiri unte ubulabera mu nsliingano ze Ministre ayant la justice dans ses attributions offences, the Minister having luslice in his or agena poliliki rusange karidi ashobora, mu difinit la politique gbn6ale et peut, dans her runclions shall detet~nine general policy nyungu r-usange z'akazi, gulia Urnushinjacyaha Itinter& g8n6ral du service, donner des and may, in public i~~teresl, issue WI-itten Mukuru wa Repubulika, amabwiriza yanditse injonctions icrites de poursuite ou de non instructions lo the Prosecutol- General tc amutegelta cyanywa aniubuza gukul-ikil-am. poursuite au Procureur General de la undertaite or!refrain from investigalions and Repu blique. prosecution or an orfence. Ashoboc-a kandi, iyo byihuti~wa, inu also, in cases of urgency and ir~ rusange, guha Umushinjacyaira uwo issue WI-ilten inslruclions tc arnabwil-iza yandilse lo investigate and prosecute 01 cyangwa amubuza -- Uniushinjacyalia

130 lyo amaze yutangazwa mu Iyazeli ya Leta, Les traites ou accords internationaux Upon their publication in the official gazelle, amasezerano rnpuzamaiianya yemejwe burundu r4guliprement ratifies ou approuves ont, dps international treaties and agreements which mu buryo buteganywa n'amategeito, ayira leur publication au journal officiei, une autorite have been conclusively adopted in accol-dance agacil-o yasumba ak'amaleyeko ngenga superieure celle des lois oryaniques et des with the provisions of law shall be more n'ak'arnaleyeko asanzwe keretse iyo lois ordinaires, sous reserve, pour chaque binding than organic laws and 01-dinary laws adakurikijwe n'urundi ruhande. accord ou trait&, de son application par I'autre except in the case OF non compliance by one partie. of patties. t Ingingo ya Article 191 I Article Bi~abujijwe gukora amasezelano rnpuzamalianya Les accords d'installation de bases rnilitaires It is prohibiled lo make inte~national yernera gutuza ingabo z'amahanga mu Gihuyu. 6tranyPres sur le territoire national sont agreements permilling roreign military bases interdits. on the national territory. Birabujijwe y u ko~a amasezel-ano Les accords autorisant le trahsit ou ie stockage It is prohibited lo make international mpuza~natianya yemera kunyuza cyangwa sur le territoire national de dhhets toxiques et agreements permlttiny the transit or dumping kurunda mu Gihuyu irnyanda illumanya autres matieres pouvant porter yravement of toxic waste and other hazardous matel-ials n'ibindi byose byayira inyaruka zikomeye ku atteinte la sant6 et 6 I'environnernent sont capable of endangering public health and lhe buzi~na bw'abantu no ku bidukikije. interdits. environment. Ingingo ya 192 (Yal~induwe n7~guru1a1p1 Article 192 (Modifie'p~rla Revision no 1 du Article 192 (ModiliedbyAmendrrrent~r~l of ryo ku wa OZ/lZ/2003) 02/1.&2003) UZ/l&'ZOO3) Iyo anlaswerano n7purarl7ahanga afite ingingo Lorsque un engagement international Where an internalional treaty corrtains II Wegeko Nsllinga, ubobasha bwo cornporie une clause contraire 2 la prwvisions which are i1ico17sisfent wit71 (he kuyenieza bururldu ntibd~obora gutauywa Cons(itution, Yautorisation de /e ratif7er ou de Constihtion, the aulho/-isation fo ramy (ire Itegeko Nsllinga litabanje kuvugo~rurwa. Yappuver ne peut intewenir qu2p& la trealy or ag~mrerrt cannot he grant& until re'vision de la Constitutloh. [he Condih~tiorr is amended.

131 W+ U G a i Pad, President. oi the Repmbiic; Tbe Pariiarnenr : Tne Ckambs oidep3epudl. k irr rrniw of.4pd 5,2004; Tnc Senate m 15 wim or- 23,20M, Given the Constimion of tire Rxpubiic oi R-da of 4 jwt 1003, zs amended to dau. =spslally in irs Articier 10, 15, 15, 18, 19; 3.22, 6288, 90, 95,95: 108, 118-7' and201; Rcvkitcd the iaw oi February 23, 1963 relaiing to the Code of ctiminai pocrdmc, ar maci5ed and complcmenttd to datq ADOPTS : CHAPTER ONE : PRELIMIN.4RY PROVlSIONS A;tide one : This law governs criminal im,csti&on and pmsdan, which arc aimed at impki penal &ions %ginst a 5 that contravme toc pnal law. Siction one : Actiom arising from offences Sobsdio. on. : C*.al.&on It can also be prmkuted by the victim, by fiiing a claim W y to a ciiminal cow doul bzsing his or her claman tire pmrcsuhoa Artide 3 : A Fnmina action abates upon death oithc offnda. m case of prescription of oficnc+ &en thvc is mtsy, vvhcn a law is repealed or idowing a couri'r jadgmmt on a parrid= offmc?. In case thc law provida othmvise. the amion an aiso be e;;tin&izd withour mai or in cac a complainam withdraws his or her ciaim iithc d=iendam acz,rs ro pay a rine

132 In rspl of c~nlkuous oh- thc prrscription of pms?ui!ion of an ohcs nartr to w h m the day on which thc last ahinal act was completed The psaiphn of pmsmttion of an o&cs is surpcnded by-acts of investigation or prodon meanmr, if hqm~ed~wimm~timcprssm'bcd1mdaarride4ofmistm. 15 mcanwhilc. there har h any aiminal anion, the pmscntio~ phscr;ption dartr to nm again h m tbc day ofthciestsriminalactdthctimcpmvidcdthacof The ramc appiia to the armscd who may not havc ken implid in the bvcdgation or uny pmshon Prrscriphon of pmsdon of an othct is s-dcd whcnncr thc pmc=ding is hkmpd by an msvitabk ohstack pmvidcd fm by tbc law or by a case of fbrs= majcur..4 civil action is an a.z.zon filed w scsk redress ior dama,~~ caused bythc o h. k is bro*~ in thc manner provided for mda thjs law..an). penon who bas bm. injured by an oemc an iiit a civil adion Such a pnon ;an be e n d or iegai persos wbefhc public or privnu. - -

133 Xomvc;, bssociarions, whicb have b m 1:gaIly c o W figit a* vioimc; an c mise th: n&. avail8bic m civil parries on bziaif of a vicrim ciaiming damazcs &mp tirm tbc o&cr. Cil mion -a be bmu& n p k principal offnder; their lrmuli-2 and accsr;oris as wcu s againsi those liable m pay forthe -. Whm a civil &dim her bm hght in in criminal ;ow thc pro& claims, is appiicablc to civil ma. to bc iolld in ;rps= of civil Artick 13 : Whm a civil action is brought in a aimid mutt, the court nay, on in wn motion or upon appiication by any of the parties, scpararc the civil action fmm criminal pmrtdinp &en thc civil claim is likely ta pmjjudic or delay the hearing ofthe criminal-~s~ Acid don ~g~omasriminal~ccbccdms~afar~vc(~)ycan~thetimcwhathe oiftncc uas wramtkd Elm, ifthe prrxnpfion of a civil adon prsrda th: p a z o n of a ximid don, a zlvil &an bromr--bfumathesam~withtharofthesnminal~ &'tide 16 : A dnl don cannot be brought Mke a criminal Eourt prcsaiption of w o n of a criminal cast Howcvqwbmaaiminalsourthasbmsdredwimsivrlactio~itcan, whcnthearcnnwipsdcu cvidcnzc, prortd with iis trial ifthe mimid action has b m hebrad, if the ac~used die4 in case of cornmission of an oeacc or in case of amnesty. Artide I7 : The waiver of a civil action doanot bar the pmrccution of a triminal me. Seetion 2 : Scnirs responsible for prosecniion Spb-section one : The.iodicialPoiia a) Oeanisation of the h did Poiice.4rii_dc 18 : Criminai invesh-an is camid judicial poiicc oex- nnnc: qsvision of the Pubit Pmsrmmr oi A. o r b 6Ki;iEaii. ; %

134 Bowm, in the discharge of their judicial pok iuncdow tbcy work under the dirrtion and supervirion oi Public Pros~utm of a Province or thar of Ciry oil;igali In czsc of Wmy Judicial poiice otfir;, he or shc is d i d and sup-yised by thc MiiitPy pmse=utm. Ai-tidt 21 : Unless the law provides otherwise, the pmms of crhninnl inwtigdon and the s d for cvidcncc arc c-cd out in snxcy. Any prron who is ~nvolnd in the proms of criminal invcrri&on professional wrrrsy in mannu pmvidcd for under the pcnd code. is undu obligation to obrrve Judicial poiice o h rhali commcnc criminal inveehgdon on thcir own inidatin, idlowing a compiaint or upon hctiom h m the pvbiic proscatbn -1~ a compimm or rn xndua mv-m on it Mmom any cause, mc peson who fiia tbc wmiuui in thejudina poh may take hc complmt b m m the pblc mosrxnon A complaint can be made to the judidal poiici eithcr odly or in writing. When a complaint is made orally, it must & hducd into writing. Upon r&vinp xpon about the commission of o&c, z Judidai Poiics O Em m immediarely visit the scce ofthc incidem and rake nore of the commission

135 Article 25 :.4 judicial poiic- o6c;- :an rs ~ lkrmgm l any pcxm premed m bavc any dtrail lo cikify, and mrnpel him or ir-7 to Sve testimony, oath; in the manner providcd ior by articie 56 ofthis law. He or she sn also deny any person from mw& away *om L specified area un13 a -mm has hen taken n m of and, ii nec?sary, m iompei him or her ID r& thm. SON summoned by a judicial poiicz ofice for invesdgation rzons arr bound to appear More him or her. Failurt to do so, he or shc may issue a m uunpelling them to appear. Toe warrant is valid ior thm (3) months renewable. A Judicial police offim mrds in his or her natcment the natqe and circmstmrs under which o h c r wen commin& thc timc and place wfim they--commirtcd, evidence or ciucs for prosecution or ddolu and smemenb of pcnonr w h ruae prtscnt the timc of cdmmisdon or who may have any other information to give. A stakemcnt is concluded by the following witten declaration: 9 hcreby dsim that i k i s t a& nothing but the mth". 'If a Judicial poiiw oficsr, that the nsnve of the evidence required is likely to be made up of p- and other documem and other things lmda the possmion of the s&%t or any other pmm h; or shc'm prod to search when they arc kept after obtaining a warrwt fmm a public prosecutor. If the pmsccutor umducn s-h in an oficer of a special profession, it shall be condud in the presence of the person unda s m h or his or her reprsc&ve. If such a person is a mmbs of B proicssional associatioh the search shall be conducted inpresence oithc mp.prrsentadvc oithc auoclatloh 4 Judicial police ofice: can seir propem anywhere ii it can be confiscated in accordance with the isw, u well as any oths propcq which can rsnrc as evidence &the prorcuion or deisnc. Soicd pmpcq should be snow m the omrer, so that k or she can acknowledge th-a..4 smemenr reiaring m thz rrirur: should indicate the se:zd pmpeq and be signed by tbc pmon in poxsnon and wimrsrcr ifwy, in?a$e 07 absencc or inabilrr?. oith: possessor, or his r_iusal to sign on the m c n t of reimrr. ii shall be nored down m su5 z +mum: and the possessor shall be _&en a cop

136 P. ludicid police o&cr who =iva the pnon cau-& rdhanded musl complep iris or ha Nninsi arc file within 48 hours and send it w a compcid public pmsecumr, who, in i necssq * i a mir within 48 hours in a wqmrd COWL For th: pvrposcs of invdggon, such a period can be extended by the public proscc~rtor of a Province or that oftbe City ofkigak Artide 54 : A pnon caught red-handsd is the one aught in the wvnc of conrmittinp, an offence or immediately a& conrmiaing it A person p h s d to have b m caught &hdd is on: who is hmtci with a hue and cry or is found in possession of pmperty, arms, srms5 or deamcak ldi to th: svspidon that hc or shc mi& be the one mpmsiblc for wrndhp the offace or aided and abetted the authcr ofcrim+ pmvidcd it is soon& the mmmission of the crime. Artide 35 : When a puson unsquivdly admit3 to hw: w d d an offcnq the pmvisions of dcle 33, paragraphs 2 and 3 of this law shall apply in tbs wvnc of investigation and pmscvtion and the trial judge or magkmtc can rcdu~. the applicable satmu to a half Artide 36 : For any o6mc that falls mda his or hcr compmnq if a Judicial Pdiu fficr ertiwtcs that due to cirmmstancz that led to it's commission a wurt is likely to impose a punlsbmnt of fme and if n=ssary, to, ordm the w e d f&im of prom, the Jvdicid Polin mccr -a quest public pm~ccvtor in a Provinc or Ciry to invite the -ct to make a choice bctween filing a case agzhsr him or paymcnt of a fine, whithoui t-id not ceding th: maximum fine provided ior by the law in addiuon to additional fine.

137 The judicial hiice seer =or& a na-em of the arrsr in iour (A) copies, on; ofwiuch is Wiar.iy ~~ m the pvhiic pmsrurm oiihc provinc or Cm oikigiiaii_ another is riied in rhc cnminai car tii+ moth:: $v:n m thc in t i e ofthc m d prim and thc I= en m thr ac=&.a. samenr ior arrcs; of an a~lrrd is vaiid for seven?. w (72) hours. which an na be =;m&d. Penom agains; amom thn is no sw5ciern -4dmc m rvsp thar they mmmiaed or aikptcd m cormnit an oknc w nor be dc&& for a perrod oi rims which is ione than whar is n l s q ior their inferrogation. Any person detained by thc ludicid poiic: dcpanment shall be informed of his or ha charges as well iw his or her righs includin~ the right m iniorm his or hn advocate or any othu person hc or she wisha to bc iniormed. Sudi amtification is recorded in the rtarunent ofjudicid police. Any person dwned by the judxid police shall have the right to cons& wth his or ha iegal cwnwl A person dctaincd by the Judicial poiiw shall not, &atsoevu, be M ned in prison or else where not mcant for that pu+sc situated at the poke Etadon Sub-section 2 : Prosecution Service Article 41 : The duty of pmenning r?im;nal offenders before mum of iaw is rcswed for the Pvbk Prosdon Service. Section One: Transrnirsioa of a p e file to the Pvhiic Prosecution Semcc

138 -53- J.O.nDspPcial du 30/07/ ' dcidide to prod with the iavesdpzion if he or she cnnzida the evidence afhsrd in the Et Zmsmitttd to him or ha immiicient to m&ic him or her to make any of the decisions providd ior under item! and 5 of this ardclc; jo initiate the pmcdurc oi sdig thc matt== out of wuz iinc or ihc drms ir the a~propriare m-m to compcnsac the vinim rcdms the of thc o*nce and rehabiiim~ the accused.?his proc=siu~ annot be resprcd on oicnz=s th5ar: punlsiiablc with an iqxisonmcnt sxcrding mop) year;; dm Safe krp the me fiic if hc or she tin& the conqonc- of the o%c art incompldc or the acweri identify is unicnown or iih: or P ~ finds C oroscmning him or hcr is not nr-71. Such a safe kep of the =zsc fiie is the driiion ofthc adminis;adon which m y nor hinder the wnlinuzion of invesdgarion m use the proscmim service gdks Oms pro05 ior pmscmirn provided p~criptirion of pros,sc:ution of an oficnc does not pmaii. Sub-section one : Evidence Iithc pmsccurion, vinim of an oficncc or his or her guardians, have filed an action ior damages or havc taken rhc a-cd to court, thcy havc thedury to prescm midnc mr the wmmission of tbc offcncc. An accused is presumed innoc~t until provcd guilty Prior to proof of oemw thc arussd shall not present ha or hcr.dcicncc. However, if evidence proving the offmc has bm adduc=& the accused or his or her comcl should submit all the grounds of his of her defence, indicating why tbc ciaim should bc dismissed, proving that the aliegations azainst him or her do not constituk a mimind offence or that he w she is inn- and all other =pun& to counter ack pmsclm'on's caw. Evidmcc should be bascd on all gmunds, of fast and law, pmvidcd that parties wmc given- shon than to di- A court gves s final mlinq oo whether the widen? tend4 for tbc prosdon and dsfenw arc cmmm and admissible. Upon request by a public pm-r, or parties or on in om motion, a wun - evidence which it thinks can settle disputer. in order to decide a casc, the court is under an obiidatiantc search.?? widen of the prosccction, the complainant and the accuscd pcnon or their munssl - I order to tends :scaped the In any case, judges or mqimates shall ~ o r all d thc svidenc: adduud prorc:unon or ddmc to support thcir iraremsm. in support for

139 Sub-~ection 2 : Summons -.-.HcIe 48 : R pubiic prosrmror ciiar& with the prcpaation oi a cze 51: mey summon a party by issuing summon4 5 wamni to bring by iorce or a wamnt of arrest - lnose warrants arc vaiid throughout th; entire counuy. A summon is a writteo notic by judicial PoIic oficn or a pubiic proscum to a pcrjon mentioned therein requesting him oi he: tc appear beion a pubiic pmsrutor or a judicial poiic o5xr on the k e and rime spc5ed thcrein. A summon to appear is a written order issued by a pubiic prosecuior to a person mentioned therein requiring him or her to appear beiorc thc prosecutor or a judicial poiir officx on a.date and tiae s med in the summon. A s mon is not a warrant for the arrest or detention of a pmon It is gcneralfy sent when a pamn called by an ordinary written ndtice h u refused to comply, after having received i t A summon to appear is issued against a suspea, an accused person or a witness of a wsc repidlers oithe pvity of the oeencc A %arrant to brinx a suspect by force is a written order issued by a public prosendor and uccnted by law enforcement agmk to compel attendance of a nupea or a person against whom there is incriminating cvidence or who has r chd to show up after being kgally to do so by a pubiic prossuta. A warrant to bring a suspca by force authaiscs an arrest but not detention. It remains in force for a period of three (3) months xarting h m the date on which it was signed.4fter this time expires, it can not be executed unless it is renewed by the ofiicer who issued it In a period not cxccrding three (Z) days starting fmm the day on which he or she was arrested, a person to whom a warrant is issued shodd appear befort the pubiic prosecutor who issued it The person shouid be interrogared in nd later than one day after he or she appeared bcforc the prosecutor who issued the warrant Article 52 : An arrcn warrant is an order sigcd by a pubiic prosezumr in the course preparation of th: case file but nerzzsarily afkc the prosecutor nu inmnncd the acused of hi or hn charges; when the offence is punishabie with an imprisonmenr of at leas: rwc years or gains; an- pnon who has =aped if the oeence he or she is alleged to have committed i's punishable with an im?nsanmenr xcrding one ycar. Tne war;anr remai~ in iorce for i days and psons thereby arrested are remanded in a police station rll. Article 53 : A warrant to brmg a su=d forcibly and that of arrest are mead by any law enfommat agcm and must be shown to the people under smn anti copies there3f5ven to thcm

140 in cut oiurgency they can be sen! by using any availabie mm. The ori,oind w m t of to bring e person; or %E cop thereof is sen1 to the persm supposed to execute it without delay, or of forcibly SUD-seetion 3 : Questiiiug of Witnesses A pubiic prosma :an summon by usin5 written nouc:, summons to app- or narrant to bring by forcz. any pezon he or she thinks hm some important inionnation to give. The summoned person is $vcn a copy of the summoning documenr Witnesses are summoned thrnugk the adminiscarive ors.ans, by using COW baiiiiis or security o m although they a n a well app-arvoluntariiy. Any person summoned in accordance with the law is oblig~d to appear Persons who, by the narurc of thcu trade or prnfession, are cunodians of secrets are exempted 5o.m tenifying as regards those sccsets. A public prosecutor can issue a winart to bring by forte any wimcss who hes defaulted to appear. Any witness who is legally summoned and faik to appear w&ut any lawful reason, or who rcfuses to discharge the obliption of testifying can be handed over to court without any further fodities. A witness who defauk to appear after being summoned for the second time or who, after being called by warrant to bring hnn or her by force advances legitmatt reasons 1s absolved ern punishment Article 56 : After submiskion of their p&cuiars and weens to tell the Fi~tb, witnesses arc interviewed, each sepmtely in the absence of the acmcd. Statements oftheir tcstimonis arc worded in writing. A witness who fails to.appear to mthouf advancing any justifiable exwe after bcing summoned in accordance with the law or rcfuvs to take an oath or to testify a h beins ordered to do so can be sentenced to a maximum punisbmem of one month and a fine wiich docs not ex& fifty thousand fiancs (50.000) or one of them If netd k public force can order his m he: arrest following a warrant to bring him or her by forct issued by a pubiic pros- charged with investigation of the case. 4 witncss who is punished dut to disobeying a summon and who is died for a semnd rime or is sen1 a mmnr ia appear by forcct and lam shows lqmmaie reasons for the default he or shc may be cxempted from the inended penalty. penow enst whom the pmsecmion hu evidenc: to s-ez an offence annor be hcard u wimesscs. thai they were invoivec' in the commission of Amcie 60 : Chiidren 60 have aitaincd the age of 12 can a adults.

141 Chiidrn under the age of 12 can dso be heard but a court's decision cannot be solely based on th* t~hony. In '~s respq the evidenc~ of s minor Aould be supported by othsr corrobom?ive evikc:. Every page of a faiemenr is signed by the proscutor and the person ints6md Toe I- shouid be &d TG rzzithe szmment to see whether it c o h to whd he or she said bemre si-&: ir Lrhe or she dos not -inow how rr! the sa19~a1 is read to him or ner. Yhe or she fuses tc sipl or unable to do so, it k indid in the staum--nt Aticie 62 : Staremmts shouid be rmrdsd with :no& spacmg betwcsl line and words. Words erased or cross& should be approved by both the prosecidor and the wims. Failure to do so my render the words worthless. The same appiies to statemmts that M not bear the rkquikd Ifa wihess is unable to appear before a public pmsccutor, the latter shall go to tom the person where he or she is or delegate swcone else to do it on his or her behalf. Sub-section 4 : Eramination and erosmamination Article 64 : When the aced appears, a public proscator by verifying his or her pattic:l7ars, info- him or ha d of the chzqes against himor her and the provisions of law. These arc recorded into the st?&mmt men the accused has already asked to be defended by a counsel and the latter has ban duly informed, a pnblicprosccutor proc%ds with the inrpro&on. C ' In all other a pubiic p r o m infmms the accused of the ri&t to peek a dcfcncc umcl The counsel is allowed to read the case fie as we11 as to mmmuojauc with the accused. The public prosecutor tben informs the accused that he or she can be mtcrrogatcd immediately if he or she is w i g to do xl. Such informahon is recorded in a sratemcnt However, ifthe acm& wishes to make any dcddcm, proscator immediately intcrrogtcs him or her. At the close of the interview, the &zed gives his or ha residential address. The armscd is also told to inform the pubiic prosecutor who inv&a* the case of any chanps in the &en ddreq that any service mace at the lzst mentioned addes: will be reded as having be=n duly scrvcd on him or ha. Tnat information es well as the address is morded in the satanent A pubiic -pxe~utor can imm&ats!y proc-4 to caq out the inrerview or conht wiincsses if a witness is iiirely to die or if some wiaenc is lik-iy ro disappear. A >him& made 10 the e8el intiicam rcrsans mr the qensy. Where it is necessary, the pubk prcsemor who is charged with the investigation of a case can c w out conbmtatioc b e m accused persons, between witnesses or between accwed persons and witnesses =ithe; OE his or her own iniriative or ar the request of any imeresred parry.

142 Sub-section 5 : Visits to the scene of crime sear& and sei2ni-t Amcle 67 : Fublic prosecuwrs can dele* such amiviies ro judicial poi;- 06cer8 In all cues search is conduned in t!~e present: of ad 've authorids m the area Visits to the scents of crimes and search are conducted in the prscnce of the suspect Or the owner of the house. However, in their absence or they have refused the search, it dosn't hinder smh in cue of comm,ission of a felony or misdemcnor and in case eviden~ may be inted-& or disappear. A pu~4ic prosewtor or judicial police of5ccn who have been entrusted with the duty to scar& and visit suspend scenes of crimes should prove their authority and show warrants which have been sigcd by competent people, authorking Yhcm to ~ nout y such activmcr. A copy of the warrant is given to the susp3cf- A s c ~ wamvt h is a docum&t which is signed by the Prosecutor-Generalof the Republic, or a prosecutor of a Province ar of City of Kigali in the wme of pre-trial invdgation Such a warrant authorises the paon who is supposed to erecute it the power-to visit with vim to diver evidence or property which can assist in establishing the reality of the offwcc and fbe suspects to whom it is attributed When the search is in rspect of dmcn& a public prosecutor char& with the prepadon of the casc or any othm person to which the duty has been is the only p a n darised to know conteats of the documem before their scianc. Article 72 : All propcry and documents under cudy of the prosecut~on are immediately &en sign of seizure. stnck of and shall bear a Seh is made only m r s p of ~ propeq and documents which on be used to csabiish the truth.

143 Sub-sectjon 6 : Inrerception oi corpspouoeoce transmir&eo through porn and teiecornmnnicarion - Ariide 74 : Wen all othc pmc:dures of obtainins widence to diish mbh beve fak& he prosecuror in ckar~e of invesrigdions, may; afia obraltie a wrjaen auihcaisaiion by the Prosezmr General of thf huubiic, linen, aknowled~ and inwcepi ptord communicaiions, -.onvnations, relegmq pod cards reiccolil~~luniczkm and otherwzys of zomrnunicajm Article 75 : 4n order to iism to onl conv=;an'ons and bpi writren d o c m should ~ be in written form and cannot be appealed. Tne order inouid amin iacn relaring to mails or ties to be inre;c-'ptd as well u the oenc that ncsitate raking such m ~ ~. Tne omcr remains in forc for a period which dm not excd three (Z) monk subject to rencwal for such period of time oniy once. All correspondences and messages meant for the &ad of State cannot beintercepted or i i c d tn Sub-section 7 : Commmicatioo and cwperation in the conne of investigation. Artide 77 : A public prostndor charged with the of a case can request a fellow public prosecutor or a ludicid police officer in anutber jurisdiction, to do any necessary functions which he or she thinks can help to demonsimte the truth an his or her behalf. Such communiadon and coopedon should indicate acts relating oniy to the o&nce undu investigtian. However, if deemed necessary, the Pmsccutor General of the Republic can give any Provincial Public Prosemtar or that of City of Kigali s p d authorisation to go to otha areas ouisidc the ordinary territorial jurisdiction for the purposes of conductinz criminal invcstiption activities. Artide 78 : Public prosecutors or judicial police officers prosecutor in relation to the assigned m&m only. as such cxercise the functions of an ordinary pubec Sub-sedion 8 : Use sf interpreters, translators, experts and physicians Each person wno has bm le-diy required by a judicid police oscer, a publp prosecutor, a Juagc or a Magi- to assist as an inrerprzter, a trandaror, a physician or an expert whas is under an ohligation to do SC. Seiore sdng ro discnarge their duties, intcrpmers: translators, physicians and cxnm whesses swear to acz faithfully an6 compile their reports with professional consciousness and honour. Article 81 : Tne Presidmt of th: Supreme Caua the President of the Hi& Coun ofthe Repubiic; Prcsidmt of~rovincial and City of Kigaii Coum as well as thosc of Dimiq Municipaiity and Towns wwc can, afm in- and imerview. aupoint some mcmbm of -17 in their Jurisdicdons u, act as intcv, tamlators or -en wimesses after they have taken oath, so that they can consantly and pennanentiy dischaqc the dudes in cow within their Jurisciicdons.

144 Such persons appointed after they have &en oath before theappointing Judac or nqistmc to discharse the duris faithiidly and consciously. Inve~ti~don, prosecution and punisbnmf of such oiienczs are re-dated by ordinary ruls retaring to Jurisdiction and procedure. Expert witnesses can rccive evidency from people other than the accused so that it can assist &em in Ticharging their duties Article 85 : Whm several experts who have been appointed give conflicting opinionsnr some of them have reservations in arriving at a wmmon wnclus~o~ each of them indicates hi or hu opinion or gives -on for the matiom. With ntception of when a pmon is caught red handed, s pubiic prosemtar charged with the prepamtion of a case file cannot search on the body of an a d person by stripping him or her naked without prior authoridon of a pubiic prosecutor in charge of the province ar of City of Kigali. Searching on a naked body is ody conducted by a physician. Whatsoever, any body who is the subject of s d on a naked body can choose a physicsspouse or choose any other adult pmon ofthe same scx to be present at the trmc of the search. a relative, a Section 3 : Release on bail and remand in &ody pending inv-ation Sub-section one : General provisions However, on the inrere of the prepaiatiou oithe as: iiie, or on securiry oi axused or national smriry, an accused can be subjd to crrain conditions, or in cd- n cir-lll~d~m; to be mandd in c115idy in accordant: with the pce,du and cond'ions providsd far in the iollowing dcies.

145 Any unlawful impriionmenrz7in~ to what is provided for irom arricic 90 to 100 conznencs the law and can enrail punishnr to responsiole oficen. Unlauiui imprison men^ m=ntion:d in this ankle -an inciude :!" dtraining persons in unauthorised premises; Z0 de~ning a person for a period thar =x~ds what is providpd io? in the r-rd of amx or mar oi cl2stodial invesig~on; 3" reiainjn~ a pcnon under cusmdy a k an ordc against or rejezhg an appiicarion fm exrending tbe.period ofprevmrive detention or in favour of retease on bail; 4' retaining a person unde: ccstody afkr a decision ofhis or hs innocac:. When a pmon is detained uniawhfly,fhe judse or magimat: who made the order or who rcsidcs near thc piacc where the person is detained ~n upon request by any interested party, order the oecs who deained th: person to appear and produce thc dctained pmon in order to indicatc reason and manoer under which he C or she is detained A judge or magimate then makes an order releasing the person on bail and may, without any further ado, cause to bc punished any officer who detained the person in contravention of the law wrth the punishments provided for under the Penai Code. Subsection 2 : Release on bail Article 90 : Bail conditions can bc ordered whcn rhe ofience a person is charged of is a misdemeanour or a felony. Artide 91 : I A suspect can be subjected to bail conditions by the public prosecutor ched with the investigation of a case at any time during investigtion. During that time, an accused can be ~bjectcd to one or several conditions provided for under article I02 of this law. A public prosecutor can, at any time, impose on the ~ccused new bail conditions, reducc or modiiy part of /4 them or exempt him or her from some of the conditionr. When an acnuscd volunrarity brachts somc of the cona&onr imposed upon him or her, a public prosemor can issue a wurant of arres7 and apply for remand of an acxsea penon in custody during the dm: of invenigation. Subsection 3 : Preveniive detention 4 suspeg shall no: be subjected ro pre rriai derenrion unicss th:e are conzme grounds to prosexre him or her and the o5ence he or she is azzused ro nave tommittcd is punishahie with at I-= rwo(2) years' imprisonment.

146 .b =used person qainsr whom thmc are >pons revolrc to susptct that he or she has committed an ofienze can be remanded in custody ptnaw i d even if the offence h or sh: is suqx~d to hzv: committed is punishabie with an iqrisonmcnt wiich is less than twn 3) years bm exceljig on: month if these is fear thzt he or she can scape or, if his pamfuiars are unkavn or undoubfiui or if thcie arc -on& unusuai and gxrptionai cir,urmtanccs thax urgently rcquire the derention pending mai in ihe inter& of pubiic secu* : 1" If derendon is the oniy mms to preserve evidec: or to stop the accused from iniericring with the investi&on or putting praurt on wimesscs and compiainants or stop huduient communication kmr=n the ar-usg pcsons ad their accompiices; 2' If such dctenrion is the only means m pmrm the acscd, to ensui-e tha; the cased will be available whenevc he or she is needed by judicral o w or w pm a halt ro the wmmkim of an ofienm or ro prevent it's recurrent; 3. If: considerins the gravity ofthe offence, circumstances under which it was comrnittcd and the extxd of ham caused has led to a+onai unrest and disruption of the law and order in which case dention bwnnes the on)y means to put them to an end In this law, strong reasons to suspnt that a person has committed an offence are the totality of cv~dence which can lead to the suspicion mata person mi& have comm~tted an offence. Article 96 : When all wndiions that warrant pretrial dctcntion are established, a public prosecutor cq after intaropting the accused in the presence of his or ha alvocate, if any, place him or her under provisional arrcst and take him or hn to the nearest &st-ate or judge h o is wmpcient to decide on the pre-trial ddcntion When a ma,&rate or Judge is found in the mnc locality as the prosecutor, the acwcd sbould appear b&re the magistrate or Judp in a puiod no! mure than 72 horn fmm the issue of the prwisirmal warrant of arrest In any case, an accused h detained pending trial pu~ant to a couri's orda which clarifies, grounds bawd on facts and law, and should particulary specify concrete grounds for sus- that he or shc wmm~ttcd the 0Bmce. Article 98 : An ordc for preventive detention is one wfiich is rig& by a Magishie or Judge aod a wuri cluk if aftex the he or she is of the.view that the cyxd who is detained should remain in sustody h- of thc evidenr against him or her. A P~ventive dekmtion is authorised by t coun which has compdznc: tc Wthe &cr Tne hearing and delivery of wun judgement shall be conducted in pubiic. Upon request by a pu~iic pmscuror or the acllrsed. a Magishate or ludgc may order for the h&g to he conducted in camera. A decision ordering for preventive detention should be deliver& &thin 24 hours after the time the court is scizcd upon request by the pubiic prosecution and a h hearins the dehc of the accused upon his Mi, his or hcr advocate and the Pmsecuror.

147 The defenc: and grounds advanced by the ac-wed person are resorded in writing. Tne Magistrate or Judge immediately irimrms the msc+ofthe decision in writing or oraliy and then reduced into writing. -.&a ordz khorijing for prseritivc der-eon remains in fom for 30 days inc1ulfing thz day on which it wu deiivmd. L.fier tf~ expi~y of that dme, it can be rneacd for one month and shall continue in-that rnanncr. However,.&e txpiration or30 days, the time cannot be hi*nded for conmauons. For misdememoq thc rime cannor be cxxndcd aiier the ac-wcd has bcz~ dded ior 6 months and afts one year ior felonies. Orders wnding the pcriod of dmntion are ude in accordme with the firm and periods pmvi& ior under article 99 ofthis law..h order for preuiai detention or for anding the time of detention shall specify the,m& thatjuziiiy it h w Preventive detention can also be ordered if an accused pcrson has voiuniarily breached some of the anditions of bail imposed on him or her. Section 4 : Releare on bail add execution of bond In all offences, an accused person or hs or her counsel can at my hme apply for bail to the public pmscc~ltcr chqed with the prcparaiion of the case or to a Judge or -strate dcpmd'mg rm the stage of idvktigatim - A Judge or delivers a d i g onthi application and its lei basis within five (5) days. When thc reieax is guaranteed, the accused may be ordered to respect some conditions. When a Ma!&iak or Judge doa not find dcient evidence for prosmaion, m accuxd perxn shaii be immcdiakly r c l d When a Judge or Ma&ratc finds that there is enough nidmce to warrant detention of the accused, aa orda for preventive dctcntion can be made; or he may not be detained but ordered to mpczt certaio conditions... ~ Some of the conditiow which can be imposed on the accused, indude the following : 1" to live in the - area whm thc prosemior char& with the prepeon of the case file works; 2" not to travel beyond a prescribsd area without obtainins prior permission of the prosemtor cha~d with the prepdon of the crsc file or his or her rcprcsengtive; 2. nor to mva! to spcci5c or not to be found in d n arev a -&n times; 4* ro report a;. given periods befor- a public prose- who is charged with the preparation ofthe case file or a pubiic senant or btior- any such other ofricx zs may be determined by the +matt or judge; 5. ro appzar before a pubiic pmseuror in charge of prepararion of his or her me file or befox a Judg or Memare when he or she will berequir-d to do so; 6" to presenr persorrofint&ty who can siand for his or her surety. In oroz: to provide pmisel? how the conditions provided ior in the proeding p-ph ar+ rtspczkc an orda releving an accused on bail may also indicare any of the conciirions to be satislied among those cnurn=;area. Upon r:qu&by.the public prosecuror charged with the preparation of a me file; a Judge or Magmate, can at any xime, modify the conditions imposed in omer to-math.with chane-p C ~I~FZ~CJ. 3e or sbe can as well order redetention of the aczirsed, if dezmed nccessruy, because ofthc new aid serious c-ces.

148 P. judge or Magisate who; ordm for desmuon pepding mal, m y release the acused on baii by requiring him or her io ex- a bond with or dhom any on: or seve.d of the zonditions provided for in the prec-ding articie.?he bond guaranw the apparmc of the vhcnever rquird in cou~ as well as payment of damages arising 6n-n the offence pmpw to be rsimkd and fines. Bail may oe in form of bond or s v..any one who admirs to sand es surq mm be a pc-son oiintety and hzs the means ro pzy. Were an accused pcmn escapes jusrie, the surety pays compensation for the destvyd prope;tr.. A Judge or Magistme determines the mount oi bond to be paid by considering the vaiue of the dcst-0yc.d property, fine to be pad as well as the means of the accused pcrson. No bond shall be admitted in respect of felonies When an~accused pcrson knot found guilty, the amount of bond paid is refunded Section 5 : Appuk against orders of preventive detention and rdease on bail Article 107 : The prosdon and the accused pcrson wn appeal against rulings ordering preventive detention or reieax on bail. Artide 108 : Orden lssucd by a Diseiq Town or Mun~cipaii, Proviuc~al courts, the High Court and the City of Kigdi court, or the Military Cow& are appealed a!pimt m the mediate superior comt.an order of the supxior couri is not appclablc..4n appeal does not preclude trial ofthe m e m merits. Artide 109 : - 1 ne time. to fiic an appd is fiv: (5) days. Tnc time st& to nm from the day oi the order \~ns raic& in r:spcl of the pubiic pmsecution or imm the date ofse;vic: ofthc order in reees of an ac--9-d pcrson d notice of appeal is iiled in a qisuy of the cam thz ;lve the order, or in a icemy of e c o &a ~ is supposed to hear the appeal..a coue cierk who rcccives a notie of appeal taks no* of naiernem or gmunds of appeal admcsd by the accused in support of his or her appd, and on which he a!z&s all otha documents handed OVR by the accused for submission to a mu^? that will hear the appeal. Hc or she giv& to the accused a doc-t acknowiedging recsipt - -

149 The penon who receives the notice of appcal and the accompanying documents immediately forwprk thm to a cy& of the court that is supposed to h%r the appeal. - Article zj : During the period of appeak and in times the appcaiart c o hes ~ no? yei hed the czsc, the accused shall anxinue ro be in the same xare u the ordered, a~ all times the court order is in zxdon App& shall be zarnincd within five (5) days. The dcision shall be taken m eve (5) day which a counted hm the date the pmscuion banded in in submissions. When the appellant does not reside within the area when the cow. is shared or is no? reprcsemd by an agm duiy authorised in aniiing the court an pgss judgment basins on winen evidene only. 0 Article 113 : If an order of the lower court dismisses detention of the accused or rcjeets an extension of the time of detention and is dismissed by the appealate the tinr to authorise dacntion or irs m i o n is determined by appellate murt buf shall not exceed one month. That period starts to mu imm the day on which the ordn of the appellate court comes into fore. Artide 114 : When an accused person has succcsddy appealed apinst a ruling ordering his or her detention or --ding the time of detention, he w she can not be subjected to another warrant of am& based on the same drsrp, unless new and serious punds that warrant his or her preventive detention are discwacd Section 6 : Spedai F'rovisioar Artide 115 : Whcn the public prosmtim kkks tbat tbcre are no p un& for prosecuting the accused person, it should rtqust for the relcaw of the accwd. Artide 116: C was seized he or she will remain in that condition d l When an accused person is in detention before trial or has bctm released an bail on the day on which the court the time ofjudpmt However, hr those mr~;~ provided for in p-h 2 of dele 100 of this law. the period of detcniion shall not exceed tbat provided for by that paragaph. A person whoais in detention can apply to the trial coun to ~ ieae him or her during the period of trial or m release him or her on bail. 4..coun is under an TO *e a ding on the preliminary ciaim or on any maws ii can discover within a period of ar lax iikm 115) cia?; a* the ding on the preiinq elk. P. juo-men? is en in the mannx and time provided m r in article 00 of ~s law Whena couri reiwes an asused person on bail, the provisions oimicl: 101 oithis law appiy. -4rticle 117 : Tie prore-mtion iodgcs only the appeal againstthe order provided for in article li6, wkn it s r e to release a person who was derained befom mal

150 An acc~~ed only a ppd if an order b coniirmed his or her detendon and dmid him or hcr bail. During the period of appeal and during period for ti& the accused remains in the same state as the forme: judge ordered. qeal is id-& in the m~~~~crprovidcd for in arficla 109 and 1!0 of* law. 4n app-ai is Iodgei in 8 cour? thai has Jurisdiction to try the subsantive we Tnnc =our? decides the cue in acordanc: with the rules laid down under ahde 112 ofthis law. Public prosecurion can apply for redetention of an a~used who 'm breached some ofthe wnditiom imposed by the courr thv releved him or her on bail.! An accused who pleads not guilty an appeal to the wur? within five (3 dv- of his or her rcdctention. The I court is also competent to &nc an appeal brought by an -sed ak&nst an order of a public prosi and requ& for his or her reduedon br breaching the conditions of bail imposed during the time oi investigation. 9 A ruiini on such an appeal shall not he appeai!able. C I Section one : Institotion of proceedings I Article 119 : When lhe public #on decids to prosecute a person, it hansrh a complde criminal case file to a court of competent Jurisdiction I Article 120 : The court may also examine a claim rqdlss of ming it during the wmrnission of an offcnct at the tiqr of trial or if the complainant seizes a court witbout prosecution. ' In the course of trial, a court can order the prodon to bring in the ~ aacfompiicv l or aceessaies of the principal authors when it discwen that thac is mng evidence agkt them If it appears to the COLE< that th: prosecution docs not want to pms& court proc=dings continue. them, it may summon them and the 1 Sdon 2 : Summoning the parties i Artide 122 : 1 1 A swxnon to appear in corn is issued by a couc clerk Epon reeucst by pubiic prosdon or a civil par).. I 1 A summon should a! 1- nrntion the acw-d, his or her names, domicile or residzc:. charges +inst hm 1 or her, a coun bemrc which to appear, plam, day and hour of appearan= 1 I I A summon is sercd by a hailiiior corn cierk and irs copy thereof given to an accused a pmon iiable to pay d q - 4 or any othcr person summoned. A sumon is served on the person or on the residence ofthe summoned person. I

151 Amcle 123 : 1: the accused ha no known domicile in Rwanda but has 2 known rsiden~. summon shal! be served on the - - residmct. In czse OP absence oith: summond pm: summon is ie~d 10 his or her spmse re!&: or a ~!adve to the spause, his or he: empbyer or empioyc at his -or her rcsiden~ or domicile Ir, w e of iaiiure TO get one of them su1mon is senred 10 the coordkaror ofthe secror ofhis or her i-esioenca or domiciie. P. sumon can 'E well he notified by sending m copy through p od re&d mail or through a?rid masenge: who is required to rerum a document h m the addsasec ahwiedging rsxipt, indicadng dare and iignatuc of the person summon.& or a pe~on mentioned in the prezrding awiclc indicating his or hw relations wiih the pmon summaned C Article 126 : Whem the aczused has neither a known domicile nor a ruidenriai address in Rwanda -bui has a known residential address abroad, a copy of the summon. is posted at a specified location at the court which is supposed to try. the czse, and to another place determined by the court, another copy is immediately dispatched to the permn summoned throu& the post ofice or through the Minister responsible for Foreign AfEairs who kues a fiocummt acknowlcdsjng receipt When the person sumoned does not have a known domicile or residential address in Rwanda or abroad, a :OD: of tnt summon is?oncd to a dnvmincd place ar the zoun to try the crse and excacu thcrcoibrou-ei to puolicaszntion %kou& mans which thc m acems ap,mpriav. Article 125 : The hme taps: between summon and appearance for an accused or thc one who is liable?b~ the damages caused by the o&nce is eibt (8) dap &less of the day on which he or she received the summon and the day of apparance. Persons who do not possess known domicile or residential ad&. two (2) months. in Rwanda are summoned in a period of When a summon is deiivered to person who neither resides nor has domicile in Rwanda but hc or she served the summon in he County of mid- it Mes the usual time, but the mi? may extend it if deed necessary - rot riais that =quire urgency, the Preiidcnt oi a FOUR ca& by a ruiing using an ordm ID explain rersons and whicn shouid be served rogether with the summons ro the aruscd or TO the ueerson lidai: fm civil damages* if need be, ihonen the time of eight (8) days provided for in ~ i c p v p h of article 127, if the ofienc:.charged is a zontavernion or if an accused is caught red-handed; has confessed or appm to cou~ imm--diarei!. ~QT smar)i mai When a summon hrr b-en sent through the posr oec or a messenger, the time of som=onc sarrs to run fmm the time when Ck DO= or messenger deiivers it ;o the person summoned. When summon has bezn posed to 2 deremincd place at the -our5 the time for summon stam to run on the day of the porring

152 '.. Section 3 : Civil daim arising irom an ofience A vinirn of an o h c who wishes to sue for danqes can either file a~ acrion in a cimi or civil cod iiowever, when he or she has decided to reier the :him for civil d a n q in ~ one cod+ he or she cannot change and lodge the same ciaim in a different murut Sub-section one : An action for <%ii damar~ Ion& in a Crimiuai CourT a. Easinz civil dsr.ags on?he prosec~~tion's case A person whose inierests have ben injured by a criminai oiienc an lodge a claim for coqmsador, in a competent court claiming damages by way oi no& bmu-& at the same time is the aiminai charges or at any moment, from the time when the casc-is fiid to the termination of hearing by stating thc claim in the corn rqhy or 'in court at the time of h&s and given a certificate to the e- When the ciaim is made to the court regisby, it is notiiied to concmed parties. Article 132 : A victim who has filed a civil action d i i to a criminal cow can wthdraw the claim at any moment from the time of fiiing to the closure of hearing by giying notice to the e&ct in court or in the court's re-. In that case, a court clerk inform the withdrawal to ail concerned pads. b. Claiming damages by way of private pmsecutioo Artide 133 :... ~,,,.:., +,,.. Fiiing a claim for damages by way of private piusecution is a claim a victim of an o&ce taka to a criminal ' "' ~ court so that the accused is punished and be ordered to pay damages equivalent to '*at was d&&d '..,;.?'.,. court seized shall inform the Prosecution. Artide 134 : A pemn who brings an action by way of private prdsrrmon should indicate in the ciaim, in a precise manner the achons apht the -cd SO that he or she car, prepare &a on timc and with full knowledge of tbe faar of ks or ha case, ,.:.... ~ If there are -vatkg defend him or 'her. crcumtancq thcy shouid also appear in the clam so that the accced can bi able to Seizing 2 murt by way of private proscution takm piace when a criminal file was put in s& k q or wiwn a period of six (6) mom has elapsed without any adon being takcn by pro~ezutior,. Sucn a period oi siix (6) monk sam to D: c o d imm th: rim when 2 mmpiaint wps r=iv& by the public proscudon se;vice or from tht umc when 2 criminal cise file was re=ived by the pubiic prnswnion smic: from national judicial polic~ depamncrri Article 136 : A victim of an oemc who seized a WUE withour basing his or her ciaim on the pros~,ytian, may, at anv time withdraw his or hcr ciaim 6om the time ne or she files i~ to the rim+ ofr--rmination of the case by eving

153 Section 3 : Civii h im ading from an ofienee Article I30 : A victim of an ofience who wishes to sue hr h e s can either file an action in a criminal or civil court However, when he or she has dscidcd to refer the claim ior civil damages in one court, he or shc cannot change and lodp the s am ciaim in a diecrent court Sub-section one : An action for civil damages lodged in a Criminal Court a. Basin,. civil damap on the pmsecntion's case Article I31 : A person whox interer;tr have been injured by a criminal ohce cao lodge a claim for wmpensation in a competent court claiming damages by way of notice brou* at the s& time as the criminal charges or at any moment, from the time when the case is filed to the termination of hearing by d i g the claim in the court regism or'in wurt at the time of hearing and given a certificate to the eerd When the claim is made to the coun registry, it is notified to concerned parties. Article 132 : A victim who has filed a civil action dict to a criminal wurt can wthdraw the claim at any moment from the time of filing to the closure of hearing by giving notice to the effect in court or in the court's regist-y. In that case, a court clerk infwmsthc withdrawal to all wncantd parties. b. Chiming dama,~es by way of private prosecution Artide 133 :..., Filing a claim for damw by Way ofprivate pmsecution is a claim a victim of an offence takes a criminal court so that the accused is punished andbe ordcred to pay damiiges equivalent to what was distr9ycd.. '&.,:.. :.... wm seized shall inform the Pmsenaian. Artide 134 : ' '. '.- -.,..* :. A person who brings an action by way of private prosecution should indicate in the claim, in a pdsc manner the S I &I against the accused so that he or she can prepare defence on time and with iull knowledge ofthe facts of his or ha case. If there arc agpmting cirmmstanccs, they should also appear in the claim so that the accused can hi able to defend him or her. Article I35 : Se'king a court by way of private prosecution takes place when a criminal fk was put in safe keep or when a period of six (6) months has elapsed without any action being faken by prozedon. Such a period of six (6) months starts to be wunted from the time when a compiaint was recei& by the public pmeecution mice or from the tim: when a criminal dse file was received by the public proseomion service from national judicial police dep-nt Article 136 : A victim of an okcz who seized a wun without basing his or hcr ciaim on the prosecution, may, at anv timc withdraw his or her claim from the time he or she fiio it to the time of termination of the $ving

154 notice in the hiai or in the registry of the mutt seized. in that later time, the cowt clerk shall inform the concerned parties. - - However, withdrawing a civil ciaim in case a victim of an offence seized a court by way of private prosecution does not hider the trial of a criminal me. Article 137 : A victim of the oficncc can iile a civil action a-gainst the party liable to pay damages or any other person he or she sllsp-- to have committed an offence without having to bsse the claim on the pmsecution's cue. Sub-section 2 : Qaim for damages in a civil court Article 138 : ' miinal An injured party, without joining his or ha action for recovery of damages to criminal proceedings, can sue dlrectly in a civil court seeking to recover bpges for injury arisinz from the o&ncc. When a civil action which is bved os a cnrmnal offence is brought separately fmm criminal proceedings, the civd action 1s suspended as long as judgment in the criminal prodigs has not been delivered, if the wm brought h6rr or after the proceedings have cammenod However, when there is no compiaint of a criminal offence lodged in the public prosdon service or in court, the t-ial of a civil claim pmcceds in a civil court by following mla of civil procedure. Section 4 : Attendance of-parties in Court Article 139 : In felonies and misdemeanours, an accused should appear in person. However, when thm arc slmng reasons pmhibing a pemn fiom appearing, he or she can bt represented by a duly authciid agent In contraventions, an accused can be ~ mented by a counsel except when a Judp or Magistrate requires his or her personal appcamncc 0 A party r ile to pay damages and the civil par& can appear in p o n a through advocate&. Howwer, at any stage of the p rocdi a murt can order -ai appearance of a party to a case. An order for the personal presence of a party as well as tht day of appearance are notified to the party by a Court cik~. Section 5 : Trial p d u r u Article 142: in czse the court is seized. beh be date of heuing, i+2 PresideiT- upon request by me of the parties or suo motto, if the complainant has no capacity to sue, hu no counsel or any other legal counsel to represent him or her, can examine or ordr for the examination of the cost of demoyed propert)-, record or orrk tht recording of statemmiis, do or order for theany other matter which n-cd to k con~ietzd to be don=. Section 6 : The Trial Article 142 : When a case is complete for hearing, parties are summoned to court for trial.

155 69- J.O.n"spPcial du 3OBfDUOI f6w A summon sets out the o&ncc char&, the law punishing the o&y comt seized, place, day and hour of the trial. The summon a h shouid +SpeCify whek the acfuscd wiil appa in person &or repmerited by a coun?.ei Article 143 : Any person who has filed a compiaint is notified by the court of the date ofhearing. Article I44 : The hid of e caw shall be conducted by the presiding Judge or wstrat in the following Bdtr : 1' a court cicrk calls upon parties to the case; 2" a court clerk reds out partidas of the a d and the offence charged; 3" the court dzs!he accused pxson wbethcr he or sht admitr or denier the cbargc;; 4" the pmsmtion prouides n ihce against the accused; 5" thc accused gives his or hcr defence and narmtcs how the ofkncc was committed if he or she amnits ic 6" witncsser for the pmsccution and defence are examined, anything against them is pointed oui and the court admits or rejects thun; 7" if necessary, expm wihmses are heard; go if neccrsary, exhihibits wbich can serve to show the ~ are examined, 9" the civil party explains his or ha claim, the one liabk for payment of damages also is M, 10" the prosrmtion makes submission in rc1ation to the sentence it seeks for the accused pason; I I " the accused person is given the last chancc to be beard; 12" a court clerk shall read in public a rurmnary of the hearing before it is signe4 13" the hearing is declared closed and the presiding fudge or Magistrate informs the parties pment the day M which judgmnt will be delivered. Article 145 : Hearings are conducted in public. Howcva, a court can orda fw hearing to be conducted in camera whcn it 6nds that public hearing can be dehimcntal to pubiic& and goodmonk When hearing in camera is decided, m i i 1~1ating to interiocutay and prdiay issues are deiwacd in camma as well. Judgements on the merits of ma are always delivered in public. - A court clerk takes note of th: proceedings, pa&dm of parties and witnesses as well RS their principal depositions. Article 147 : The presiding Judge or Magiskat~ is respoosibitf3r conducring hearing and k+ing order in court When during trial, any of thc persons pm:n; disrupts ords by ubtever means, the presiding Judge or Magime can order for his or h.-i expulsion fmm the cour; mom. When, in the course of carrying out 'the above mmuze, thc pmon resists the expukion ordcr or wzs commotion, he or she is immediatdy arrested and detain& tried and sentenced to im?risonmcnt ranging fmm one-month.to one ye%, without prejudice to other punishmnts, which thth..penal code prescribs for those persons who insult or commit ack? of orrtrase aginst judges or magistratm in the come of executing their duties.

156 Article 148 : Whea the mutt's mder is d i by the acc~~ed himseifor herself thc provir;ions of the prececding article shall apply. Section 7 : Jndgmentr. At the the of deiivcry, judgmcntr should be written and read within a period of thirty (30) days following terrnit~atlon of heaxing. Artide I50 : Any Judgment should indicate the following: 1' the court which deiivered i$ 2" particulars of the accused, those of the civil party and ofthe pdon Iiableto pay damages; 3" ofknces the accused is charged of; 4" account of steps taken during in investigation and hearing; 5 O submissions of parties: 6" rcssow forthe~udgmen~ 7' legal provisions which have bgn applied; 8" ofknce for which the accused is convicted, ifhe or she is not proved innocent; 9" sentence(s) pass* 10' damages to be paid if any; 1 lo a decision as to the scivd prop* 12' the presenee or absence of parties to the trial; 13" whether the hcaring was conducted in public or in ~ mcra and the judgpncnt delivae in public; 14" date and piaa of ddivery ofjudgmcnt; 15" that there is a Judge who did not agree with the judgement and his or her rrarons; 16" namer of kid judge(6) or 17" nams of a court cl& The detailed statement indicating the opinions ofthe judge who did not agree with the judgcmcm is attached to the judgement. It is not rtad in public. A judgcmcnt should also indicate a-5il of cosg prepared by a court clerk and approved by the President of the court and mention the time within which to filean appeal. A judgement is signtd by the trial judgc(s) or magistrate+) dei'iered as well as the court clerk presmt when it is Whcre the accrsed is acquitted, court fees are borne by the pubiic trear.ury. However. when a civil party wbo filed a claim dim by way of private prosemtion loses a m, he or she is condemn4 to pay all the costiinclnred in the case. In me e party who besed his or her civil claim on the prosecution loses, he or she is ordered to bcar half ofthe cost incumd. A civil party who withdraws a claim, whethsr it was brought besing on the prosecution case or by direct private prosecution can not be ordered to pay costs incumd afker the withdrawal; however, without prejudice to payment of damages to anaccused or r party liabie to pay compmsafion if& be.

157 Arfide 152 : If at the time of Judgmnt, an accused who wu released on bail afrer having uecuted a bond is not found guilty, the court sm order for restitution of the bond exczpt the e m-ord'i fees which can be deducted for default of q uhents he or she may have madc in the course of the proceedings. Whcn an accused is convicted and the cord hds that there are procedures he or she defaulted without any justifiable cause, the court states it in the judgemsnt and confirms that all or part of the bond paid shall be forfeited to the public treuury. Any doubt should be r+solved in favour of the auasd This means that whcn proceedings have been carried out and completed as much as possible and no evidence has been found to m v e the doubt in the minds of the or hbgii(s) on whether the accused really connnitted.the a&nce, he or she shouid be acquitted. When a court rules that it ha no jllrisdiction to try an accused, it should immediately send him or her to a wmp&nt court for trial. Sub-section one : Jndgement in absentia Artide 155 : When a pwon who hns bcen duly summoned aoa not appear, judgment can be passed in his or her absence. When the prosecution dm not appcar without any justified reason the accused is detained, the latter is released on bail. If the prosecution is summoned for the second time and it fails to appear, the court renders its judgement Whcn judgment is passed in the absence of the accused, it is notified to him or her by a couri baitiff or clerk in an instcumant Mntain'i essential elements of the cast. Snbaection 2 : Trials of Rgitive offenders Article 156 : When an accused conmuties a felony or a rnisdaneanour, and-es the country or jusficc, the pubiic prosecubon wmpiis a criminal case file and!mnsds it to a competent caurt wen if the d may have not been iotmgated and he or she can be tried in absentia A judgement p d against a person mentioned in the first paragraph of this article is not appealable. CHAPTER IV : APPEALS Section one : Appiicafion for opposition Artide 157 : Judpcnn passed in abssltia can be duly not54 by a court baiiiff 08 cl* using an instnmrsnt comprising of the date and place ofjudgcmenf court which passed the judgement, grounds and led provisions on which it is bsed zs well as its ordn. Article 158 : A person who has bcen convicted in absentia can apply for opposition withii ( 1O)days after it is notified to h i or ha.

158 If the cace was not notified to hi or her personaliy, he or she can apply for opposition within ten (10) days that run from the day when the concerned parry reccivwlhe notice personally. When there is no proof that he or she =ived the notice he or she can be allowed to apply for opposition till the time limit set for enforcement of the sentence and until when the judgemmt is cxecuted against the defendant in civil ciaim... An application for opposition of judgment passed in absentia can be made by dting at the foot of the mcord of service or by making the declaration in the registry of the court which prsscd the judgment or by the appiicant wting to the cierk of that court to the e- The date on which a court clerk r e & the ~ ~ letter dctcrmines the date of the appiication for opposition. On the same day on which a court cicrk receives the Letter, he or she endorses on it the reception date and informs the applicant ~cu)rd'ingiy. 0 A,,,: A court clerk immediately informs the publlc pmsccution of the pending application for opposition. An application for opposition can only be accepted if the party who defaulted to appear shows serious reasons, which fully justie the failure to do so. The seized court has th.: discretion to appreciate the alleged grounds for failure to appear Article 161 : When a person who has applied for opposition of a judgement passed in his w her absence fails once again to appear, the application is dismiss& He or she can neither renplw the applicaiion nor seek to oppose the second judgment on second time. A person who has applied for opposition is bound to appear in persoh ifhe or she was ordered to do so in the fust judgement in absentia or if the judgment passed in absentia had ordered his or h a personal presence as a condition foradmissibility of the appiication. The arecution of a judg-t parsed in absentia is stayed until the time provided for under article 158 has expired and if an application for opposition has bcm made, its execution is stayed until the case has been retried. Likewise, pro&ings in an appellate court agsinst conviction and sentence of the accused arc stzed when they have heen fild by a public prosecution, a pmon civilly liile and the one claiming Article 163 : Whm thc accused concedes to an application for opposi<ion; me judgmi~ni jzsscd i? 2bs~nti~ bzcomes worthless and the court re'ries the case on merits. In all cases, all the costs incurred in opposition, including the expees for b~ying e judgcmen? copy and notifying the judgment passed in absentia are home by the person app!ying for oppositior, when be or shz is to blame for the default of appearance.

159 Section 2 : Appeafs Article 164 : Those who are dlowed to lodge appeals are : I" the accus& 2" the person liable to pay darnws; 3" the civil party or persons who have been automatidy awarded damages but their civil inkrests ods; 4" the prosecution. An appeal should be lodged within a period not -ding thirty (30) days following the day on which the judpent was deiivcred in respect of PWJ who was l3rescnt or re~~~~nted when it was delivered The time limit also applies to a party who was duly notified of the date on which a judgment wodd be &Iivu-ed but defauk to appear or to sad a representative. appcal should be prekmed within thi (30) days foiiming the day on which judgment was notified to s party wtro was not present when it was delivered ar well as a party who attended hearing but was not info& of the day on which itwould be derivered. Artide 166: A person can appeal by writing so on Be notification instrrrmcnt M by stating so in the registry of the court which delivered the judgment or in the regigistry of the wurt which is supposed to hear the appeal or by writing a letter to the effcct to a wurt clerk of my of the mentioned mum. The date on which the mutt clak receives the lcttm in the kbr case determines the datc on which an qqd IS made. On the same date on w+xich he or she recciva the letter of appeal, a wurt ckerk writcs.on it the dstc of reception and informs the appellant A court regdry ofiiccs or bailiff arc rrsponsible for sewing process of appeals. ~owevcr, winen an appcuard is in detention. he or she can lodge his or ha appeal hm the prison by writing a letter to a wurt clerk through the incharge of the prison. ne 1- signs on the lcltcr and indiadv the datc of reception which is taken as the datc of sppcal. He or she imurdiately tmmik appeal statiemcslt to the appellate wurt without delay. Article 167 : A wurt clssk of the trial court irmncdigteiy transrnitr to the court clerk of the appell& wrnt, record of henring and wpy ofjudgment against which an appd has been ; dgmcnt is suspmded until when the time ked for an appeal ha expired or hen an en prekrc4 until the time when the appd is L ed order for the award of d-s does not my the execution of sentencees) imposed on ed is acquitted or sentenced to pay a h e only, he or she is immediately released held in connection with any other oficna of which he or she was informed md d with in acwrdance with this law. -

160 When an appeal has been lodged, the defendant shall immediately be relee~d upon acquittal or upon such a sentllce is swnded or sentenced to a fine. Thc same appiies to the accused who has been in pre-trial detmtion sentenced to a term of which is less than or equal to the time he or she spent in pre-trial detention. However, where defendant has bcn chwd with the crime of genocide or crimes against humanity, violence against minors, crimes relating to national se,urity or to t hyecc of other states, weason or espionage and where then is concrete evidence that the rclease of the accused may constitute a threat to public order in general, the prosecution may, after lodging an appeal, apply to the appellate court to order for the accused to again bc piaced in provisional detention pending detelination of the appeal. The prosecution should make the application within a period not exceedin: 48.houn from the time when the jud,mnt is delivered Such an application is dzided upon by the appellate wurt within a time that should not exceed 48 hours h m the day and hour it was received. Article 171 : When the accused who is out on.bail during the tirne of trial is subsequently convicted and sentenced to a texm of imprisonmenf he or she x+ns fret during the tirne of hearing if hear she has appealed against the judgment... However, the accused can be arrested and detained irrespective of the tm of imprisonment imposed, if serious and special remns are presented to the appellate court Article 172 : The accused who js detained or who has been imprisod following a court judgment remains in custody even ifbe or she haslodged an appeal. However, he or shc can petition to an appellate wurt to rehsc him or her on bail. Artide 173 3: A person who has been convicted while in custody or who has been amstcd immediately after conviction is transfud to the place where a wurt which will hear his or her appeal is situated, when he or she has requested taappear personally before the wurt or the court has ordered his or her personal presence. When the accused was released on hail, the prosedon requcsk the appellate wurt to ddeterine new bail wnditions to be ratified by the accused person immcdiakly after his or her arrival. Article I74 : The accused can appeal agpinst the whole jud-ment that orders his or her imprisomnent or payment of damages. He or she can also appeal a,pinst any of thc offences charged or one of the sentence imposed However, when he or she is thi only appellarg the appellate court cannot enhance the senrence imposed on first instance. Article I75 : The civil party claiming damag~s can only appeal for damass on decided mcs concerning the civil claim.

161 Thc civilly Iiabic person can appd against a judgment ordering him or ha to pay damages. His or her appcal solely concerns civil ciainn: Artide 177 : An appeliate wcourt hits its &ision on the mabas fixed by the appeal only. Article 178 : When an appellate cod changes a decision appealed it tries the cafe on merits, unless it h& ht the case has not he=^! properly filed in accordance with the law or the fzkl comt had no jurisdiction to hear it Article 179 : If on appeal by the prosecution onlytbe judgein& appealed against is not altcrcd, court fees arc borne by the pubiic lzcamy. When the p ' '. t imposed on judgement appealed against IS wstr w is entirely rciicved fmn paying all the costr an accused person bean half of the When there a a crvil party m the case, he or she bears the corn in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 2 of d de 151 unless the amaunt of damages awarded before has b m inmedonappcal. Section 3 : Application for Review Artide 180 : An appiication for revicw of a mimid criminal which has been &ally dctenuincd can be made for thc ben& of any person wlm hss ban wnvictcd ofa felony or rnisdaneanour if: 1" A h a person convicted ofhomioide, the is latter dismaed mwgb evidence indicatingthat~.perwnal)egcdtohavcbeenkiiledisactuauynot; 2" Afke~ a perxn ccmvicted of an offence thcrc is discovend another simk judgmmt which punished a dzkmt person far the sam o h md fbc oontradictim in the two cases show thaf one of the Mnvictcd persons was inn- 3" One ofthc witom to a caw is subs#lue& found to have given false testimony against theaccused person and the former has already already wr~icted for the o&a 'Ihe person convicted of pujury can not be called ss a mess m the ncw case ; 4' A&r judgmmt, thae is discovered new evidence, indicating. that th~ convicted person was innocent Artide 181 : -2- An application for review is made by the fouowing : I O the pmsecution; 2' a pmon sentaced to an imprisonment oi in case hc or she has no powers, by a rtpresentativq 3" after the convicted parson is dead or declared missing, an appiication em be made by his or ha spouse, childrm, 1~1atiVeS or^ of tiis or bet cstate eollectivety or individual pcrsom he or she cxphssly gave the mandatc. - -

162 If the judgmenrs and smtznccs are not yet bcn executed, the w tdon is automatically suspded from the time the application is filed. If the convicted pmon is in prison, exenition of the judgements will be s-ded prosecution. by an order of a pubiic Article IS2 : An application ior &ew is made to the court that -gave the jud-gnmt at the last instance. A judgment that results in the innotllce of an accused pmon, may, upon application of the party to a case, award to him or her damages for injury the punishment may have caused to him or her. 9,' When the victim of the miscamage ofjustice is dead, the right to toclaim damages will devdve, under the same conditions, to a spouse, heirs, paren& or descendants up to the sand d w of lineage. i Dirtant relatives will not have the right to claim? ages without first having to prove the loss occasioned to them by conviction and pmkhmnt of the POL CEAPTER V : S PEW PROCEEDINGS Seetion one : Prosecution of jnvc~ike offendem Article 184 : A child who is below the age of hvelve (12) years cannot be detained in the custody meant for criminal =peas. However for exceptional rcasnq a child who is aged bctwtco ten (10) ad twclve (12) years against whom there art u~doubtfid rearom to suspect that he or she bas cornmitad an offence can, for the purposes of investigation, be detained by a judicial potice for a period which can not exceed forty-eight (48) hours but ody when the offence k or she is suspcctcd to have cormnittcd is punishable with at least h e ((5) years ipplrisrnnmnt Artide 185 : A minor who is beiig prosceuicd must be defended by a wnnsd If thc rnina or his is htr gmrdbs can not choose one, the prosecution can ask the Resident of thc lawyers Association bar to appoint om. A judicial police officer or s public prossotor charged with the invutigation of a case makes di diiigmce and carries out necessary investigation so that the truth and ponality of the minor as weil as appropriate means for his or her rehabiiitation can be demonr;tratcd For that purpose, he or she can issue necessarywarrants or order judicial inquiry in aaordance with ordinary law. Through investigation he or she will gather ill the evidence concerning the status of the life of the child, his or h a education and school life and themanner in which he or she mas up A public prosecutor shall order for medical examination, and, if necessary, ordm psychologid examination into the bchaviour of the child. He or she deddcs to put the child in a c-srtn &ere his or her behavim can be observed

163 Artide 187 : After the procedures provided for in article 186 of this law have k n conducted, the prosecutor can : I" release the child when he or she f& that the charge against him or her hes not been well established and hands hi or her to Es or her parentr or guardians; 2" hand him or her to a competent coq 3' put the child in a rehabiiitation ccn- while a d a court decisioa Article 188 : A co~llt chamber that is competent to by children is the one situated in the ~ e where a the ohce was commitkd, where the child resides or where parents or guardians reside, where the child was found or where he or she was sm by a court Artide 189 : A jwmile chamber decides a case after hcaring from the child witnesses, parents, guardians, the pmsecution and defence wunsel. It can,aiso hear from the child's majority-age co-~ccused or accomplices. Artide 190 : A juvenile chamber can, depending on to the case before it, order mcssurcs for protection of the child, assistance, supenision or education if it dew appropriate. Artidc W1: A dvil don against the cbild or a g g the one who is responsible for paying damages is filed before a juvenile mutt Whm a child or children are jointly charged with one or several adult persons, an action for damages is filed behe a court. which is wmpetent to try adults. In that case, the child or children do not a W the hearing but instead, their legal representatives attend. Wherr a child or his or her legal npresmwjve fails to choose a wunscl, one is aukmatically appointed Article 192 : Chilh who arc above the of twelve (l2) but below the age of eightcen (18) are tried by a juvenile courf in accordance with the procedm laid down by ordinary law. Scefion 2 : Invedi&on and proseention of offences commiked in foreign countries Artide 193 : Any Rwandan citizen who commits a feiony punishable with the Rwandan law while in a territory outside the Republic of Rwanda can be tried and sentenced by Rwandan courts. Any Rwandan citizen who oqmmiis a misdcmcanaur provided for udder Rwandan law uihile outside the territory of the Republic of Rwanda can be tried and judged by Rmdan courts when the oeence is punishable kithtbe law of the country in which it was committed. Artide 195 : Any person, including a foreigner, within the territory of the Republic of Rwanda aft3 havins while abroad, committed international crimes including genocide, crimes againn humanity, war crimes, ~ 0 r i. s taking ~ pcople as hostages, sale of drugs, money Iaunckring, stding motor vehicles for sale abroad, human hung trafficking and davcry, can be pmsruted and tried by Rwandan courts.

164 J.O.n0sptciai du 30/07/2004 -m Section 3 : Investigation and prosecntion of fugifive ofienders When the awused can not b m apprehended beta* of fleeing the country or hiding h m the course of justice, a court can make an order requiring to present himself or herself for trial within thirty (30) days, iailure to whkh he or she can be declared to have disobqed a lawful order. Article 197 : Within a period of eight (8) days, the order is pubiiied in a or newspaper indicated by a corn and pcsted on tht Distriq Town or MdcipaIi ofiicc at the place specified by the respective administration. Article 198 : Mer a period of tea (10) days, the pmon is judged in absentia Article 199 :. 0 No advocate is allowed to represent the accused who has ahscmded The murt deiivers a judgement basing on the pmscoutions submissions ody. Article 200 : When the accused is found guilty, his or her prnpeq which has not been the subject of confiscation is impounded and evmbdly given to a person ordered by the cowl foliowing a final court judgrncnt at the expiration of time provided for by the court Article ZM : Undcr theduection of the Pmsecuto~ General of the Republic, Prosecutor of the Province or that of the C~ty of Ktgaiii the main excerpts of the juagment are publied in a gszcme or nnvspapa, posted at the court that tried the case, at the office of the Dislxicf Town or Municipality whm the o&ce was comrndled and any other place as may be detemed by the cwrt Artide 202 : After the notiiidbn provided for by erticle 201 of this law, tbe convicted person loses all the ri&k provided for by the pcnal law. - In no way should the investigation and prosecution of a pcrson who has absconded suspend or delay that of. the present cc-awused. Artide 204 : 'Wben the person who har b:en convicted in absentia gives himself or herself up for imprisonmnt or is arrested befort the time iiit for enforcement of sentence, the judgement and proceedings conduckd h m the order to appear become uselessand the matter proceeds according tothe ordinary procedure. Wnen the trial which had ordered conftscation of his or ;her property' in favour of the state changes; the property isrestituted to him or her as it was. This case don not apply to parties who may have been awarded damases.

165 .. Article 205 : Ii; withiin the time Iits provided for in article 204 of this law, for any nyon wbatsoever witn- ~ses can not aitend hearing, their written testimony and if necessary, written responses of other persons accused of the same ohce arc read during the trial. The same applies to all other necessary documents in ortler fo demonmate the truth. Section 4 : Prosecution of persons with piiviieged jurisdiction Article 206 : A judicial poiice officer or a pubiic prosecutor who receives a complaint ag,oainr;t the President of the Republic, Presidents of the both chambers of the Parliamcnf President of Supreme Coiuf or P& h&ir immediately transmits the case file dimly to the Prosecutor General. The latter conducts himself or herself invcsfi,don and prosecution before the Supreme Court He or she can as well delegate such powers to any other public prosecutor to discharge the duties :.. ~. However, accompdces of such persons can be intermgated by a judicial poiice officef before transmitting the case i3e to.the Prosem General... Article 207 : ~. In order to determine whetha a person enjoys privileged jurikdiction, refaencc is made to theduties he or LI-. ~. % 2 shew discharging at thc time he'or she wmdled theoffence: Article 208 : Whcn at thr time of investigation and pmstcution, the accused is still holding thc office, for the off--nnc=(s) he or she commiatd while still on thr dutics, he or she enjoys privilegsd jurisdiuion. Whcn the ohce undes investigati~n and proskution was committed before the accused sttained privil~ed,;., jufisdiction but atthe time of investigation and prosextion is holding an o5ce, whiih quaiiies him of her" for privileged jurisdiction, he or.she is prosecuted and tried undm privileged jurisdictio$. %, :,..,...:.. > ~ However, if an accused committed the ohce while still holding the post that qualifies for privileg& jurisdiction, and at the time of investigation and prosecution he or she ha left office, the privqeged jurisdiction is lost :.. -'. CHAPTER VI : EXECUTION OF JUDGMENTS ' / Article 209 : Execution ofjudgcmcnt is conducted by the fouowing : 1' Canwrbailiii 2" Court bail& appointed by a decreeof the.miister having justice in his or...-. a-. ha attriions; 3" Didct, Town or Municipaiity Mayors; 4' Coordinators of sectors. Ar&icle 210 : Supervisors of execution ofjur3,pnents are thc followrig. 1 " A pubhc prosecutor, m matten concerning dcath pdty, mpnsonmenf -es awarded by a court on its' own motion and impnsonmcnt for non-payment of h e and * ad&tional sentence; 2" Civil party in matters concerning &maps claimed by and awarded to civil plaintie

166 3" A court clerk in matters mncuning -cry of fines, court fees and proportional rishts - calculated on the bitsis of perrntage awarded to an advuw pafy- Without prcjudi to the provisions of article 170 of this kw, an auwcd who is acquitted is immediately rcld by in-charge of prim at the prescntatm of an cxtraftof a copy ofjudgment If wha! has bem mentioned in a pmcecding parapph, and in Article 169 have not been put in practice and the PC& is raaincd in prison, the judge takes decision es mentioned in ardcle gg and 89 of tbis Law. Sedion one : Death pemw A pcrson who hss been scntd to destir, in the company of a religious mi* be taken to the place of cxccutidn and immediately fired. of his os her choice, shall A person smtu~ced to death punishmnt shall not be fired on days that src legally recopid is public holidays. Articic 213 : When it is proved that a woman who has b#a scntmcui to death' is pregnant, she cannot be fired beforc delivering. A statsncnt of the acecutim of judgment shall be inxnediateiy recorded by a Comt Clek It will be signed by the Resident of the court that pafced the satmce or his or her deputy and by a -ve of the pubiic pmsccu6on and a Court Clerk The satand shall be tianscribed by a Court Clerk at the foot of the judgment. Section 2: Imprisonment Article 218 : Punishmnts of imprisamment shall be %wed in prisms. Any convicted pson shall perfom the job as may be msignedto him or ha. Women and children serve imprismmcntpunishmnk in spxial quarters provided forthan io prisons..

167 Article 220 : Modalities of serving sentences of imprisonment are provided for by a decree of the -having in hi or hm attributions. Justia Section 3 : Fanes Ariide 221 : Fines and court fm are paid to a Court Clerk within a period of eight (g)days following a judgment of final conviction Upon approval by the President of the Court which rendered the jugrmcmt, that pied may be cxtm&d. Artide 222 : However, paymcnt of fine and court fees can be required hmpdiately after judgment is dciiid if both parties ampresent or from the time of service of proceps if it was deli in the hence of a party; if thm is fear that a wnvickcd person is hkdy to disappear at the t'he of cxemhg the pun'lshmcntr. To that end, a Court Clak requests a convietcd person either verbally or by registered mail sent through the post, to pay fines and court fees within a period of time detamined by the Court Clerk Arfide 223 : The dcliery of j udgd shall be in the prcsenoe of both of the p d a a its notifidon to a party who was not presd shall include an official demand to pay withi a prsaibcd pa+& In cese such a period expires without the aocuscd person paying, he or she can be put undcr impritonment ordered i~ the judgment A party claiming daatagcr whowhowishes to have his or ha advasq put undcr irnpriponmmt fw not paying the awarded damaga shall apply to the cfficct to the public pmmntirn A judgmmt-debta who has been legally irnpripwed for nonpaymau shall be rcltaocd upon of the judgmeatcrcditor who app1ic.d for the hpkmmt or upon payment a deposit of an amount of money which is enougb to &sfu the aedita who led to the imprisaronad in addiion to the intucsts due for paymcnt and the dctesmimd cowtks. Arfide 225 : A decree of &e President of the Repubk &all provide for the mode of serving punishnmt by way of public anterest works. Section 5 : OeneralProvision Provisional cxccution of jupmnt is prohibited in csiminal cases, with the cxcption of matters dating to reitution of property or paymcnt of damages.

168 CIIAPTW W : GROUNDS FOR DEFERRING EXECUTION OF SENTENCE - Section one : Pardon Article 227 : Prerogative of mercy, whether collcctiveiy or on individually can be sracised by the discdon of the President of the Republic and in public intrrest The pardon discredits total or partial remission of the purushmslts imposed or its co~ll~~~utation into less szvere punkb.~~=nts. Article 228 : Pardon can apply to all principal or accessory sentences...: Article 229 :., for non-paymmt of line, court frrs and civil damages as well as other reasons other than punkhm~~k. * Panlon cari ody be applicd on p~ishmmts. which can be exended and which e d from c&es which... have been fiidy dekrrnhed. '+ When a puaisbment has been m y executed, pardon can be wresciscd on the whole Or part of the remaining punishment A puaishnr:nt 'that provide kor nlpwded S&bce.carinot. be jubjccted to Pardd~d the nrspcnsim has... been moved. Pardon can be gtanted unwnditionaliy or subject to certain conditions to be satisfied by the pardoned person, which is provided for in the decision granting the pardon. If such conditim arc not nqeztd, the pardon is automatically cancelled and the sentence becomes executed again. In such a -caw, time Sit for the excation of sen~ct becomes suspended h m the the of notifying the pardon until when it is Article 231 : Any person wbo wss convicted to life imptkmmcnt and who commuted to a lesser pmdment or totally remitted should aiways be given an order forbidding or ordbing him or her to live in a partinrlar arra for a penod of ten (10) ysars unless o thme provided for in the decision grantlngthe pardon Pardon shall not extinguish accessory pkkbments which have not been specifd in the decisim --ting it or effects of conviction, particularly those relating to kiapse into the acf piaceme at the disposal of the Sak;.susp"dedsentcnie tilatin? to k h triak and judgments odering to pay such and restitution of property and paymnt of damages. Article 233 : Petition for pardon is made in writing. For individod pard&q.p&on is made by a convicted perso& or any other &rested nunc. The petitioner indicates grounds that justify the petition pmon in his or ber For coliecti& pardon, petition is made by the Minister having J dce in his or her aikibutions after indicating grounds iunifying th: petition.

169 any case, the Public Prosecution is entitled to &ve an opinion on the petition or proposal for granting pardon within a period of three (3) months. Artide 234 : Afrer investigation, files of petit~oos for pardon are sent to the Minister responsible for justice who giving an opinion thcrmt makes a report to the President of the Republic within three (3) months for d-&ion after wnsidcring the opinion of the Suprant Court Ai-fide 235 : A decision graoting or denying pardon is brought to the -tion of the petitioncr by the Mi+ having Justice in his or her attributions. Execution of punishts of fines or imprisonment for a p=riod of three months or less, is, if it has not yet w m m 6 suspended during the time of investigation until the day on which dcciion on the petition for pardon is made. Ho;wcvcr, in all CBPK, the Minism having justice in his or bcr mbutions can order suspension of erhcemmt of prmishmcnts during the time, whether on all punlshmcnts which have not yet commenced or on those which have W y commenced Setion 2 : Cniditional release of a sentenced pcrson Article 237 : Persons who have bccn se?~tcnad to one or severai imprisonment punishments or who have been placed at the m sal ofthe state can he wndiionally released: 1" ifthey dwomlmtc enough-pmof of good behaviors and ifthey demonstrate serious guarantet of good social relations; 2" ifthey suffer h pl seriw and incurable &stays. Howeva, persons who ha& becn sattcnccd for genocide or crimes against hnmanihumanity, tarorism, dcfiiing children w pexual torturc and all otha trims ntated to national security or of other couutrics, treason and espionage and dl 0th~~ intanatiod crimes provided for by the penal codc cannot be conditionally dcaseb Conditional relaw appiies to convictcdp~m wfio haw mmplctdtwo (2) months of imp ' t if their smtcncc is less than six ( 6) months and those who have served a qum of their punishmcid hr more and scvcrc prmishnratr. For those who w sentenced to life imprisanmenf the period for probation is ten (10) years. Artide 239 : Conditional release is requssted from thcmin&er having justice in his or hsr mibutions. Cbndii(ona1 release is approved by thciitkiitcr having Justice m nts or ha &hibutions a h advice by the public prosecution and director of prison The Minister having Justice in his or her attniutih determines wnditions to be ful6lied by thcperson wnditionally releasxi as well as the mode of supervising pmons conditionally relcased.~ An order of wnditional release is not appealed againn.

170 The Minister having Justice in his or ha attributions upon request by the public prosecution, can deny a person conditional release if he or she is convicted of a new offence, displays puss misconduct or for breaching conditions imposed by the order which gave the conditional relme. In case of urgency, an arrest for the purposes of detaining a person who is unda conditional Fclcascd can be ordmd by the Prosecutor General of thc Repubiic, the Public PmMltor of province or that of the Ci of Kigali,.and shall imwdiatsly idarm the Minister having Mu in his or ha attributions. Article 241 : Aficr denial of the conditional release, the convicted person shall serve the whole or part of the prmishmnt that remained when he or she was conditionally rdcesed, in addition to any other p uniht that may havc been imposed thereafter. b- Article 242 : If the denial of the release war not c&ctivc within a period equal to the term of imprisonment remaining on the day on which the convicted person obtains conditional release, his or her libsrty is coinpicteiy restored. In that caw, the punishmat is taken to havc ended on the day of the conditional release. Article 243 : Extinction of execution sentence pnscription docs not run when a convicted person has bem conditionally rcleawd subject to a dace that has not been raocdled. Section 3 : Snspension of sentence Article 244 : If a convicted person has nd b#n previously senlend to a period e x d g twu (2) mmtks, in the case, tb COW can, by - a ding that gives rtawlrr, order mspcdon of execution of an or part of the principal or ' =-VP it has pronounced, provided the principal p0ishrm3 of iqrhmmt does not exceed fivc (5) years,c A suspcndcd smtence shall k dermcd worthless a within a gives pcriod which shdd not be less than one yea and not morr than fivc (5) years, the convicted person and nor tried for and convicted for an offace or given a sentence exncding two (2) months for s felony or mifdrmsanour he or she wmmitfd subsequent to the date on vhch the order suspending the exem6011 ofjud- baame finat. On the contrary, punishmmt for &-id execution has been suspended and which are the subject of new conviction run conscltivety. Article 246 : Suspnsion of s+ntmce does not bar payment of.court fees and damages. L docs not either bar disquaiification arising from conviction. However. disquaiification ceases to havc effect on the day on which the offence becomes worthless.

171 CHAPTW VIU : GROUNDS FOR REMOVAL OF A SENTENCE Section one : h s t y Anmesty extinguishes 8a &fence. Whm ihue has b e wnsequcnces arising from the ohce. conviction, it rmoves the conviction and all the When there is wncmmcy of intention, a wnvictcd person ps amnesty on all of them when the o&ace pardoned is punisw with s punishmmt that is bigger than or equal to the other oemccs charged, mn if judges or ma~skatcs may hve imposed a icssx penalty on the ofha after putting into considdon mitigating c ircu~wr. In ~asc of concmasy of ofhcez, amnesty applies only to the oem= it was ordd for. An ordv gianing mesty can provide for wnditions to be satisfied by the person pudaned Article 249 : - Amnesty docs not prejudice a civil action which is intended to compensate damgc d by an oi%ncc. It does not reduce anytbingto what third parties have bccn awarded by a ju&mcnl Amnesty docs not have c&ct bn diiciphary sanctions. Section 2 : Rehabilitafion Artidc 250 : Any pason who has bcen convicted bf a felony or mirdmrcanour can be rehabilitated Article 251 : Rehabilitation can be granted when five (5) years have elapsed and if during that timc a convicted p w continuously shown evidence of good bohav'tour. For the person sentenced to pay a fine, Nth a period is counted fmm the day on which the opposition of the cape clapd while a person wmictcd to a trim of imprisonmmt, on the day of his a kr final relca~ or h n the day heor she was reid on bail if it has not bccn canaikd. For those who relapsed into the a& nnd those pmans whose ~~ have brm expired, the rdcvaaperiod is ten (10) yean from their rehtasc a from the day on which their smtcnce~ lapse& has A wnvicted person should, ~ C S the S tim- fm execution of judgment has expire4 prove payment of court fees, fmes and damages or that he or she has b=n cxempted for paying them If he or shc faik to prove it beyond rearonabie doubt, he or she hes to indicate that he or she was imprisoned for the non-payment w that the govemmnt or the victirm of tht aimc have waved thc execution Homvcr, den the wnvictcd person prows that he or she is a dcstimb; he or she can be rehabilitated, even if he or she hss not yet psid any or part of the amount ofmoney ordad.

172 Article 2 5 : - Where, each of the convicted persons, is jointly and sevaally liable, but the one who has appiled for rehabition is incapable of paying all the munt of money ordered by the court, the court can fix the part the applicant bas to pay. - When the victim of an oeence cannot be found or bs asfused to take the amount due to him or her, the money is kept in public ~vssury. When the concerned party.doa not show up to collect the amount wittun a-pviod of five y-, restituated to the depositor, upon his or ha application it is A convicted person can make a milten application for rehabition the High Court of the Republic. The application specifies the exact date of conviction and all the places when the convicted person has tied since &or she was rclcased. The application is sent to the public prosecution service for its opinion on the conduct of the applicant The Public Rosedon calls upon judgemen6 againsf the convicted person, copies lium the register of the detention facihes w h hc or she was detained indicating the punirbrnent he or she served and ask for po11ce criminal record of the convicted p-n. The High Court of the Republic makes a ding on the findings ofthe public prosecution within a paid of two months, after hearing hn the applicant or his or her counsel or summoning than in accordance with the law When the apption for rehabiiitation is rcjemcd, it cannot be re-submitted bcforc thq apiiaticm of two years, dcss the first application was-.2jatcd on the grounds that probationary period was not wmpletc; in that case, the application can be renewed af&r expiration of the probationary pcricd. Article 257 : C Rehabiia moves mvic6rm and sentence and then stops all the rsulting disqualifications. Howcvcr, rchabiiitation is automatically cancelled if, within a period of five (5) ycarr, the rehabiiitated convla c o d an offence punishable with an imprisonment equal to or exceeding five (5) yeas and for whch he or she has been convicted and scntcnced la &IS the pubk pmscclaion service will file the matter be* the High Court of the Repuhhc wb~ch, in turn, cancels the rehabiiion order, after legally summomng be applicant or h2s or her counsel - CHAPTER M : COURT FEES Section one: Payment of Court fees deposit Article 258 : Partics to a case shcad pay to a Court Clerk the amount of deposit of money specified by the Minister having justice in his or her &butions.so that they can be allowed : 1. opposltim, 2. app4 3. to file a claim for damages by way of d i i private pmsdon;

173 4. to file a claim for damass, 5. to fiie an application for review. The amount of wurt fees payable in the Military Court is equal to that payabie in a Provincial or the City of Ki& Court whereashe amount of wurt fees payable in the Military Appeal Court is equal to that.payab1e to the High Court of the Republic. If there arise disputes on th: amount of court fees claimed by a Court Clerk, the President of the court shall settle them Additional court f ~ to s be paid in order to complete the amourrt previously deposited is assessed by a judge or magistrate and paid in advance a Court Cierk as provided for in the first paragraph of this article, failure to which no other procedural step can be taken in favour of &e parties. Article 259 : When the party who e supposed to pay court fees is a destime, the Prcs~dent of the wurt can, after seeing a certificate of lack of means ~ssued by a mayor of the dlstricf tom or muni~ipaiify where the party usually lives, exempt h~m or her from paying them Even if a civil party is awarded damazes claimed, a Court Clerk shall deduc? wurt fees payable %om the amount he or she deposited and the wiymg party shall proceed against the loosing party in order to secover the amount deducted from the court ices deposited. However, for incidental proceeding, wurt fees to be deducted by a Court Clerk are only those relating to steps taken in the case at his or her request Court fees are 'dcula&d by its Cierk Whenthere is a civil party, the bill of costs should fndic* theampunt of fem to be deducted fmm coun fees deposited by the losing part).. as well as the amount to the paid by the losi~g party. The bill of ask is vedied and signed by President of court.. In case of appeal, a Court Clerk of the appellate wurt caiculates court fees and the bill of costs is signed by the Resident of the wurt to which the fees arc paid Section 2: Proportional righis A tax of four percent (4%) is charged on all amom of money or value of movable property awarded as damagg by a court judgment that is final. Interests for deiayedpaynents that have' fallen due on the date ofjudgment are added to the principal amount upon diticulating of the pmportiona! rights offour percent (4%). Cow fkes and the proportional rights of four percent (4%) are paid to a dist?ict, town or municipality treasury if they have b n levied by a district to- oi municipality cour?; in the City of Kigali Council k u T if th=y have be& levied by the Court of the City of Kigali. They are paid to the govemmint treasury if they have been levied by any other court.. The Minister responsible for justict fixes regulations for putting into application fhe.brovisio& of this article Article 263 : When the amount of the value of the propcrty tn be paid by the winning party to the losing party has not been mentioned in ajudgmenf it shall be determimd by a Court Clerk who is chea with assessing the four

174 percent charges, except that &-party who is supposed to pay will be allowed to refer the mattg the Rcsident of the court so that a m im of the assczsmnt of the Value of the pmpmty made by the Courr Clerk can be made. Court frs are borne by the losing patty They are assessed in the way it is done in respect of civil cases Article 264 : The proportional rights mvided for under articte 162 of this law bccomcs due to rendering ofjudynent of a O~Y. It is not prepaid as deposit. The proportional righk arc paid by a party who hss bem ordered to pay damages, a wnvicted person or the one respmsibte for paying damages is the one who pvcs it to the Court Clerk in the month follmg the day on wh~ch the damages are canlimed by the wurt in their absence, the amaunt is pard by the judgmentcreditor, except that he or she shall have the nght to proceed against the person who is liable to pay damages in order to recover the amount paid Proportional rights shalt be mvered in accordance with a documa~t authorising execution of its ~ecovery imed by the President pf the court which gave judgmnd demanding the payment, affcr a formal notice to pay withii thee (3) da$ served QI the judgment-debtor has bcwme fruitias but, without prejudice to an order of artaehrnent beb judgmna which comcs into etfcct f& the day on which the amount was supposed to be paid; the machmt being authoriscd by the Resident of the court Article 266 : Beiore payment, a CourtClak or bailiff or any other pcnon who is legslly eanpowacd to cany out execution of a judgemalt &all fi$ deduct four pmznt pmportional rights which shall go to a dkict, town or munidpaiii, City of Kigaii Bcanny or govern- treasury f m all sum or any ofher thing whose monetary value can be ascertained in a final wurt deckion w by a %gn judgmmt which is capable of bcing exoxid in Rwanda IS fohming an applicatibn to oppositiah apped w case rtvim is aked a h the proportional rights have ban paid, the righk klrstihllcd in whole w in part w supplancntcd depdmg on the judgement of the CBY., C The proportional righk are restiblbed when the j udge is not Subject to opposition. In such a CBX, when twa years elapse before the proportional rights are claimed for by the owner, it can no longer be restituteri Article 267 : If the Prcsident of a court that mdehd the jud-t finds that a pmon is a dcstihrtt, he or she can issue without payment, an executable wpy of judgmcnf an cxte~ive wpy of the case, an extract thereof or an ordinary copy ofjudgmcnt Section 3: Scale of wurt fees Article 268 : In criminal casq documents rclating to judicial pmcecdings and court fees payable for obtaining than are determined by the ~inistk responsibk for justia. Article 269 : Any page of wurt documen& or judgment should contain at lasttwenty 6ve (25) Sics.

175 Allowances payable to witnesses, physicians, interpretax and othcr expats as well as earnport farcs for wurt bailifi are approved by the p~ding judge or nqkatc a k obtaining d- which contains the following : 1" the date of requisition for activities and the name ofjudgc or or a judicid potice officer who &quested for is 2' the category of the ofibx and the name or aarncs of the -cd; 3" the type of duties, dates on which they wm pufonned and their dlwtion as wcu as matten conccming the wsts incum& 4" date or days on which difbsnt Pdvcis were M&S and their duration as will as the means of aanspart usca; 5 O if necesiary, postal cheques m unt number or bank account wmber of the bmefi+ry and his or her a d b. The Minister having Justice in his or her attributions dctermines the mode applicable to calculation of albwaucs payable to witncs- physicians, cxpcd witness and k&qwekn Transport fares for physioians and wurt baim cxpwk and inulprcterr ate pmvidcd form the budget of the Supreme Court This amount is paid by the loosing party and shall be deposited in public treasury. CHAFTER X : SPECIAL PROVISIONS Sedion one : GeneralProvisions Article 271 : Unless the law provides otherwise, paid pmvided for by the law ~&&g follow the regulations specilied undcr this don. to criminal pmcedure -at Artide 2 72 : periods which are counted in days aml haucs, arc counted fmm midnightto midnight oftbe following ciay rcganilcr;sthe~ythedo~ormanisdom.howevcr,tbelastdayof~~~~~~~~ LqaUy recogmid public holidays are inciuded in the peciods pruvidcd for. However, when the larit day of the period coincides with a recognised public next working day. theperiod m& on the Periods which are counted in monk and ycan are counted from the fia day and end on the day preceding - ransitional and final Provisions law p&ides otherwise, this.law relating to criminal

176 J.O.nospespe&du 30/07/ r664 Article 275 : - &es.which will still be pending on the day qn wbich this law comes ininto force hall be tried inaccordance vah this law. The law of February 23,2963 relating to crnninal procedure ar rnoaed and compicmnted to &ti and other previous legal provisions confray to this law arc hereby abmgated Article 277 : This law shall come into force on the date of its publication in the %cia1 Rwda Gazette of the Republic of The Prsidcnt of tbe Republic KAGAME Paul (s4- Thc Primt Minista, MAKUZA Bernard (~9 The Minisk.s of Justice MUKABAGWIZ.4 Edda Sees and sealed with the SealdtheRepubiic :

177 LAW NO 20!2006 OF MODIFYING.4ND COMPLEMENTING T9E LAW No OF 17/ RELATING TO THE CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE - THE PS&L&EF\T =.ALtOPTED AND Syr, S.LNCTION. PROMULGATE THE FO?LLOWEVG UW AND ORDER IT BE PUBLISHED IN THE OFFICL4L GAZETTE OF THE REPUBLIC OF RW-NDA,c The Chamber of Deputiesjn irs session of March 22, 2006; The Scnate, in its session ofmarch 3, 2006; Given the Constitmion oftbe Fqublic ofrwanda of June 4,2003 as immdc&to tiate, especially in irs.4r&es 10, 15, 17, 18, 19,21, 22, 62, 66, 67, 88, 90,92, 93, 95, 108, 118 and 201; Having reviewed tht law no l3r004 of 17/5/2004 relating to the Code of criminal procchc, espcci& in its aaicles one.4, 18, 20, 24, 31, 33, 36, 37,413.48, 51, 5270,77, 81, 82, 86, 89, 96,98, 104, 108, 121, 155, 181, 206,209,240,255,257, 258,259,262,264, 266,270,274 and 275; ADOPTS: Article one: - Article ore of thc Law.nD of 17/5/2004 relating to the Code of ciimuml procedure is modified as fonows: 'This law govcms criminal investigation and pscdon aimd at imposing ptnal sanctiom against acfs that contravene the penal law. CNmnal judgcna:nb must be held m public au&nrce, be f;ur, ~MpartraS coniply mth the princlpk mf self defense, ROSS ex~mmaooq =cat htrgants equal m the eyes of the law, base on eytdenca legally produced and be w d d wthout any undue delay Article 2: Areicle 4 of the Law no of 17/5/2004 relating to the Code of crimi~i procedure is modiecd as follows: "Apm hm &a1 action against mmmurdcr and violence against children thar arc unprescripnble, or whc the law provides ohenvise, a czkbd action shall be : 1" in a period oiten (10) years for felonies; 2" m a period of the- (3) yem for misdemeanoms; 3" in a pciiod of one (1) ycar for connaventions. Prescription of prosecution of an offencc srarts to m h m the day on which the offence was committed when drning tbat Interval there have not b=en any msasures of criminal investigation or prosecution conducted"..4rticle 3: &clc 18 of tbc Law no of 17/5/200A relating to the Code of cnmmal procedurc IS mo6ified as follows: " Criminal investigation and prose,won are carded our by judicial potic: oeccrs under the coml and supa?sion of the Prosecurion Senice.

178 .Article 4:.b%ticle 20 oi the Laa- n'... GL20M of l'il ~elatms to the Code of clrmnal procdarc is mo&d.- as follows: 1" Ju&cial Police OGccrs; 2' MiLirary- judicial Poiicc; 3O Ci smts who are appomted isi accordance with the law or appointed by tbe Minis= m charge of Susdce and cqmwered ro -acr as judica! polic: oecm.. Such judicial police oiiiccn shall pdom their dudes only in pardcular offences usiped 10 them and within theu jurisdictions. They are governed by regdadom rela%g u, their ininal professions. C However, idhe discharge of thcir judicial police hctions, provisions of ardcle 3 ofthis law &&& applicable Id ease of milirary judicial police &ca, he or she is directed and supenised by the Military ~rps&~on". Article 5: Amcle 24 of the Law no of 17/5/2004 relating to the Code of cnmmal procedure m m eed as follows. Vpon meiving report about'the oommission of an offence, a luhicial Police C HicaW mmcdktdy visit thc scc&ofthe he and fake note of the commission.. If ihe offme co&itted. is a feiony or misdemeanonr, lhe judicial poiici offica who &ceim the information shall immdatefy report it to the Prosedon Servicr". Article 6: -4aicie 33 of the iaa-.xd of 17/5/2004 relating to the Code of aimid procedure is'.. 2s foiiows:. :...., < -If a person is caush red-handed or taken to be committing an offence, any-person in thc absan$k a judicial poiiceoi5ce1; can anen such an offmda and immediateiy take him or ha to the nearest ln&%dl;a?&cc.. Officer. case 5lc A Judicial Polic: 06cm who receives the person caught red-handed must complete hjs or witbin forty-ei&t (48) hoursabd.send irm a coqetenr public pmsccuto~, who: in tmr+ ifb2cqys+ -msntu~es.. suit with forty-ci& (48) horn in a comp, -teni~om.,.>,.. a.:. \, :..,..-.. For the pqoses of invcstigatioq. the Prosedon Ce~ce can extznd such a p+od ro normore tl&memy-four : j (24) horn.,--.,. 6.. F. i The seazed Corn must examine the case wih ==n (15) days??om the reczption of the ad'. >. t. - '< ' -% &,.. I..,-..' r.:: L,..?...,... a

179 Arricle 8 loi'thr h,lf 1 J20M ' of!7/5r004 relating to the Code of -1 procedure is m&ed as iollows: '- lnc of the Sqem Couc the Presidenr of the Hi$ Cow oi the L'pubiic, the fiesicimt of Yighs insrance Cows as wen as those of lower Ins~ace Corn can, afrj inpfy and interview,?poiat som members of *E in their WCnom ro act as interpreters: tanslators or expen a h they bave oa* so that they c~-wns~intly and 3scbi-ge.the dudes cob with their jurisdicnons. Such p&&.iue &poimed &-I they kve rikcn oath before thc appo-g hige or m discharge the dunes m y and ~ocsciousiy. After &g the oath pe;mancn~ interpreters and miaton shall 'hzve the right to k c b e the functions without baving to repeai the oath provided for by Psticie 80 ofthe Law n" of 17151'2OOP relating to the Code of d procedure as mo&ed and compicreettd TO date evq C &I tk9 -om theu dudes". &le g2,of hilaw no a of 17/5/2004 relz&q to the Code of c&&d procdre is mod5ed as follows: 'The Presdq judge shall &termme the amount of allowances parhcs to a case are supposed to pay to mtcrprchs and translaion, experk, physiclam for thc dutm thcy pdom m accordance mth the provxs~on of arncle 270 ef the hw n" of 17, rclabng to tius Code of cnmrnal procedure as mod~ked and cqlemcn&l to date" &ck., 86 of. thc.ldw no of 17/5/2004 relating to the Codc of criminai pmcedute is modified as follows: 'With of whq a pason is cau& red banded, a public &&.cutor ~ b with ~ the prepaiation d of a casc tile on the body of an accused person by sfnpping him or ha naked witbout prior authorisatiprw SpubIic prosecutor in charge of the prosecution scrvlcc he or she is appointed tu. Article i91' -. Article &4& Liw no 13/2004 of 1715/ rela- >.%<?. to the Codc of &nbl procedme is modiked as follows: 'Wen d.*=.i9deqined unla-y, aay judge who is appointed to a colat which is locmed nearthe place whzre the ;p&m;&' de'iaiued and whose compc~ence coven tht oeenccs the detained person is alleged to have comnitte& q% upon requ-it by any intercsted.pany, ordz-thc necer who detained that person ro appear and produce the dttainee in order m indicate reason and manner mde~ which he or she is detained. -4 judsc or terr&'agarc then makes an order arresting or releasing the person on bail. He or she may also orb the nr;pecr ro ;kp--cy condirions provided for by articie 102 of the Law n013/2004 of Z7/51'2005 relating to the Code of mmid~pzeaure. The or ma-te may immediately cause ro be pdned any o&cz who ImiawMlyYtieQined th: pnon witb tbe punishmen% provided for under the Penal Code"... -4rticle 96 af the Law no of 17/51'2W relacing to tbe Code of criminal procedure is modiiied and complemented 2s follows: "Whm ailwbdiwns thar wamnt pre-md detention'arc estabiished, a public prossecutor c q afm intcuogatin~ the accused picading on hu; or her omor in the presence of his or her advocate, piacc him or hu under

180 provisional arrcsi and take hm or her ro the nearest jurisdicdon with tbc exc+on Republic and the Supreme COWL of the Hi& Court of the The accused should appczr before the magisrrate or Judge in e period of not more iban sevenp-wo(72) horn ken the dmf the wanant ofbe ppmvisior;al anea was issued"...hcie 98 of the Law no i3:2004 of 17/5/2004 ieiarmg ro the Code of =mmural p rceh n modified and compiem=mtd as ioiious: "An order for preventive debon is one whcb is sigd by e Marunate or Juke and a -corn regim, if the hcaring he or she is oi the view that the ac-wed who Lc de&d evidslce against him or hz. afm shouid remain m wrody because ofthe A prevzntive detention is authorised by the.near=st court to thc piace whec the *Yspe-,r is m=srsa vith the exccpnon of the Sigb Corn oi the Republic and the Supreme Corn." The kid and judgemen s M be open A judge or ma=+uat~ -an rui~ out rhat a ma1 be conducted ~LI camera upon requen by the prosecuror ar the accused". Article 22: Article 1 D4 oft be Law no of 17/5/2004 r ela~g to the Code o i criminal procedure is moaed and complemented as foiiow: '%ail may be m form ofbond or of a person skndq as surety Any one who adrmn to stand as surety shall be a person of lntegnty and have the means to pay Where an accuscd person escapes jdce, the surety shall pay conpcnsation for the damages caused by the obence". Article 23 : #- L Artlcle 108 of the Law no of!7/j/2004 relating to the Code of cnminal procedure is modified as follows: "Ordm lssned by a Low Instance Court arc appealed aga.mst m the Higher btancc Comtwhereas thost of the HI&^ m c e Court arc appealed apmst m the Htgh Court of the Rcpnbhc Ordm lssued by the HI- gh Corn of the Repubhc arc appealed agiunst m the Supreme Court. O h issued by. the lvwitary T a d are appeal& against in the Military Hi& Comt wher~as those oi the Miiitary Hi& Corn are appealed against in the Supreme Court -4n order of thc jurisdiction of appeal is nor appe&~le.,.... r-. JI ~ Ariicie 121 of the Law no 1Y2004 of!7~5/2uo~ relanng to the Coae oi crirmnal procsdme is modiiied as follows: "In thi coursc of the corn may order tbe prosemior to prosecute and b k before the court those Yz~ persons considen as c~-autho~~ accomplices of the accused as long as it hu'~cicnt evidence to prove that they coded the A- Where the corn finds om -frat tbc prosecution is-n~t wig to prosecute such persons it may summon them to - appear before the coun and be mcd".

181 - hcle!55 of the Law no oi 17/5;2OOll reia~-~o th: Code of criminal piocsdue B mo&ied u ioliows: - '-When a person who by bezn ddy summoned does no; appes, he or she is m=d rn absentih Article 26: 1" the prosecution or the victim if the former does not make it; 2" a person smtcnced to death or imprisonment Where the convicted person is dead or declared d ins, an a.ppiicatian for review can be made by his or hfl spouse, childre+ or other hens by me- of law, successon: of his or her estate cokctiveiy or individual p ons hc or she expressly gave the mandate". Article 27: The article 206 of thc Law no of 17/5/2004 relating to &e b de of cdminal procedure is modsed as follows: " A judicial police oecer or a public pmsecutor who receives or notices a compkint agziust, the President of the Republic, the President of t!x Senate, thc Speaker of 'he Chamber of Deputies, the Prime Minister or the reside^ oisuprcme Court immediately hmnmits the case Be to tbe Rasecutor Gmerd of tfie Republic. The latter conducts -If or hesseli investigation and prosed011 before tbe Sopre= Corn In case of his or ha absmcc, he or she shsll be replaced by the Deputy Prosemtor General of the Repubuc. ;+ ~owevk, acco~licu of such persons can be intetrogtd by a judicial pok o k case B e to the Prosemtor Gcnual of the L'public. Article 28: befuse &tsmit&urharharharharharharharharhag the.#cle 209 of the Law no of 17/5/2004 rek& to the Code of c r d follows: procedure is modecd as '%xecutlon oijudgement LS conaucied by the fo~owmg: lo Career bailifis; ZC Prison director 3" '~ovemm=ni oficiais, cow re-ars Minis~er in chqe of justice" and local goveru&cni aurborides :mpowerd to do so by tbe Article 29: Amcl: 240 of the Law no of 17/5120M rclatmg to the Cod: of &?Mmal proceumc IS mod5ed as iouows.

182 'The Minister in charge ofjustice irpm requen by the Public Rosedon, can deny a mnditional release iihc or sne is convkied oi a new offence3 displays sors misconducl or for brcachmg conditiom imposed by the or& wbich Eave the conditional release. In case of urgcnn;, r new arrest for the purposes of &airing a peson who is undz condrnonal release can b= ordered by the Prosecutor General of the Republic, or the,public Prosemor m chaqe of prosccution service o6ce at a High= Insranct ieve! or the public prosecutor in charge of the prosemon service ozc: ar a Low: hmnce levei. and shall immedia~iy iniorm the &rcr in ;*=e ofjus;lce"..'imcie 255 of' the -Law no 13!2004 f0llou.s: of!3/5:2004 rela&g to thc Code of cimd procehre is modeed as "-4 convicted person can nak 2 -men application for rehabilimtion to the Eli& Corn ofthe Repubihc or to the Milimy Zigb Corn for thw sascs ticd befox miiimy c o&. The application specses the cxacr dates of ~onvicnon and all tk piaccs the convicted person has lived in sincc the tune he or she he reicased. The application is sent ro the public prosecution service for its opinion on the conduct ofthe applicant Thc public prosecution calls upon jeemcnts a,.ainst the convicted person, copies from the register of the &tendon facilities whm he or she was detained indicaring the puusbment he or she smcd and request for police crimmal record of thc convicted person The Cod of tbe Republic or tbe Militzliy Hi& Court makes a ding on the arguments of the public prosecution withina pied of two (2) m+h irfrcr hearing or summoning the applicant or his or her counsel in accordance with the law". Artide 257 of the Law no ly20w of 17/5/2004 relatmg to the Code of cnminai procedure is modnied as iellows: Tehabihtauon removes convictmn and sentence and then stops all the resulbg bquawcatmns -Howcrcr, rehabilitation is automatically cancelled if within aperiod of &(5) years, thc rehabilitated convict. commits an offence punishabk by an jmpri~onment equal ta or excesding five (5) years and for which he or she has been convicted and sentenced In this rcspcq the public proseahon scnicc will fie the matter before the High Court of tfic Republic or the Milituy High COW which -in tu% cancels the rehabilita~on order, after lz&y llysummoning the applicant or his or her counsel. When rehabilimtton IS cancelled, a IS co~~idered as rilt bas never bem pnted" Artide SZ: lvticle 258 of the Law no!3i2004 of 17/5/2004 relanng To the Code oi --~o~ows: procedure is modiiied as 'Ruties to a case shouid pay 10 a Coun the amount oi deposit ofmoney spedea bythe Minister %avi~g jusiicc in IS or her armbutions so ikir +hey can be allowed: 1" opposidoc: 2" appd 3" a ciaimby way of direct pnvaie prosecudon: 4' c h for damages; 5 an applicadon for revicw" Tne amount of c m k s payable in the Milimy CO'W is equal to tbat payable jn a Higher instince Court whereas the amount of court fes payablein the Milimy Egh C d is equalm that payable to thc High.Court of thc Republic. - -

183 J. 0.n special du 27/05/2006 Ii there ansc dsputcs on &c,amount of coun fets ciauncd by a Court R-g19nar, tbe Beslda of the cow shall settle them - The amount of additional con fes to be paid in order ;o complete the momr previously dcczkd is assessed by a judge or niagisuate apd ihe receipt oiits payment shall be submitted to a Court Re- zs provikd for in the h r parap$ o f b hide; kiiiug m which no other procedud srep can be Qken m favour of the?airicsd..a=cle 259 oi the Law n?!3/2004 of 17f52004 rdaiing ro the Cod: of criminai procedure is meed as follows:!" Persons in u.yonst 2" Destiunes with a idcare issued by compcrent authori~; jc Thc State ofrwanda u&b tbe exception ofiupublic institutions that have a ied ssratus". e.4rticle 34: Arsicle 262 of the Law no l3r004 of 17/5120M relating to the Code of criminal procedure is &ed iouows: as "A proporhonal duty of four percent (4%j is cbar~d on all autoants of money or valuc of assets awarded as damages b.y a cow find ~ud-t Interests for delayed paymenn '$af have fallen due on the date of ~udgement are added to the pmclpal amount upon calculahng fbt proporhooal duty of four percent (4%J. Corn fees and the proporhonal duty of iom percent (4%) are pad ro the Wct keamry ifthey are c-ed by the hegher Instaace COW or Lower Instance Court Such propobonal. duty shall be pad lo the govemmmt kcasury I they are charged by any other comt The Minister in charge of judce fixes reguiatiom for tbe provisions of this article by a ministad order"..wit 264 of the Law no 13RD04 of 17/5/2004 relatiug to the Code of criroinal pr6ccdrm is modified as follows: "% p ropomonal dury e staolished p ufiuanr to article 2 62 of L aw- no 1 Y2004 of 17/5/2004 on thr Code of c d procedure as mo&ed by this law 3 due for the record of the judgement It-does not lead to deposit The pmpomonal dury is due by the person condemned to pay damages; the personsentenced on the basis of'& or hm charges oi the?erson liable for damages shall provide the clerk ~ 4th a receipt cernfymg tbat he or she has pad within the mouth following the ME on which the c1v2 sentence bas.become rss judicata"..bcle 266 of the Law ~i" 131'2004 oi 17!5/2004 rela- to the Code of crimind proc-dure is modified as follous:.?:fore payment; a Court bas or any other pmon who is legally empowered 10 carry out execution of a judgement sm firs1 dchcr propomonal duty of ion percent (4%) which shall go to Distcict or Governmenr neasury iom all sums or any other property whose moncra& value can be asc=aainaain -0' m a hal cow decision ar by a iorcip jud=gnenr which is capabie of being zxecuted in Rwanda

184 , J. 0.n O spkcial du 27/05D006 If iolloaing opposition, appeal or case renew is altered after tbc propomonal duty has been pai6 such propotiona! duq is reiunded m whole or pan or suppkmented depending on be jud~ement ofthe case. Tne propornotiz! aury s refunded when the Ngmenr v nor subject to opposrtlon h su& a czse, w.hee two yean chpse beior: the propomonal due IS c'hmed for cy the ownex. u can no longer be rchded".kticle.270 of the Law n" 13/200d of!7ai20cm reiahg tc the Code of mminal proc~dure is modified as iollowr: ".4Uowancs papable to wik-sses, physicians, interpmus a d otk expa as well as ransport fees ior corn baiiirjj ~e aoproved by the presidj,: judge or magista~ a% obtaining do-515 wiuch contain the following: C 1" the dare the admhes were requesred to be done and the name of the person who was allowed to cany thcm om 2" the category of the offencc and the namc oi names of the ac-used 3" the type of dunes, dates on whch they were performed and theu dura'aon as well as matt=? conc~g the cans mclurcd, 4" date or days on wbch Merent mvek were conducted and the^ duraaon as well as the mcans of transport used, 5" linecessary, postal cheques, account number or bank account number of the bcneficlary and lus or her address The Minister in chge of justice dctermincs the mode applicable to the caidation of allowances payable to witnesses, physicians, cxpcrts and inurpreters. Trauspoa fees for phys~nans aud court b-, cxpcrh and mtqreters are provldtd ior on the budget of the Supreme Court and that of military courts lh amouut v pad by the losq party and shall be deposited m pubb--y= Article 38 : b l c 274 of the Law no 13,2004 of 17/5/2004 rela* to the Code of c n d ~O~OWS: procedure rno&ed as Article 275 of the Law no of 17/5/2004 relak~ to the Codc of crimidal proczdtue is modified as follows: Ykcs that were conaucred frwdec~mbe: 8: 2005 w ro the dare tkk law is published m ihr 05cial Gazette of the Republic oirwanda shd remain mhd Prescription for Bug a case or qealing shall her, being computed zs of the darc on which this law comes into iorcz". Article 40 : -411previous legal prov~s~ons conuary to tb la% are hereby abrogated

185 -4rticle 41: Tnis law c o ~ imo s forst on the &r=f irs publication i~ th: OEcX Gazzttc of tbc Republic of Rwe. It shall be,=e=&ve as ~omdcc=mb=r E8; Seen and sealed with the Seal of the Republic:

186 RESOLUTION ON THE RIGHT TO RECOURSE AND FAIR TRIAL 1660 The African Commission Conscious of the fact that the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights is designed to promote and protect human rights in accordance with the provisions contained in the Charter and recognised international human rights standards, Recognising that the right to a fair trial is essential for the protection of fundamental human rights and freedoms, Bearing in mind article 7 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights: 1. CONSIDERS THAT every person whose rights or freedoms are violated is entitled to have an effeciive remedy; 2. CONSIDERS FURTHER that the right to fair trial includes, among other things, the following; (a) All persons shall have the right to have their cause heard and shall be equal before the courts and tribunals in the determination of their rights and obligations; (b) Persons who are arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, in a language which they understand, of the reason for their arrest and shall be informed promptly of any charges against them; (c) Persons arrested or detained shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorised by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or be released; (d) Persons charged with a criminal offence shall be presumed innocent until proven guilty by a competent court; (e) lnthe determination of charges against individuals, the individuals shall be entitled in particular to: (i) Have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of their defence and to communicate in confidence with the counsel of their choice; (ii) (iii) (iv) Be tried within a reasonable time; Examine, or have examined, the witnesses against them and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on their behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against them; Have the free assistance of an interpreter if they cannot speak the language used in court; 3. Persons convicted of an offence shall have the right to appeal to ahigher court; 4. RECOMMENDS to state parties to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rghts to create awareness of the accessibility of he recourse procedures and to provide the needy with legal aid; 5. DECIDES to continue to be seized with the right to recourse procedures and fair trial with the view of elaborating further principles concerning this right.

187 LAW N022R006 OF 28/04iZ006 ESTABLISHING THE INSTITUTE OF LEGAL PRACTICE AND DEVELOPMENT We, KAGAME Paul, President of the Republic; THE PARLIAMENT KAS ADOPTED, AND WE SANCTION, PROMULGATE THE FOLLOWING LAW AND ORDER IT TO BE PUBLISHED IN THE OFFICIAL GAZETTE OF THE REPUBLIC OF RWANDA. THE PARLLAMEhT: Tbe Chamber of Deputies in its session of March 29,2006; The Senate in its Session of Mar& 3,2006; Given the Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda of June 4", 2003, as amended to date, especially in its articles 62, 66, 67, g8,90, 91, 92, 93, , I18 and 201; 0 Given the Orginic Law no of 03/08/2003 organising national education in Rwanda, Given the taw n014/2004 of 26 May 2004 establishing the general provisions governing public institutions especially in its articlel7; Given the Law no of 2O/lO/2OO5 governing the organisation and functioning of higher education; Having reviewed Law no of 11/02/2003 establishing the National Centre for Judicial Training and Development as amended to date. ADOPTS: CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL PROVISIONS Article one: There is hereby established an Institute of Legal Practice and Development hereinafter referred to as "ILPD, in brief terms. ILPD is a national institution of higher education with legal status. It bas academic, financial and adminishative autonomy. The ILPD is supervised by the Ministry in charge of Justice. LLPD's headquarters is located in Nyanza District, the Southern Province and may be mfened to any other location in Rwanda whenever necessary upon proposal by the Board of Directors. Article 3: The main responsibilities of ILPD are as follows: 1" to provide legal professional education to those persons holding at least a Bachelor's Degree in Law; 2" to provide aaining to the personnel dealing witb justice and thereto related activities; 3O to promote and widespread the researcb related to law; 4 O to collaborate with other higher learning and research institutions within and outside Rwanda in as to academic research fields aimed at promoting law and justice; 5O to support any other initiative aimed at promoting justice and law.

188 Article 4: ILDP and its supervising authority shall conclude a performance contract relating to a plan of action and which indicates evaluation modalities. Such coneact shall also specify the powers, rights and obligations of each party in fulfilling the mission of ILDP. Such a contract shall be valid for a period of the mandate of the members of the ILDP's Board of Directors; and it shall be signed by the Chaxperson of the Board of Directors and the Minister in charge ofjustice. CHAPTER 11: STRUCTURES OF THE INSTITUTE Artick 5: ILDP is comprised of the following organs: 1 " the Board of Directors; 2" the Academic Senate; 3" the office of the Rector 4" the Boards of Faculties jo the Boards of Departments SECTION ONE: THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS C Article 6 : ILPD is governed by a decision making board referred to as the Board of Directors. It shall have full and permanent powers and responsibilities in order to ensure that the institute fulfils its responsibilities. Article 7: The Board ofdictors shall comprise the following persons: lo the Chairperson ofthe heard ofdirectors; 2" the Rector of ILDP who is dso the Board's rapporteur; 3" the Vice-Rector in charge of academic affairs; 4" the Vice-Rector in charge of Adminismition and F-inance; the Director of students' services depment; 6" the Representative of the Minisay in charge of higher education; 7" the Representative of the Mishy in charge of justice; 8' the Representative of the Ministry in charge of public senice; 9" arepresentative of the academic and research staff of ILDP elected by his or her pcers; 10" a Representative ofthe administrative and technical staff of ILDP elected by his or her peers; I lo two (2) representatives of students elected by their peers and one being a female; 12' the representative ofthe Supreme Court; 13" the representative of the Parquet General de la Republique; 14" one Dean representing the Deans of the Faculties of Law in recognized higher leammg institutions and who is elected by his or her peers; lso The representative of the Bar Association. Article 8: The Board of Directors shall particularly be responsible for the following: 1" participating in the elaboration of the EDP's academic policy and following up its implementation; 2O preparing the ILDP's internal rules and regulations; 3" preparing the ILDP's budget proposal, 4O approving the recommendations of the Academic Senate as to the appointment of teaching and research personnel and the conferring of academic awards within ILDP; 5" making proposals to the Minister in charge of higher education concerning the establishment of centers, faculties and departments of ILDP;

189 6" approving donations, grants and aids that are accorded to ILDP; 7" submiding each year activity and financial reports to the Minister in charge ofjustice; 8. approving agreements entered into between UDP and higher learning, research institutions and other institutions in general; 9. performing any other activity that would help JLDP achieve its objectives Article 9: Apan 6om those whose membership to the Board of Directors is by virtue of their functions in ILDP and students that are elected by their peers, other members sbau be appointed by a Prime Minister's Order for a three (3) year term of office renewable once. The Chairperson shall be elected 6om among those members who come h m outside ILDP, Article 10: At its 6rst meeting, the Board of Directors shall elect fiom among its membem fhe Vice-Chairperson He or she shall be elected 6om those members who come fiom outside ILDP and shall replace the Chairperson of the Board m case of his or her absence. Article 11: 0 The Board ofdirecbrs roll1 bold its ordinary meeting once a quuer upon invitation by the Cbaiqmson or, in case of hi or her absence by the Vice-Chairperson. Article 12: The Board of Directors shall lawfully meet if at least one half (ln) of its members are present and if at least one half (ID) of those members coming 60m outside ILDP are present. Article 13: The Board of Directors shall make its decisions by consensus. In case of failure, the decisions shall be made upon an absolute majority of the votes of members present at the meeting. In case of a tie, the voting shall be repeated. In case of another tie at the second time, the Chairperson shall have a casting vote. Article 14: The Board of Directors may invite any resourceful person to attend the meeting and provide assistance on specific and relevant matters. Such a person shall have no voting right. 0 Article 15: The invitation to the meeting of the Board of Directors shall be in writing and reach members at least fifteen (15) working days before for an or- meeting, and two (2) workmg days before for an exiraordinary meeting. The invitation shall also indicate the venue, date, time and the agenda of the meeting. Article 16: The decisions of the meeting of the Board of Directors shau be sised by its members present immediately after the meeting and sent to the Minister in charge of justice at least five (5) working days as of the day on which they are made. Where the same Minister finds such decisions contravening the law or the ILDP general interest, he or she shall, in writing, cause their implementation to be cancelled. Such writing shall provide reasons that led to the cancellation of those decisions. Where a period of fifteen (15) working days elapses without the Minister in charge ofjustice giving his or her views, such decisions shall be presumed a. definitively approved.

190 Article 17: Minutes of the meeting of the Board of D i r s shall be ~tten by its rapporteur. They shall be signed by the person who chaired the meeting and its rapporteur and shau be sealed with the seal of ILDP. Article 18: Members of the Board of Directors who are present in the meeting of the Board of Directors shall receive allowances determined by a Presidential Order. Article 19: A member of the Board of Directors shall leave such an office if I" he or she becomes incapable of duly performing his or her duties; 2" he or she is sentenced to an imprisonment of six (6) months or morc 3" he or she is characterized by n.batever kind of discrimination; 4" he or she is associated with mismanagement o-f ILDP's property; 5" he or she resigns through in writing; 6O he or she is absent in meetings for three (3) consecutive times in a year without justified reasons; 7" he or she acts against the ILDP's interest; 8' he or she becomes incapable of performing his or her duties due to physical or mental illness after confirmation by an authorized doctor; 9" he or she is definitively sentenced due to the crime of genocide; 10' he or she confesses and admits the crime of genocide; 11" it is clear that he or she no longer fulfils the requirements considered at the time of his or her appointment in the Board of Directors; 12" he or she dies. Article 20: The Board of Directors of ILDP shall make a~eporto the Minister in charge of justice and indicate that a given person no longer deserves or that a given seat falls vacant in accordance with the provisions of article 19 of this law, which is approved by the organ that appointed him or her. Such a person shall be replaced in accordance with the provisions of article 9 of this law. Section II: Attributions of the Academic Senate Article 21:./4 The Academic Senate is the supreme organ which is in charge of academic and reseanh affairs oftldp. w Article 22: The Academic Senate shall c~mprise the following persons: 1" the Rector who is the Chairperson; 2" the Vice-Rector in charge of Academic Affairs, who is the Vice-Chairperson and the Rapporteur; 3" the Vice-Rector in charge of A dmiion and Finance; 4" one professor who is elected by his or her peers 6om the teaching staff of every faculty of ILDP and specialized centers affiiated to ILDP; 5" two (2) representatives of the teaching staff that are elected by their peers; 6" the Deans of Faculties; 7" the Heads of Departments; 8' the Director of the Library; 9" the representative of Students' Association who is in charge of Academic Affairs; 10 two (2) representatives of students that are elected by their peers, one being a female.

191 Article 23: The Academic Senate shall in its first meeting, elect a Deputy-Rapporteur 6om among its members. He or she shall be elected among Deans of Faculties or Directors of specialized centers affiiiated to ILDP. Article 24: Apart 6om those members of the Academic Senate by virtue of their duties, other members shall be elected for a three (3) year term of office renewable once. Article 25: The Academic Senate shall have the following main responsihiiities: G 1" to prepare academic and research sfmtegies and progms of ILDP and submit them to the Board of Directors for approval, 2" to make regulations relating to criteria for admission of students joining ILDP, reedations relating to examinations and academic awards issued by ILDP and submit them to the Board of Directors for approval; 3" to evaluate the results of examinations and approve them; 4" to make recommendations to the Board of Directors as to appointment and promotion of the teaching and research staff., 5" to lead and supervise the conduct of academic and research programs of Faculties and 6O Depmtments of ILDP; to make recommendations to the Board of Directors as to the establishment, division, ~ ~ ~~~ modifications, suppression or merging of centers, departments or faculties of ILDP; 7" to submit to the Board of Duectors an annual repon on all academlc and research acnvxies of ILDP; to perform any other duty as it may be assigned by the Board of Directors Article 26: The Academic Senate shall in its functions be assisted by the Boards of Faculties and Departments in order to achieve its objectives. Article 27: The Academic Senate shall hold its ordinary meeting once every two (2) months upon the invitation by its Chairperson or, in case of his or her absence, by the Vice-Chaierson. It may also hold extraordinary meeting whenever necessary upon the invitation by the Chairperson or, in C case of his or absence, by the Vice-Chakperson Article 28: The Academic Senate shall lawfully meet if at least one half (112) of its members are present. The Academic Senate shall make its decisions upon consensus and in case of fdilwe to reach the consensus, they shall be made upon an absolute majority vote of those members present. In case of a voting tie, the Chairperson shall have a casting vote. Section 3: The management of ILDP Article 29: The management of ILDP shall comprise the following persons: I " the Rector of ILDP; 2 O the Vice-Rector in charge of Academic Affairs; 3" the Vice-Rector in charge of Administration and Fmance;

192 so the Director of Students Se~ices; the Deans of Faculties; b0 the Heads of Departments; 7 O the Human Resource Manager; go the Director of the Library of ILDP Article 30: The Rector of ILDP shall be appointed by a Presidential Order for a four (4) year term of office which is renewable once. Article 31: The Rector of ILDP shall manage and coordinate all activities of ILDP as regards academic, adminimative and financial management. He or she shall particularly have the fouowing responsibilities: 1" to implement the decisions of the Board of Directors; 2" to submit to the Board of Directors the budget proposal of ILDP; 3" to ensure the utilion and management of the ILDP's finances; 4" to ensure the welfare and discipline of students and the personnel; 5" to represent ILDP within and outside the country; 6" to prepare annual activity and financial reports to be submitted to the Board of Directors; 7" to designate a person who replaces hi or her in case of absence of the Vice-Rector in charge of ~cadehc affairs; 8" to perform any other duty relating to his or her attributions and which may be assigned to hi or her by the ~ okd of Directors. The Board of Directors and the Management shall conclude a peiformance contract relating to a plan of action and which shall at least indicate and specify the right?. and obligations of each party and the conditions required in order for ILDP to fulfil its responsibilities. Article 32: Whik performing his or her duties, the Rector of ILDP shall be assisted by the seni~ staff referred to in article 29 of this law and other organs in accordance with their hierarchy and responsib'iities. Article 33: The Vice-Rectors of ILDP shall be appointed by a Prime Minister's Order for a four (4) year term of office which is renewable once. Article 34: The Vice-Rector in charge of Academic AEairs shall have the fouowkg responsibilities: lo to coordinate all academic and research activities of ILDP; Z0 to supervise the academic and research M, 3' to arrange for the meetings of the Academic Senate and ensure the implementation of the decisions taken therein; 4" to deputize for the Rector and represent him or her before the law; 5" to perform any other duty which is related to his or her attributions as may be assigned to hi or her by the Rector of ILDP. Article 35: The Vice-Rector in charge of Administration and Finance shall have the following responsibilities: 1" to prepare the organizational chart of ILDP and ensure the follow-up of its functioning; 2" to make a planning as regards receipts and expenses of ILDP and supervise their utilization;

193 3" to prepare the budget proposal of ILDP; 4" to promote income generating activities; 5" to make a quarterly report indicating expenses and receipts; 6" to make an accounting report at the end of every year; 7O to perform any other duty which is related to his or her attributions as may be assigned to him or her by the Rector of ILDP. Article 36 : The Dean of a Faculty or the Head of Department shall be elected by the teaching and research staff of ILDP in his or her respective faculty, department or center and shall be approved by the Board of Directors upon request by the Academic Senate. Article 37: The organization and functioning of Faculties and Departments shall be specified in the ILDP internal rules and regulations and shall be determined in accordance with the law governing the organization and functioning of higher education in the Republic of Rwanda and other laws and regulations. Article 38: C Benefits of the Rector of ILDP shall be determined in accordance with legal provisions that govern benefits accorded to the Directors of public institutions. Article 39 : The stafeof ILDP shah comprise the following categories: I" the teaching and research staff; 2" the admiistmtive and technical staff; 3" the support staff. C The teaching and research staff of ILDP shall comprise those persons who were appointed as permanent or part time lecturers and researchers. The Superior Council for Higher Education shall determine the criteria appiicable when it comes to their appointment, promotion, classificatmn and sanctions. Article 41: Administrative and technica1 staff shall comprise those persons that help the management of ILDP to achieve its objectives. Article 42: The support staff shall comprise those employees of ILDP not referred to in articles 40 and 41 of this law*. Article 43: The rights and duties of the teaching and research staff, W a t i v e and technical staff as well as those of support staff shall be governed by the general statutes for public service, the Labor Code, this law and the intemal rules and regulations of ILDP.

194 Article 44: The internal rules and regulations shall determine modaiities of evaluating the sta f of ILDP, which shall base upon the provisions of the law governing the organization and functioning of higher education in tbe Republic of Rwanda CHAPTER IV: STUDENTS OF ILDP Article 453 A student of ILDP shall be any person meeting its admission requirements for ordinary or special academic praws. Article 46: The Board of Directors of ILDP shall base on the standards set by the Superior Council for Higher Education and determine the admission requirements of ILDP. C Article 47: The rights and duties of a student of ILDP in relation to academic ma-, discipke and social welfare shall be governed by the ILDP's general regulations on academic matters and students social welfare. CHAPTER V: ASSETS OF ILDP Article 48: Theassets of UDP shall comprise of immovable and movable assets and shall derive 6om: lo State budget; 2" income generated from variovsactivities and services of ILDP; 3" tuition fees ; 4" grants, donations, aids and legacy; 5' the property that formerly belonged to National Centre for Judicial Training and Development located in the Dishict of N ym. Article 49: The management and utiiisation of the ILDP's property shall he determined by the Board of Directors in accordance w ~ the h law. The andit for the property of UDP shall be conducted by the following : 1 " The UDP's internal auditor; Z0 The Office of Auditor General of State finances Article 51: The ILDP's budget shall be managed and used in accordance the law governing pubiic hances CRAPTER VI: FJSAL PROVISIONS Article 52: The Law no 04R003 of 1 llou2003 establishing the National Centre for Judicial Training and Development as modiied and complemented to date and all previous legal provisions contrary to this law are hereby abrogated.

195 Article 53: This Law shall come into force on the date of its publication in the Oficial Gazette of the Republic of Rwanda. The %sident of the Repubik KAGAME Paul (~6) The Prime Minister MAKUZA Bernard ($6) The Minister of lustice MLTKABAGWIZA Edda ( 4 The Minister of Public Service and Labour Prof. NSHUTI Manasseh (se) The Minister of Education Dr. MLIJAWAhURIYA Jeanne d'arc (sq The M i r of Finance and Economic Planning MUSONI James (s6) Seen and sealed with the Seal of the Replrbfic: The Minister of Justice MUKABAGWZA Edds (sn

196 e LO1 NO 22/2006 DU 28/04/2006 PORTANT CREATlON DE L'INSTITUT SUPERIEUR DE PRATIQUE ET DE DEVEWPPEMENT DU DROIT Nous, KAGAME Paul, President de la Republique ; LE PARLEMENT A ADOPTE ET NOUS SANCTIONNONS, PROMULGUONS LA LO1 DONT LA TENEUR SUIT ET ORDONNONS QU'ELLE SOIT PUBLIEE AU JOURNAL OFFICIEL DE LA REPUBLIQUE DU RWANDA. LE PARLEMENT : La Chambre des D$ut& en sa dance du 29 mars 2006 ; Le Senat en sa seance du 3 mas 2006 ; Vu la Consritution de la Republique du Rwanda du 04 juin 2003, telle que r6vkte a ce jour, specialement en ses dcles 62, 66, 67, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 108, 118 et 201 ; Vu la loi orpnique du 03/08/2003 portant organisation de!'education au Rwanda ; L/ Vu la loi organique n014/2004 du 26/05/2004 portant dispositions gbnbles applicables aw itablissements publics specialement en son article 17 ; Vu la loi no 20R00S du 20/10R005 portaot organisation et fonctio~ement de I'Enseignement Superieur ; Revu la loi n"04i2003 du 11/02/2003 pomt &ation du Centre National de Formation et de DCveloppement Judiciaires telle que modifiee et compleee ce jour. ADOPTE : CH.4PITRE PREMIER. DISPOSITIONS GENERALES Article ~remier : n est cd.6 un Institut Superieur de Pratique et de Diveloppement du Droit, denod (( Institute of Legal Practice and Development n, ILPD en sigle angiais. L'ILDP est un etablissement public d'enseignement superieur jouissant dbe personnalid juridique et d'une autonomie adminiseative, hancil?re et acadtmique. L'ILDP est place sous tutelte du lwiinistkre ayant la Justice dans ses attributions. Article 2 : Le siege de I'ILDP est etabli dam le District de Nyanza, Province du Sud. Il peuf le cas echtanf &e tansfere en tout autre lieu de la Republique du Rwanda sur proposition du Comeil d'admiisaation. Article 3 : La mission principale de I'UDP est la suivante : a) dispenser la formation professionneue dm le domaine du droit aux personnes ayant au moins un diplhme de licence en droit ; b) dispenser la formation continue au personnel du domaine de La justice et d'autres domaines connexes ; c) promouvoir la recherche et assurer la diffusion du droit ; d) muvrer de concert avffi d'autres institutions d'enseignement superieur et de recherche mumant au Rwanda et a Yetranger en matiere d'enseignement et de recherche en we de promouvou la justice et le droit ; e) appuyer toute autre activitr' pouvant conhiiuer a la promotion de la justice et du h it.

197 II ea sign&, entre I'ILDP et son Minisere de IuteUe, un conkat de performance relatif au plan d'action et qui prevoit les modalit& dd'valuation Ce contrat &termhe les pouvoirs, les droits et les obli, wations de chaque partie en vue de la realisation de la mission de I'ILDP. La validite de ce contrat est egale a la dde du mandat des membres du Conseil d'adminhation de I'ILDP. II est conjointement sigae par le F'rksident du Conseil d' Administration et le Minisee ayant la Justice dam ses attributions. CAAPlTRE I1 : DES ORGANES DE L'ILDP Article 5 : L'ILDP en dote des organes suivants : 1" le Conseil d'admiinistration ; 2" le Senat Academique ; 3O le Rectorat ; 4" les Conseils de Facult& ; 5" les Conseils de Departemen&. C Section premibre : Dn Conseil d'administration Article 6 : L'ILDF' est dirigi par un organe de prise de decision appele Conseil d'administrarion investi des pouvoirs etendus et permanents de gestion de i'lnstitut pour lui pennettre d'atteindre ses objectifs. Article 7 : Le Conseil d' Administration est compost des membres suivants : :e 1 " le President du Conseil d' Administration ; 2" le Recteur de I'ILDP qui en est Ie rapporteur ; 3" le Vice - Recteur Academique ; 4" le Vice - Recteur Admiishtif et financier ; 5" un Directew des Services aux etudiants ; 6" un le Representant du Ministbre ayant I'Enseignement supkriew dam ses attributions ; 7" un Reprbsentant du Minist& ayant la Justice dm ses attributions ; So un Reprisentant du Ministere ayant la Fonction Publique dam ses attributions; 9. un ReprCsentant du wrps professoral et des cberchem enseignant a I'ILDP elu par ses pairs ; 10" un Representant des employis de 1'ILDP de la direction et duservice technique tlu par ses pairs ; 1 lo deux (2) etudiants de I'ILDP de dew (2) sexes 61us par leurs pairs ; 12" un Repdsentant de la Cour Suprhe ; 13" un Repesentant du Parquet General de la Repubbque ; 14" un Doyen de Facnltt' de Droit reconnue Clu par ses pairs; 15' un Repdsentant du Barreau. Article 8 : Le Couseil d'administration est particulierement charge de : I" contribuer a la determination de la politique academique de I'ILDP et assurer le suivi de la mise en euwe de cene politique ; 2" Claborer le dglement d'ordre intkieur de 1"ILDP ; 3" &laborer le projet de budget de YILDP ; 4" approuver les recommandations du Senat Acadimique sur le recrutement des enseignants et des chercheurs et proceder a I'octroi de diplbmes et certificats a I'ILDP ; 5" donne1 au Mistre ayant I'enseignement supeneur dam ses attributions des avis sur la cdation des ffioles, des facultks et des depai-tements a I'ILDP ; 6" approuver les dons, les subventions et les aides domes k l'ldp ;

198 7" adresser au Ministre ayant la Justice dam ses attributions un rapport general annuel des activies et de la gestion kancike ; So approuver les coneats que I'ILDP conclut avec les institutions d'enseignement supeneur et de recherche et les autres institutions en general ; go exercer toute aut-e activite permettant a I'ILDP d'atteindre sa mission. Article 9 : A I'exception des membres du Conseil nommes en raison de leurs fonctions au sein de 1'ILDP et les etudiants qui repdsentent leurs pain, les auees membres sont nommes par ArrBte du Premier Misee pour un mandat de trois (3) am renouveiable une seule fois. Le President du Conseil d'administratiou est choisi parmi les personnes provmant de I'exterieur de I'ILDP. Article 10 : Le Conseil d'administration tiit en son sein un Vice President au cours de sa premihe dunion. Le Vice- President est 61u parmi les membres du Conseil d'adm'istration provenant de I'exteneur de I'ILDP. II rempiace le President du Conseil d' Admiinisii-ation en cas d'absence. Le Conseil d'administration se dunit en session ordinaire une fois tous les trois (3) mois, sur convocation de son Prkident ou de son Vice-President en cas d'absence du President. Article 12 : Le Conseil d'administration se W t valablement lorsque plus de la moitie (ID) de ses membres sont presents et lorsqu'au moins plus de la moitit (ln) des membres provenant de I'edrieur de I'ILDP sont presents. Article 13 : Les decisions du Conseil d'adminisbation sont prises par consensus. A defaut de consensus, elles sont prises par voie de vote a la majoriti absolue des voix des membres presents. En cas d'bgalite des voix, le vote est repris. En cas de nouvelle egaliti des voix, la voix du Prkident du Conseil d'admistration est determinante. rn Article 14 : L Le Conseil d'adminishation peut inviter dans ses reunions, toute personne qu'il juge capable de l'eclairer sur des problhes specifiques majeurs; cette personne ne participe pas au vote. Article 15 : La convocation du Conseil d'adminisb?!tion a une reunion ordinaim doit parvenir par eait a chacun de ses membres au moins quinze (15) joun owrables avant la tenue de la reunion et dew (2) joun ouvrables pour une reunion extraordimire. EUe doit comporter I'endroit, la date, l'beure et I'ordre du jour de la reunion. Article 16 : Les decisions du Conseil d'administration de I'ILDP sont signees par ses membres immediatement aprb la reunion. Ces decisions sont soumises au Ministre ayant la Justice dam ses amiutions dam un delai ne deppassant pas cinq (5) joun ouvrables ti compter du jour de leu adoption. Le Mistre ayant la Justice dans ses attributions suspend par tcrit la mise en application de la decision au cas oh eue n'est pas conforme a la loi et aux inter& generam de I'ILDP.

199 Cet h it doit comporter les raisons de la suspension de cette decision. A debut de I'avis du Ministre ayant la Justice dans ses amibutions dans un d6lai de quinze (15) jours ouvrables a compter du jour de la soumission des &cisions du Conseil d'adminisuation, celles-ci sont reputkes definitives. Article 17 : Les comptes-rendus du Conseil d'hdmistration de I'ILDP sont redigbs par son rapporteur. Ils sont signes par ie president de la reunion et le rapporteur et scelles du sceau de I'ILDP. Article 18 : Lors de la session du Conseil d'admiinistration, les membres beneficient de jetons de prksence dont ie montant est determint par ArrCti Presidentiel. Article 19 : Le membre du Conseil d'administration perd la qualitk de membre dans les cas suivants: 1" lorsqu'il n'esi plus a mesure de rempiu wneckement ses fonctions ; 2" Lorsqu'il est condamne a une peine d'emprisonnement supbrieure ou egale & six (6) mois ; 3" lorsqu'il fait preuve de toute forme de discrimination ; 4" lorsqu'il se rend coupable de la mauvaise gestion du patrimoine de I'ILPD ; C 5" en cas de demission notifice par ecrit; 6" en cas d'absence a trois rkmions consecutives au cows d'une mime annee sans motifs valables ; 7" s'il agit contre les intirb de I'ILDP ; 8' en cas d'incapaciti due a une maladie ou une infirmite constatee par un mkdecin agree ; 9" lorsqu'il est condamn6 pour crime de genocide ; 10" lorsqu'il est passe h I'aveu et au plaidoyer de culpabilie pour crime de genocide ; 11" s'il est constate qu'il ne remplit plns les conditions requises pour Ctre membre du Conseil d' Administration ; lzo en cas de deces. Article 20 : Le Conseil d' Administrationde I'UDP constate I'incapacit6 de I'm de ses membres ou la vacance de poste dans un rapport adred au Ministre ayant la Justice dam ses attributions confoidment aux dispositions de I'article 19 de la presente loi apres approbation de I'organe qui I'a nomme. La personne est remplacee conformement aux dispositions de I'article 9 de la presente loi. Section 2 : Des Attributions du Shat Academique 0 Article 21 : Le Send Academique est I'organe supr2me charge des activites academiques, de I'klucation et de la recherche a I'ILDP. Article 22 : Les membres du Senat Acadhique de I'ILDP sont les suivants : 1" le Recteur de I'ILDP qui en est le Wsident ; 2" le Vice-Recteur academique qui en est le Vice President et Rapporteur ; 3" le Vice Recteur financier et administratif; 4" un professeur titulaire elu par ses pairs au sein de chaque Faculte et Ecole afkhee I'ILDP ; 5" deux (2) enseignants &h par leurs pairs ; 6" les Doyens de Fads ; 7O les Chefs de Departements ; go le Duecteur de la biblioth%ue ; 9" le Commissaire aux affsires academipes de 1' Association generale des etudiants ; 10" dew (2) &tudiants de dcux sexes tlus par leurs pairs.

200 Article 23 : l65l Le Senat Academique elit en son sein le Rapporteur Adjoint au cours de sa premiere reunion. Le Rapporteur Adjoint est elu parmi les doyens de Facultks ou d'ecoles aelices a I'LDP. Article 24 : A I'exception des membres du Senat Academique nommes en raison de leurs fonctions, les autres membres sont eius pour un man& de tmis (3) ans renouvelables une sede fois. Article 25 : Les attributions principales du Shat Academique sont les suivantes : 1" Claborer les stratkgies et les programmes academiques, les soumettre au Conseil d'administmtion pour approbation et extcution; Z" &laborer les redements relatifi aux criteres et procedures d'admission des &&ants a I'ILDP ainsi que les concernant les examens et les dipl6mes diliivres par I'ILDP devant &e soumis au come% d'.4dminhation pour approbation ; 3" examiner les rewmmandations relatives aux examens et les approuver ; 4" soumettre au Conseil d3administration les recommandations relatives au recrutement et i la promotion des enseignants et des cbercheurs ; 5" diriger et assurer le contr6le des programmes academiques et de recherche effectues aux Facult& et aux Departements de I'ILDP ; 6" sournettre au Conseil d'administration les rewmmandatiom relatives a la creation, separation, changement, suppression et fusion des facultks et des dbppartements de 1'ILDP ; 7" presenter au Conseil d'administration un rapport annuel de toutes les activites academiques et de recherche au sein de I'ILDP ; 8" assumer mute autre tache iui assignee par le Conseil &Administdon. Article 26 : Dam I'txercice de ses fonctions, le Shat Academique se fait assism par les Conseils de Facules et les Conseils de Departements en me de la realisation de sa mission. Article 27 : Le Sbt Academique se reunit me fois tous les deux (2) mois en session ordinaire sur convocation de son Mident ou, en son absence, de son Vice Wsident. C I1 put se 16- en session exhmrdinaire chaque fois que de besoin sur convocation de son President ou, en son absence, de son Vice-PI6sident. Article 28 : Le quorum requis pour la tenue de la reunion du Senat Academique est de plus de la moitie de ses membres. Les d&iiiom du Shat Academique sont prises par consensus. A dhfaut du consensus, les dtcisisiom sont prises par vote a la majoritt absolue des membres presents. En cas d'cgalit6 de voix, celle du President est preponderante. Section 3 : De la Direction de I'ILDP Article 29 : La diition de l'ildp est assurk par les membres suivants : 1" le Recteur de I'ILDP ; 2" le Vice-Recteur de I'ILDP chargt des affaires academiques et de la recherche ;

201 3 O le Vice-Recteur financier et administratif de I'ILDP; 4 O le Directeur des services am etudiants ; S les Doyens de Facultes ; 6" les Chefs de DQartements ; 7" le Chef du persomel ; 8 le Diicteur de la bibliothkpe de YILPD. Article 30 : Le Recteur de I'ILPD est nornme par Arr2te Presidentiel pour un mandat de quatre (4) am renouveiables me fois. Article 31 : Le Recteur de I'ILPD assure la gestion et la coordination des activi* de I'ILDP dam le cadre academique, admistratif, de recherche et de gestion. Le Recteur de I'JLDP est particuiikxement charge de : mettre en application les decisions du Conseil d'admistration ; soumeme au Conseil d'administration l'avant-projet de budget de I'ILDP ; assurer I'utilisation et la gestion des finances de I'ILDP ; veiiler au bien- tre et a la conduite des etudiam et du personnel ; reprkenter I'ILPD a 12int6rieur et a I'ext&ieur du pays ; tlaborer un rapport ghbral annuel des activites de I'ILDP et de I'utilisation des finances et le tiansmettre au Conseil d' Adminisbation ; &signer son remplaqant a I'absence du Vice-Recteur de I'Insrjt,t charge des affaires acad6miqnes ; assumer toute a m &he pouvant lui &e assignee par le Conseil d'administration. I1 est sign&, entre le Conseil d'administration et la Direction, un contrat de performance determinant au moins les obligations de c hap partie et les besoins nkessaires a la rialisation de la mission de I'ILDP. Article 32 : Dans I'exercice de ses fonctions, le Recteur de I'ILDP se fait assister par les dirigeants prevus i l'article 29 de la presente loi et les autres organes de I'ILDP suivant la bierarchie des organes et les Bches de chaque persome. Article 33 : Les Vice-Recteurs de I'ILDP sont nommts par ArrSt2 du Premier Ministre pour un mandat de quatre (4) ans renouvelables. Les attributions du Vice-Recteur de I'ILDP charge des affaires academiques et de la recherche sont les suivantes : lo eke le coordinateur de tous les programmes Iies aux affaires acadhiques et de recherche au sein de I'ILDP ; 2 O assurer le suivi des enseignants et des chercheurs ; 3" preparer les rimions du Senat Academique et assurer la mise en application de ses decisions ; 4" remplacer le Recteur de I'ILDP, le representer officiellement et devant la loi ; So assumer toute autre tache pouvant lui 2tre tresignee par le Recteur de I'LLDP et rentrant dam ses attributions. Article 35 : Les attributions du Vice-Recteur financier et administratif de I'ILDP sont les suivantes :

202 1" preparer I'organime des services de I'ILDP et assurer le suivi de leu fonctionnement ; 2" etabii les previsions des recette et des depenses de I'ILDP et assurer le suivi de leur utilisation ; 3 O elaborer l'avant-projet du budget de I'ILDP ; 4O promouvou les activies g6neratrices de revenu ; 5" pdparer le rapport trimestriel de perception et d'utilisation des finances ; 6" faire I'inventaire du patrimoine a la fin de I'annee ; 7" assumer mute autre Sche powant lui stre assignee par le Recteur de I'ILDP et rentrant dam ses attributions. Article 36 : Le Doyen de la Facult6 ou le Chef du Departemeat est elu par les enseignants et les chercheurs de I'ILDP chacm dam son service et appronve par le Conseil d' Administration sw proposition du Shat Academique. Article 37 : Les dispositions relatives a I'wganisation et a la structure des Facultes et des D$artements de I'UDP sont prewes au redement d'ordre int6rieur de I'UDP conformement a la loi portant organisation et fonctionnement de I'Enseipement Superieur et am aums lois.. Les avantages accord& au Recteur de I'ILDP sont determines conformement aux lois regissant les avantages des Directeurs des 6tabIissements publics. Article 39 : Le personnel de I'ILDP comprend les dgories suivantes : 1" Ie personnel enseigant et de recherche ;-.. 2" le personnel adrrrrmstratif et technique ; 3" le personnel d'appui. Article 40 : C Les membres du personnel enseignant et de recherche de I'LLDP sont des agents recrues soit pour dispenser les cours, soit pour faire des recherches de fagon pennanente ou temporaise. Les modalitks de recrutement, leurs categories, leur rkvocahon, leurs sanctions et leur promotion sont d6terminees par le Conseil National de I'Enseignement Supkieur. Article 41 : Le personnel admiiistmtif est le personnel qui assiste la Direction pour lui permettre de remplir la mission de I'ILDP. Article 42 : Le personnel d'appui est le personnel employe pari'ildp, autre que celui mentionne aux articles 40 et 41 de la pdsente loi. Article 43 : Les attributions et les droits du personnel enseignant et de recherche, du personnel adminisnatif et technique et du personnel d'appui sont +gis par le Statut g6nm de la fonction publique Rwandaise, les lois regissant le travail, la presente loi et le reglement d'ordre interieur de I'ItDP.

203 Article 44 : /g 'f.6,, Les modaiit.6~ d'evaluation du personnel de I'ILDP sont determinees par le reglement d'ordre int.6rieur conformement am dispositions de la loi portant organisation et fonctionnement de I'Enseignement Sup&rieur. CKAPITRE IV : DES ETUDIANTS Article 45 : L'etudiant de I'ILDP est toute personne admise a llnstitut pour suiwe les etudes selon le programme ordinaire ou un programme special. Article 46 : Sur base de critbes fixes par le Conseil National de I'Eoseignement Supeneur, le Conseil d' Administration de I'LLDP determine les conditions d'admission a I'ILDP. Article 47 : Les droits et les obligations de I'etudiant de YLLDP, relatifs a I'enseignement, a 1'6ducation et an bien Stre C swid sont d&kis par i riglernents geniram p i 1es r6gissent Article 48 : Le patrimoine de I'JLDP est compose de biens mobilien et immobiliers. Ce patrimoine provient : lo du budget de l'etat ; 2 O du produit des differents services et activies de I'LLPD ; 3O des 6ais payes par les eudits de I'LLDP ; 4" des subventions, dons et legs ; 5" des biens faisant partie dn pa~oine de I'ancien Centre National de Formation et de Developpement Judiciaires (CNFDJ) situk dims le District de Nyanza. Article 49 : Le Collseil d'administration determine l'utilisation du patrimoine de I'ILDP conform&ment aux L'audit de I'ILDP est effectue par : lo un auditem interne de I'ILDP ; 2" I'Office de I'Auditeur Gen6ml des Finances de I'Etat. Article 51 : Le budget de I'ILDP est gere et utilise conformement a la loi regissant les finances publiques. CKAF'ITRE VI : DES DISPOSRIONS FINALES Article 52 : La loi no 04D003 du 1 I/02D003 portant creation du Centre National de Formation et de Developpement Judiciakes telle que modiftee et compl6t6e ce jour ainsi que toutes les dispositions legales antenewes contraires a la presente loi sont abrogees.

204 Id q Article 53 : La presente loi enwe en vigeem le jour de sa publication au Journal Oficiel de la RQublique du Rwanda Kigali, le 28/04/2006 Le Pdsident de la Epubiique KAGAME Paul (s9 Le Premier Ministre MAKUZA Bernard (~6) Le M i e de la Justice MUKABAGWIZA Edda (se) Le Miniswe de la Fonction Publique et du Travail Prof. NSEILJTI Manasseh (se) Le Ministre de I'Education Dr. MUJAWAMARIYA Jeanne d'are (36) Le Ministre des Finances et de la Plrdication Economique MUSONI James (~6) Vu et scellt du Sceau de la Rkpablique : Le Mistre de la Justice MUKABAMZA Edda be)

205 + ITEGEKO No091i (-3 RYO KU WA RYEREKEYE IMYITWA- RlRE MU KAZl K'UBU- CAMANZA LAW N" OF RELATING TO THE CODE OF ETH- ICS FOR THE JUDICI- ARY t Twebwe, KAGAME Paul. Pereiida wa Repubuiika; Nous. KAGAME Parll. Pr6sident de IaRBpubiiwe : We. KAGAME Paul. President of the Repub- ' lic;! INTEKO ISHINGA AMA- TEGEKO YEMEJE. NO- NE NATWE DUHAMIJE. DUTANGAJE ITEGEKO RITEYE RITYA. KANDl DUTEGETSE KO RYAN- DlKWA MU IGAZETI YA LETA YA REPUBULIKA Y'U RWANDA. INTEKO ISHINGA AMA- TEGEKO : Umuhve wvabadepite, mu natha yaw0 yo ku wa 5 6 Mata 2004: t LE PARLEMEN : du 5 avril 2004: THE PARLIAMENT HAS ADOPTED AND WE SANCTION, PROMUL- GATE THIS LAW AND ORDER IT TO BE PUB LISHED IN THE OFFI- CIAL GAZETTE OF THE REPUBLIC OF RWANDA. THE PARLIAMENT : The Chamber of Deputies, in ils session of 5 April 2004: ' lshingiye ku ltegeko Nshinga rya Repubuiika Given the Constiblion of the Reuublic of Rwanda

206 y'u Rwanda ryo ku wa 4 Kamena 2003 nk'uko ryavuguruwe kugeza ubu, cyane cyane mu ngingo zaryo, iya 62. iya 90, iya 93, iya 108 n'iya 201; ishingiye ku itegeko ngenga no n" 07/2004 iyo ku wa 25/04/2004 rigenga hiterere, imikorere n'ububasha by'inkiko ; ishingiye ku itegeko n" 6 bisl2004 ~yo ku wa rigenga abacamanza n'abakozi b'inkiko ; du 4 juin 2003 telie que rhvisee ii ce jour, speciaiement en ses articles , et201: amended to date, especially in its articles and 201: lngingo ya 2: Q)Article 2: I Abacamanza bagengwa n'iri tegeko ni abacamama b'umwuga n'abatari ab'umwuga igihe bakora umurimo w'ubucamanza, uretse inyangamugayo z'lnkiko Gacaca. - Les juges sournis aux dispositions du pr sent code sont les jug s de carribre el ies juges auxiliaires h i'occasio de i'exercice des ac ivites judlciaires horrnis les hommes integres des Juridictions Gacaca. I Vu la loi n" du Given Organic Law n" 25/04/2004 porlant Code of 25 Aprii 2004 d'organisation, fonclion- determining the organisanement el competence tion, functioning and jujudiciaires ; risdiction of courts; ingingo ya 3: Article 3 : I Vu la loi n" 6 bis/2004 du 14/4/2004 portant Statut des juges et du personnel judiciaire: YEMEJE: ADOPTS : UMUTWE WA MBERE: INGINGO Z'IBANZE CHAPITRE PREMIER : DES DlSPOSiTlONS PRELlMlNAlRES Given Law n' 06 bis12004 of 14 Aprii 2004 on the status of judges and other judicial personnel; CHAPTER ONE : PRE- LIMINARY PROVlSiONS ingingo ya mbere: Article premier: Article one : Iri tegeko rigenga irnyitwarire mu kazi k'ubucamanza. La presenle loi porte Code d'ethique regissant la profession de juge. This law governs the code of ethics for the pmfession of the judiciary. Abacamanza bashyirwa ku kazi kuglra ngo bakorere abaturage. Bakurikiza itegeko mu izina rya rubanda. Imyiiatire yabo lgomba gukurikiza ibyo batbgetswe kubahlriza n'ibldakometanywa na byo bigenwa n'iri legeko. UMUTWE WA II: IMYiWARIRE N' INS- HINGANO Z'UMUCA- MANZA lcylciro cya mbere: Kugira ubwigenge mu kazl VOIRS DU JUGS t Sectlon premiere : Du devoir d'lndepend nce Article 2 : Judges governed by this law are career Judges and auxiliary judges in the exercise of their judicial function with excep-, tion of honest persons of, Gacaca jurisdictions. /j Judges are appointed in order to serve the cili- zens. They enforce laws 1 in the name of the peo-, ple. Their conduct should ' comply wilh their obiiga-,, tions and their incornpalibility provided for by this law. CHAPTER 11: CONDUCT AND OBLlGATiONS OF A JUDGE Section one : Judicial independence i

207 lngingo ya 4: Umucamanza arigenga mu kazi ke. Asuzuma. mu bwisanzure. ' ibirego yashyikirijwe kandi akabifataho ibyemezo, atitaye ku bamushyiraho igilugu. lngingo ya 5: Mu mama yaregewe, umucamanza agomba kwirinda ikintu cyose cyatuma afata ibyemezo byaba binyuranyije n'irniburanishirize yagenwe n'arnategeko. Ategetswe guca urubanza akurikije amategeko arugenga. lcyiclro cya 2: Kuba inyangamugayo Artlcie 4: Dans I'exercice de ses fonctions, le juge doit Btre independant. II doit apprecier souverainement les causes dont ii est saisi et decider de la suite a leur donner ind6- pendamrnent de toute pression exterieure. Article 5: Dans les affaires dont le juge est saisi, il doit se garder de toute chose pouvant I'infiuencer Q prendre des decisions en violation de la procedure legale. II doit trancher le litige conformbment a la 101. Section 2 : Du devoir d'lnt6gritti A judge shall be independent in the exercise of his or her judicial functions.a judge shali independently examine matters before him or her and fake decisions without any external pressure. Article 5 : in cases before court, a judge shall guard again~t any attempts to influence his or her decisions othet than those made through the ordinary procedure provided for by the law. A judge is bound to decide cases In accordance with the law. Section 2 : The obligation of lntegrlty - ' ' kubaha itegeko no kugira imyifallre y'intangarugero. Agomba, akurikije indahiro ye, gutunganya imirimo ye atagize uruhande abogamira. lngingo ya 7: Mu mibereho ye bwite n'iyo mu kazi, buri mucamanza agomba kwirinda icyatuma atakaza icyizere cy'ababuranyi cyangwa icyakwangiza isrrra n'icyubahiro cy'ubucarnanza. Agomba kwishyura imyenda ye no kumenya gucunga neza umutungo we yirinda gutagaguza n'indi myilwarire igayltse nko kwiyandarika. 5 respect de la ter un cor exemplaire. conform6men ment, acco fonctions en t tialit6. Article 7 : Tout juge dc vie privee e Bviler tout ce Bbranler la ca les justiciabi~ vers iui ou cc i'honneur et I de la magistri s'acquitter dc et Bviter de s deconfilure p penses lncor tout autre co susceptible I ment notamn conduite.?t adoprtement doit. son serir ses 3 impar- jam sa ubiique. pourrait lnce que ont enromettre,putation e. I1 doil IS dettes iettre en des db- Brees et ~riement denigret la m6- law and uphold exemplary character. He or she shall, in accordance with the oath of office. discharge his or her duties impartially. Artlcle 7 : Every judge shall, in private and public life, avoid anything which may erode public confldehce or which might compromise the reputatlon and honour of the judiciary. A judge shall settle his or her debts duly and avoid insolvency likely to result from extravagant expenditures and any other conduct like indescence. lngingo ya 6: Urnucamanza agomba Article 6: Tout juge doit veiller au Article 6 : Ajudge shali respeci the Mu buryo bw'umwihariko. agomba kwirinda ruswa n'lbyaha bifitanye isano En particuii s'abstenir dr lion et toule r I 3 il doit corrup- Particularly, a judge shall refrain from acts of corruption and other related

208 na yo, akanayirwanya by'intangarugero. Umucamanza agomba kwihangana, kwifata neza, kugira ikinyabupfura no kubaha ababuranyl. ababunganira n'abandi bantu bose baza bamugana mu kazi ke. Na we ni ko agomba kugenzerezwa n'ababuranyi, ababunganira n'abakozi bo mu rukiko. infraction connexe et lutter contre elle de faqon exempiaire. Artlcle 8 : Artlcle 8 : Le juge doit &ire patient, digne, courlois et respeclueux envers les parties, leurs conseils et mandataires, et tous ceux qui font recours a iui dans I'exerclce de ses fonclions. II doit requbrir la meme conduite de la part des parties, de leurs conselis el mandataires ainsi qve du personnel de la juridiction. crimes and exemplarily fight against it. A judge shall be patient, dignified, courteous and respect the parties, their advocates and all other, people who come before him or her in the course of his or her judicial activllies. In turn the judge Is entilled lo receive the same treatment from litlgants, their counsels and judiclal staff. + ' Kubera iyo mpamv~ agomba: 1 "guca ihanza yaregewe nla bukerewe bumuturutseho; 2"kwandika imanze mu buryo bwa vuba zikimara gucibwa; 3"kubungabunga umulekano n'imigendekere myiza mu manza zose yaregewe; 4710 mu buryo bwa rusange, gushyira ubumenyi bwe mu nyungu z'akazi kandi akubahirlia n'amasaha yako. 0 A cet effet, ii doit 1" juger sans retard les affaires iui soumises : 2" rbdiger dans les meilieurs dblais ies jugements et arrets rendus; 3" mainlenjr rordre et la biensbance dans toutes les causes qui iul sont soumlses ; 4"de fapn gbnbrale. mettre ses connaissances au profit de sa profession et veiller au respect des heures de service. in that regard, a judge shall : l'adjudicate cases before him or her without undue or unjustified delays: Twrite judgements as soon as possible after de'liberations; Tmalntain order and decorum in ail matters before court: 4% general, devote his professional capacity in the interest of work and respect its official hours. lcyiciro cya 3: Kwlta ku kazl inglngo ya 9: Umucamanza agomba kwita ku kazi ke no kugakorana umulimanama. Section 3 : Du devolr de diligence Artlcle 9 : Article 9 : Le juge doit exbcuter son travail consciencieusement el avec diligence: Sectlon 3 : The obligation of diligence A judge shall perform his or her work with due care and diligence. e ingingo ya 10: Umucamanza mu mikorere ye agomba guhora ashishikajwe no kongera bbumenyi n'lrbushobozi bwe kugira ngo atunganye neza imirimo ye. Artlcle 10 : Article 10 : Le juge doit dans I'exerclce de ses fonc-. tlons, veiller renforcer ses connaissances et ses capacllbs, en vue de bien accompiir ses fonctions. A judge, in the exercise of his or her judicial funclions, shall be encouraged to enhance technical knowhow and knowiedge for better pelformance of his or her duties.

209 / lcylciro cya 4: Kuta- Section 4 : Du davolr 4 : The obllgabogama d'lrnpartialllb tlon 4 mpartlallty Artlcle 13 : lnglngo ya 11: Article 11 : Artlcle 11 : Umucamanza ntasho- Sauf autorlsation 16 ale. Unless otherwise stipubora guca urubanza ash- le juge ne peut se pro- lated by law, a judge Umucamanza nta- Le juge doit Btre impar- A judge shail be Impartial ingiye ku byo azi ubwe noncer sur base la shall not decide a case bogama kandi abigara- tial. L'lmpartlalitB dolt se and shail demonstrate it kuri urwo rubanza, uretse connaissance pe son- on the basis of his or her gaza mu lburanisha no manifester pendanl I'au- in proceedings before iglhe itegeko rlblm- neile qu'il peut av ir de personal knowledge as mu bvemezo afata. dience et a travers ses court as well as in deck wemerera. I'affaire. regards the case. decisions. sions he or she takes. Umucamanza yikura mu rubanza rureba inyungu ze bwite, lz'ababyeyl be. iz'abavandimwe be cyangwa iz' inshutl ze. n'lgihe cyose blgaragara cyangwa hakekwa ko yabogama. Le juge doit se recuser de touts affaire ayanl un lien avec ses IntbrBts personnels. ceux de ses parents, de ses freres et ses amis, et chaque fols qu'il est evident ou qu'ii wxistw des motifs de douter de sa partlalile. lnglngo ya 12: Article 12 : Article 12 : Urnucamanza agomba kwitwara ku bulyo afata abantu bose klmwe, nla vangura iryo arl ryo ryose rishinglye nko ku bwoko. ibara, inkomoko, umuryango, igitslna, lblte-. kerezo, idinl cyangwa imibereho. Le juge doit adopter une condulte propre a assurer B tous un trallement Bgal, sans discrimination aucune notamment de race, de couleur, d'origine, d'elhnle, de clan, de sexe, d'ppinion, de religion ou de position sociale. A judge shall disqualify himself or herself In all matters In which he or she has interests, those of the parents, his or her relatives, fciends and at any other time there is a likelyhoad of his or her impartiality. A judge shall conduct himself or herself In a manner that handles all people equally, without any discrimination whatsoever based on race, colour, ethnicity, origin. clan, sex, opinion, religion or social status. lnglngo ya 14: Artlcle 14: I Umucamanza ntashobora kuburana lmanza. mu magambo, mu nyandiko, n'lyo yaba aglshwa inama, uretse izimureba ubwe cyangwa izlmureba ku buryo butaziguye, lz'ababyeyi be cyangwa abo bashylngiranywe mu rwego rwa mbere kugeza ku rwego rwa kana. Buri mucamanza agomba kwirinda kuvuga cyangwa kwitwara mu buryo bugaragaza ko abangamiye cyangwa qul concernent gre. i Chaque luge doi Qviter Every un langage ou comportement pouv t refihter sa position d favorable ou favorable nvers Articie 14 : A judge shali not defend, either verbally. or In writing, even though he or she Is requested to offer advice, apart from cases that involve him or her personally or those directly cqnf,erning his or her parents, his or her spouses up to the fourth degree in the direct or collateral lineage. judge shali avold language or behaviour which is likely lo show that he or she is against or in favour of one of the

210 ashylglklye umuburanyl. Agomba kwirinda kugira Icy0 - atangaza mu ruhame gifitanye lsano n'urubanza yaregewe rurl mu rukiko akoramo. lcylclro cya 5: Kuglra lbanga une partie. II dolt Qvlter de faire des dbclarations en pu'bllc en rapport avec une affaire dont ii est salsl. Section 5 : Du devoir de resenre lnglngo ya 15: Article 15 : Artlcle 15 : Umucamanza agomba kugira ibanga ry'akazi ndetse n'iyo yacyuye iglhe uretse lyo inyungu z'ubutabera ziblgena ukundl. La juge est tenu par le secret professionnel m&me apres la cessation de ses fonctions sauf sl I'lntBr8t de la justice en dispose autremant. lnglngo ya 16: Article 16 : Artlcle 16 : lnshingano yo, kugira lbanga ibuza umucamama imyitwarire yose. imvugo n'lnyandiko zishobora gutuma ukutabogama kwe gukemangwa. Le devoir de reserve interdit au juge toule atlitude, toute dbclaration verbale ou Bcrile, susceptible~ de mettre en cause son lmpartialit8. statements related to cases pending before court. Sectlon 5: The obllgatlon to maintain Secrecy A judge shall maintain professional secrecy, even afler his or her re: tirement unle$s the lnterest of justice requires otherwise. The obligation to keep professional secrecy disqualifies judges from any behaviour language and statements which may put a judge's impartiality to question. I j 11 lcylclro cya 6: Kuba ectlon 6 : Du devoir lnglngo ya 17: Article 17: Artlcie 17 : Umucamanza wese w'umwuga mbere yo gutanglra lmlrimo n'iglhe cyose abisabwa n'amategeko, agomba kugaragariza umutungo we nyakuri Uwago w'umuvunyl. Urwego rwrumuvunyl rh.shyiraho uburyo bw'iryo menyekanlsha. UMUTWE WA Ill: IBIDAKOMATANYWA N'IBIBUJIJWE AeACA- MANZA B' UMWUGA lmirlmo y'umuoamanza w'umwuga ntlshobora kubanglkanywa n'lmirlmo Tout luge de carrlhre, avant d'entrer en fonctlon et chaqua fols qu'll an est requis par la loi, doit faite Btat de ses avolrs et dettes Q I'Offlce d'ombudsman. L'Offlce d' Ombudsman dbtermlne les modalltbs de cette dhclarafion. CHAPITRE Ill : DES IN- COMPATIBILITES ET DES INTERDICTIONS Les fonctlons de jug8 de carrihre son1 incornpatlbies avec I'exerclce d'un Section 6 : The obilgatlon of probity1 Every cqreer judge shall, upon assuming olflce and at* all times as required by laws, declare his or her assets and liabilities to the Olfice of the Ombudsman. The Office of the Ombudsman shall institute the modallttes of making such a declaration. CHAPTER Ill : INCOM- PATIBILITIES AND IN- TERDICTIONS Artlcle 18 :.' The functions of a career Judge shall not be compatible with political

211 'e)!uti1p el e sed lueue!e~l -ua,u sa((a 1s enljeem?j la en(pods ql!n1pe ejlne elno) ep no enbllslpe 'e~]e~gllll'enbljllueps qllnlpe elno1 ep mdn3-30,s m B J H UbXeSlJ ;O1nl! SLIeF '~ned etln! el 'yno3 ewes eqlo) 6uoleq iou lleys efieeull ~e~elello:, eql JO ae~6ep puom $41 01 dn e6pp -Jew Aq sen!lep pellp pue slueled 'sesnods m6unhul ej!uejetppn o6uelnwn eweu] e~li3ny e~6ueh 4 ejljele6~qn6 'o6uehmw -eaunwn eqny eloqoqsv 'eldoed Jeqlo fiu!holdwe Aq JO Alpe~lp Jel#eqM '831NaS le~o$jed JO 311 -qnd mulo Aue pue luew -e6eueu Aue 'elepuew

212 ..suo~l&jleq JO s14 ~q P'dJlflbe~ eq hew se hen lej38s e! led segsodwl -8s ~~UO!SS~JOJ~ eql 01 sele6gl.seouefi!xe sel he~iu03 eq Aew lev1 uol1 3ene ejllewojdwo:, es -edpyed leqllod Jeq 10? uo5ej ap sanbllllod seu s~q fiulle~lsuowep se IleM -136~0 sep neayu ne Jeq3 se qqndeu aqi jo uollnl -IU~.S ep!u uo11n111suo3-1lsuo3 ew ~IIM eouep~o3 el? waw+uuojuo$ se!lq -38 U! paqs11qelse sue6 -el? 1e13.1 ep suo!lnllwl -10 en!lells(u!wpe elqs xne no luewatltenno3 np lo sa~dpul~d elels lsulefie senb~i!lod xne B~!II~~o~.P h!!!~soq fiu!~e~~suowep uolwlsejpeur elno) ~~l~cllllc*ld s! e6pnl w se6nl xne i!pjalu! ise 11 '~IUO~SS~JOJ~.egl!nu! w we301 es ep uollel -ndod el elno1 no sellas ep uo!lde3xe,l 8 'senb -!lgod suolungl sap Je) -slsse sed llop eu 11 slew ueholp wlne )no) ewwo~ Jelon su(owuegu lned 11.enb!l!lod esne3 eun,p no enb!l!lod uollew~o4.eanle oqe,q esoq e6eml -eqe oue~!~unlezl eaq!sn,!y!tllod ez eweu nw earny e~lllnqe oy!je e6elnlnw

213 1"gukora imirimo inyuranyije n'amategeko n'amabwiriza cyangwa irwanya inzego z'ubutegetsi n'ubutegetsi bwashyiz-.( weho, cyangwa ibangamiye urnutekano wa! Repubulika n'ubusugire bw'igihugu;! 2"guhagarika akazi I cyangwa kwitabira I igikolwa icy0 ari cyo! cyose kigamije guhagarika akazi k'abaca-,; manza, cyangwa abakozi ba Leta cyangwa " kubuza inkiko gukora. 1"de se livrer a des activit6s conlraires aux lois et reglements ou en opposition avec les institutions de I' Etat et les autorites Qtablies, ou portant atteinte A la securitq de I'Etat st a I'integrit6 du territoire national: 2" de se mettre en grbve ou de prendre part a n'importe quelle action visanl B provoquer la greve des juges ou des agents publics, de suspendre ses fonctions ou entraver ie fonctionnement des juridiclions 1"indulging him or herself in activities which arecontrary to the laws and regulations. or which oppose established state institutions and authorities or which undermine the state security and territorial integrity; 2' engaging in strike or take part in any type of action which is aimed at provoking strike by judges or civil servants or to hinder smooth operations of the courts of law. UMUTWE WA IV: lei,. OCHAPITRE IV BANA N'IBIHANO SANCTIONS lngingo ya 23: Article 23: Haseguriwe ibiteganywa, n'amategeko ahana, Umucamahza w'umwuga unyuranylje n'iri tegeko ahanwa hakurikijwe ibiteganywa n'ltegeko rigenga abacamanza n'abakozi bo mu Nkiko. DES Sans porter pr6judlce des dispositions de la loi pbnale, le juge de carri6re qui va t~ I'encontre de la pr6sente ioi est puni des sanctions prbvues par ia loi portant statut des juges et du personnel Judicialre. Abaoamanza batari ab' Les Juges auxiliaires qul umwuga batubahirije iri violent la prgsenle loi tegeko bahanwa mu sont punis de la manibre buryo bukurikira: sulvante : leabacamanza b'lnkiko isles juges des juridlcza gisirlkare bahanwa tlons mllltaires son1 hakurikijwe punis par les disposiamategeko mange y' tlons g6n6rales r6gisabaslrikare; sant les mllitalres ; 2' Abaseseri bahanlshwa 2"les assesseurs sont kwlhanangirlzwa. punis au moyen de CHAPTER IV : PUNISH- MENTS Article 23 : Without prejudice to provisions of the penal code, a career judge who violates this law, shall be punished in accordance with the laws governing the status of judges and judicial personnei. Auxiliary judges who violate this law shall be punished in the foilowlng manner : 1"Judges of milllary courts are, punished under the applicallon of the general military statutes; 2'Assessors shall be punished by a

214 .segeo~qe juos (a! eluesa~d el q saqejluo3 salne!qlue sale691 suo!j!sods~p sal selnol wnassasse sa(q!b!!? sap la smassasse sap awl el ap uone!pej el ep no luawassluane,!

215 0 Blbonywe kandi bishy- Vu et scell6 du Sceau nd sealed with lzweho lkirango cya de la RBpublique : ne Seal of the Repubulika : Republic: Minisitiri w'ubulabera Le Millistre ae la Juslice Tim Minister of Juslice MUKABAGWIZA Edda MUKABAGWIZA Edda MUKABAGWIZA Edda

216 ITEGEKO NGENGA No RYO KU WA 20103/2004 RIGE- NA IMITERERE, UBUBASHA N'IMIKORERE BY'INAMA NKU- RU Y'UBUCAMANZA Twebwe, KAGAME Paul, Perezida wa Repubuiika; INTEKO ISHINGA AMATEGE- KO YEMEJE, NONE NAWE DUHAMIJE, DUTANGAJE ITE- GEKONGENGARKNERmA KANDl DUTEGETSE KO RYAN- DlKWA MU IGAZETI YA LETA YA REPUBULIKA Y'U RWAN- DA %KO KHwA AMATEGE- KO: Urnutwe ~'Abadepite, mu nama LO1 ORGANIQUE N" DU PORTANT OR- GANISATION, COMPETENCE ET FONCTIONNEMENT DU CONSEIC SUPERIEUR DE LA MAGISTRATURE Nous, KAGAME Paul, President de la Republique ; LE PARLEMENT A ADOPTE ET NOUS SANCTIONNONS, PRO- MULGUONS LA LO1 ORGANI- QUE DONT LA TENEUR SUIT ET ORDONNONS QU'ELLE SOlT PUBLIEE AU JOURNAL OFFlClEL DE LA REPUBLIQUE DU RWANDA LE PARLEMENT : La Chambre des DeputQ, en ORGANIC ZW No OF DETERMINING THE QRGANISATION, POWERS AND FUNCTIONING OF THE SUPERIOR COUNCIL QF-THE JUDICIARY fl 3s We, KAGAME Paul, President of the Rspublic; THE PARLIAMENT HAS ADOqTED AND WE SANC- TION, PROMULGATE THE FOL- LOWING ORGANIC LAW, AND ORDER IT TO BE PUBLISHED IN THE OFFICIAL GAZETTE OF THE REPUBLIC OF RWANDA. THE PARLIAMENT: The Chamber of Deputies,

217 23 yaw0 yo ku wa 04 Werurwe 2004; sa sitance du 04 mars 2004; meeting in its session of March 4,2004; Urnuhve wa Sena, mu nama yaw0 yo ku wa 04 Werurwe 2004; Le Senat en sa seance du 04 rnars 2004; The Senate, meeting in its session of March 4, 2004; lshingiye ku ltegeko Nshinoa rya Repubulika y'u Rwanda ryo ku wa 04 Kamena 2003, nk'uko ryavuguruwe kugeza ubu, cyane cyane mu ngingo zaryo iya 2, iya 88, iya 90, iya 93, iya 108, iya 118-7', iya 142, iya 157, iya 158, iya 195 n'iya 201; Vu la Constitufon de fa Republique du Rwanda du 04 juin 2003 telle que revisee a ce jour, spbcialement en ses articles 62, 88, 90, 93, 108, 118-7", 142, 157, 158, 195 et 201; Given the Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda of June 4, 2003, as amended to date especially in its articles 62, 88, 90, 93, 108, 118-7', 142, 157, 158, 195 and 201 ;,..,..!. lj (./...,.:,. ; : k..,, ::,Is d!,:.> 'i&!h~.,in I$!: ku ltegeko Ngenga no ryo ku wa 29 Werurwe 195, rigena imitunganyirize, imikorere rt'ububasha by'lnama Nkuru ylubucamanza; Revu la loi organique no 03/96 du 29 rnars 1996 pwtant organisation, fonctionnement et tence du Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature ; Revisited the Organic law No of March 29, 1996 determining the organisation, functioning and powers of the Superior Council of the Judiciary; ~

218 YEMEJE : ADOPTE CHAPTER ONE : I633 UMUWE WA MBERE : IMITE- RERE Y'INAMA NKURU ruw- CAMANZA lcyiciro cya mbere: Abagize lnama Nkum y'ubucamanza lngingo ya mbere lnama Nkum y'ubucamanza igime n'aba bakurikira : Perezida wlurukiko Wlkirenga, ari na we ushinzwe kuyiyobra ; CHAPITRE PREMIER : DE L'ORGANISATION DU CONSElL SUPERlEUR DE IA MAGISTRATURE Section premiere : De la composition du Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature Article premier : Le Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature est compose des personnes ci-apres : I "le President de la Cour Supreme, Prhident de drdt; THE ORGANISATION OF THE - SUPERIOR COUNCIL OF THE JUDICIARY Section one : Composition of the Superior Council of the Judiciary Article one : The Superior Council of the Judiciary is composed of : 1 ' The President of the Supreme Court, who is also the chairperson; 2'Visi-Perezida rw'lkirenga; wlurukiko 2"The Vice-president of the Supreme Court;

219 3' Umucamanza umwe mu Rukiko rw'lkirenga utorwa na bagenzi be; 4' Perezida wlurukiko Rukuw rwa Repubuiika; 5"Umucamanza urnwe muri buri fasi y'urukiko rw'lntara n'iy'urukiko rw'umujyi wa wa Kigali utorwa na bagenzi be; G0Urnucamanza umwe mu Rukiko MAkarere njurw'umujyi muri buri fasi y'urukiko rw'lntara n'iy1umujyi wa Kigali utorwa na bagenzi be; Qbayobozi bab. b'limashami y'amategeko muri za - Kaminuza zemewe batowe na bagenzi babo; 3"un juge de la Cour Supreme elu parses pairs; 4"le PrCident de la Haute Cour de la Repubiique ; 5'un juge par ressort du Tribunal de Province et de la Ville de Kigali elu parses pairs ; 6'un juge du Tribunal de District et de Ville dans chaque ressort du Tribunal de Province et celui de la Ville de Kigali eiu parses pairs ; 7"deux Doyens des Facultes de Droit des Universites agreees aus par leurs pairs; "A Judge of the Supreme Court elected by his or her peers; 4'The President of the High Court of the Republic; 5"One judge from the territorial jurisdiction of each Provincial Court and the City of Kigali- Court eiected by his or her peers; 6'0ne judge of a District, rnunicipality or town court elected by his or her peers from the territorial jurisdiction of each Provincial and City of Kigali Court; 7Ywo Deans of Faculties of Law from recognized universities elected by their peers;

220 8" Perezida wa Komisiyo y'lgihugu ishinzwe Uburenganzira bwa muntu; - 9"iimuvunyi Mukuru. lngingo ya 2 : Uretse Perezida w'umkiko rw'lkirenga, Visi-Perezida wlurukiko Mi'lkirenga na Perezida w'urukiko Rukuru rwa Repubulika, abagize lnama Nkuru y'ubucamanza b'abacamanza batorwa na bagenzi babo bakora mu Nkiko zimwe. Abiyamamaza babimenyesha mu andko Ubunyamabanga bw'l- 3ma Nkuru y'llbucamanza hasigaye nibura ukwezi kumwe ngo amatora abe. Uwiyamamaje wese agornba kuba amaze nibura rmyaka itanu (5) akora mu e' 8"le Prbident de la Commission Nationale des Droits de la personne; A I'exception du President de la Cour Supreme, du Vice-president de la Cour Supreme et du Fresident de la Haute Cour de la RB publique, les juges membres du Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature sont elus par leurs pairs du mime degre de juridiction. Les candidatures ecrites sont deposees au Secretariat du Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature au moins un mois avant les elections. Tout candidat doit justifier d'une experience d'au moins cinq (5) ans dans le domame du 8" The President of the National Commission of Human Rights; $"?he Ombudsman. Article 2: With exception of the President of the Supreme Court the Vice President of the Supreme Court and the President of the High Court of the Republic, members of the Superior Council of the Judiciary who are career judges are elected by their peers working in the same courts. Intending candidates shall inform in writing the Secretariat of the Superior Council of the Judiciary at least one month before the elections. Candidates shall possess experience of at least five (5) years in legal profession.

221 byerekeye arnategeko. Amatora ategurwa kandi akayoborwa n' lnarna Nkuru y'llbucarnanza. Ariko arnatora y'abagize lnama Nkuru y'ubucarnanza bavugwa mu ngingo ya mbere, agace ka 7, ategurwa akanayoborwa na Minisitiri ufite arnashuri makunr mu nshingano ze, bisabwe na Perezida w'umkiko rw'lkirenga. lngingo ya 3 : Ku bagize inarna Nkuru y'ubucanza batorwa, arnatora aba ari 42 hari bitatu bya kane (%) by'abagize inteko itora. Batorwa ku bwiganze burunduye bw'amapvi droit Les elections sont preparees el organisees par le Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature. Cependant le vote des membres du Conseil Superieur de Is Magistrature cites a l'article premier, 7" esl prepare e! dirloe par le Ministre ayan! Education dans ses attributions sur demande du President de la Cour Su~reme.. Article 3 : Pour les mernbres du Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature qui sont elus, les elections ne peuvent valablernent avoir lieu que si les trois quarts (%) des mernbres Electionsshall be org'anibd and; directed by the Superior Cburi'cii' of the Judiciary, However, the elections of rnembers of the Superior Cowncil -of. the Judiciary mentioned in article one, 7" shall be oqanized and. directed by the Minister having.: higher education in his or h.e~ attributions upon request by tpe President of the Suorerne Couri." Article 3 : For the members of the Suoer~or Council of the Judic~ary who are elected, the election quorum shall be three quarters (314) of the electoral college They are

222 y'abahari. Amatora akorwa mu ibanga. - lngingo ya 4 : Abagize lnama Nkunr y'ubucamama batorwa, batorerwa igihe cy'imyaka itatu (3). Ntibashobora gutorwa inshuro zirenze ebyiri zikurikiranye. lngingo ya 5 : I b ku mpamvu iyo ari yo yose, e mu bagize lnama Nku~ Jucamanza ayivuyerno igihe iatorewe kitararangira, hakoreshwa irindi tom mu minsi mirongo itatu ibarwa uhereye ku itariki y'iyakirwa ry'ibwa ibimenyesha. du college electoral sont pr& sents. L'election a lieu a la majorite absolue des membres presents. Le vote a lieu au scrutin secret. Article 4 : Les meqbres 8us du- Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature ont un mandat de trois (3) ans. Ils ne peuvent exercer plus de deux mandats successifs. Article 5 : Si pour une cause quelconque, un des membres du Conseil Su- Weur de la Magistrature cesse d'en faire partie avant I'expiration de son mandat, il est proaide a de nouvelles elections pour pourvoir a son remplacement dans un delai de trente (30) jours de ia notification de cette cessation. elected on the absolute majority of the members present. Voting shall be -conducted through secret ballot. The term of office of the elected members of the Supenor Council of the Judiciary 'shall be three years (3). The elected members shall not hold office for more than' two succes3kferms. Article 5 : In any case, if a member loses membership of the Superior Council of the Judiciary before the expiration of the tern of office, new elections to fill the vacancy shall be organised wlthin 30 days from the date of nptification of cessation of membership.

223 lryo menyesha rikorwa n'libunyarnabanga bw'lnama Nkuru y'ubucarnanza. Uwo utowe kuri ubwo buryo arangiza igihe cy'uwo asimbuye. lcyiciro cya 2 : lnzego z'lnama Nkuru y'llbucamanza lngingo ya 6 lnama Nkuru y'ubucamanza igizwe n'inzego zikurikira: 0 lnama Rusange 2"iro 3" Kornisiyo zihoraho La notification est faite par le Secretariat du con& Supbrieur de la Magistrature. Le nouveau rnernbre acheve le rnandat de son oredkesseur. Section 2 : Des orsanes du Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature Article 6 : Le Conseil Sufir~eur de la Magistrature comprend les organes ci-apres : 1 " L'Assemblee Generale 2" Le Bureau 3" Les Commissions permanentes 163s The notification shall be made by the Secretariat of the Superior Council of the Judiciaiy. The new member shall hold office for the remaining term of office of his Dredecessor. Section 2 : Organs of-the Superior Council of the Judiciary Article 6 : The Superior Council of the Judiciary shall consist of : 1' the General Assembly 2' the Bureau 3' the permanent committees

224 lngingo ya 7: lnama nkuru y'ubucamanza iterana mu narna rusange. lnama Rusange igi* n'abagize lnama Nkuru y'ubucamanza. lnama Rusange ni rwo rwego rw'ikirenga rw'lnama Nkuru y'ubucamanza Article 7 : Le Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature se reunit en Assernbl6e Genba!e. L'Assemblk Generaie comprend tous les rnernbres du Conseil Supkrieur de la Magistrature. L'Assemblee Generale est i'organe suprkme du Conseil Sup& rieur de la Magistrature. Article 7 : The Superior Council of the judiciary shall sit in its General Assembly meeting - The General Assembly shall comprise all the members of the Superior Council of the Judiciary. The General Assembly shall be the Supreme organ of the Supeiior Council of the Judiciary lngingo ya 8 Biro y'lnama Nkuru y'ubucamanza ioime na Perezida w'umkiko r,ega, ari nawe uyiyobora. \.. ~rezida n'umwanditsi. Mu nama ya mbere ikurikira itora ry'abayigize, lnama Nkuru y'ubucamanza Article 8 : Le Bureau du Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature est compose du Prbident de la Cour Suprkme qui preside le Conseil, d'un Vice- President et 8un Rapporteur. Lors de la prerni&e reunion qui suit I'election de ses membres, le The Bureau of the Superior Council of the Judiciary shall comprise the President of the Supreme Court who shall be the Chairperson, a Vice-president and a Rapporteur. In the first session following the election of

225 yitoramo Visi-Perezida n'umwanditsi. Abakandida kuri buri mwanya biyandikishiriza muri iyo nama. Batonva mu ibanga hakurikijwe ubwiganze burunduye bw'amajwi y'abaje muri iyo nama. lyo ubwo bwiganze burunduye butabonetse, itora nsubinvarno ako kanva, babatorwa hakurikijwe ubwiganze busanzwe bw'arnaiwi mu bakandida babiri (2) bamshije abandi amajwi mu itora ryabanje. lngingo ya 9 :. lnama. Nkuru y'ubucamanza zwe na Komisiyo eshatu (3) aoraho : 1 "Komisiyo ishinzwe imyitwarire y'abacarnanza Conseil Suprieur de la Magistrature elit en son sein un Vice- Prbident et un Rapporteur. Les candidats a chaque poste se font inscrire lors de cette skance. Ils sont elus au scrutin secret et a la majorite absolue des membres du Conseil presents. A defaut, il est imrnediatement procede a une nouvefle election et ils sont elus a la rnajorite simple parmi les deux (2) premiers candidats ayant obtenu plus de voix au premier tour du scrutin. Article 9 : Le Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature comprend trois (3) Commissions perrnanentes. a savoir : 1 " la Commission de discipline 4 6 ~ its members, the Superior Coun cil shall elect a Vice-President and a Rapporteur from among its members. Candidates for each post shall register during that session. They shall be elected by secret ballot on the absolute majority of the members present. When the absolute majority is not obtained, the voting is immediately repeated in accordance with the simple majority from the first two winning candidates of the first round of voting. Article 9 : The Superior Council of the Judiciary shall comprise three (3) permanent commttees namely : 1 ' the disciptinary committee

226 2'Komisiyo ishinzwe umwuga w'abacamanza 3"Kornisiyo ishinzwzinikorere y'ubucamanza Buri Komisiyo yitoramo Umuyobozi n'umwanditsi wayo. Bibaye ngombwa, lnama Nkuru y'ubucamanza ishobora gushyiraho Komisiyo zidasanzwe. lngingo ya 10 Ubunyamabanga ama Nkuru y'ubucamanza ya buri munsi y'lnama Nkuru y'ubucamanza harimo : 2" la Commission de la carriere des juges 3" la Commission du fonctionne ment du systeme judiciaire Chaque Commission eiit en son sein un President et un Rapporteur. Le Conseil Supkrieur de la Magistrature peut cr&r des Commissions sp6ciales en cas de besoin. II est cree un Secretariat du Conseil Supkrieur de la Magistrature charge de la gestion joumaliere des activites du Conseil Sup4rieur de la Magistrature dont notamment : 16b- 2" the committee for judges career -3" the committee responsible for the functioning of the judicial system Within each commission there shall be elected its Chairperson and a Rapporteur. If deemed necessary, the Superior Council of the Judiciary shall establish ad hoc committees. Article 10 : The Oftice of the Secretariat of the Superior Council of the Judiciary is hereby established and shall be in charge of the day today duties of the Superior Council of the Judiciary including:

227 1 " Kwakira inyandiko z'abacamanza biyarnamariza kujya mu Nama Nkuru y'ubucamanza; 2" kwakira inyandiko z'abasaba akazi k'ubucarnanza no gute gura amarushanwa mu gutanga aka2 no kuzamurwa mu ntera kw'abacarnanza; 3" gutegura no kohereza inyandiko zitumira abagize lnama Nkum y'ubucamanza; 4' gutegura amadosiye azigwa n'lnama Nkuru y'ubucarnanza ; Cn dosiye zivuye mu Bugenzuzi Bukuru bw'lnkiko zigashyikirizwa lnama Nkuru y'ubucarnanza ; 1 "recevoir les dossiers des juges candidats pour &re rnembres du Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature ; Zarecevoir les dossiers de dernande d'emploi et organiser les concours de recrutement et de promotion des juges ; 3'" preparer et lancer les invitations aux membres du Conseil Superieur de-la Magistrature ; 4" preparer les dossiers a I'ordre du jour du Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature ; 5" preparer les dossiers elabores par le Service $Inspection Gnbale des Cours et Tribunaux en vue de les sournettre au Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature ; 1' receiving applications of candidates wishing to join the Superior Council of the Judiciary; 2' receiving job applications, organising recruitment and promotions designed for judges; 3' preparing and sending invitation letters to members of the Superior Council of the Judiciary; 4" preparing fiies to be examined by the Superior Council of the Judiciary; 5' preparing 'files from the Inspectorate General of Courts with a view to submit them to the Superior Council of the Judiciary;

228 6' gushyira mu bikorwa ibyeme zo by'lnama Nkuru ylubucarnanza no kubimenyesha abo bireba. lngingo ya 11 : Umunyarnabanga w'lnarna Nkuru y'ubucamanza atorwa n'iyo Nama mu bakandida babiri (2) batanzwe kuri uwo mwanya na Perezida wlurukiko rw'lkirenga. yirwaho na Perezida w'uruki- &.renga. UMUTWE WA I1 : UBUBASHA N'IMIKORERE BY'INAMA NKU- RU Y'UBUCAMANZA 6' mettre en execution les decisions du Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature et les notifier a qui de droit Article 11 Le Secretaire du Conseil Sup& rieur de la Magistra~ur est elu par ce Conseil parmi deux (2) candidats a ce poste proposq par le President de la Cour Supreme. II est nomme par le PrQident de la Cour Supreme. CHAPITRE II : DE LA COMPE- TENCE ET DU FONCTIONNE- MENT DU CONSEIL SUPE- RlEUR DE LA MAGISTRATURE " implementing the decisions of - the Superior Council of the Judiciary and informing those concerned. Article 11 : The Secreiary of the Superior Council of the Judiciary shall be elected by the Council from the two (2) candidates to that post proposed by the President of the Supreme Court. He or she is appointed by the President of the Supreme Court. CHAPTER II : THE POWERS~ AND FUNCTIONS OF THE SU- PERIOR COUNCIL OF THE JUDICIARY

229 lngingo ya 12 : lnama Nkuru y'ubucamanza ishinzwe ibi bikurikira : 1 " kwiga ibibazo byerekeye imikorere y'ubutabera no gutanga inama, ibyibwirije cyangwa ibisabwe, ku bi'bazo byose byerekeye imikorere y'ubutabera; 2' gufata ibyemezo ku ishyirwa ku mirimo, izamurwa mu ntera, iyimurwa, ivanwa ku mirirno ry'abacamanza, ku migendekere y'umwuga w'abacamanza batari ab'lnkiko za Q... isinkare, no gufata ibyemezo nk'urwego rushinzwe imyitwarire yabo uretse Perezida na Visi-Perezida b'urukfko rw'lkirenga; Article 12 : Le Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature a pour attributions: I "etudier les questions reiatives au fonctionnement de la justice, et donner des avis, ae son initiative ou sur demande, sur toute question interessant I'administration de la justice; 2" decider de la nomination, de la promotion, de la mutation et de la revocation des juges et en general de la gesfion de carriere des juges des juridictions autres que militaires et statuer en tant que Conseil de discipline a leur egard, sauf en ce qui conceme le President et le Vice-president de la Cour Suprkme; Article 12 : %%a The functions of the Superior Councii of the Judiciary shall be the following: 1" to examine and give advice either on its own initiative or upon request by another organ, on matters relating to the functioning of the justice system; 2" to take decision relating to the appointment, promotion, transfer or removal of judges from office and management of the career of judges a part from those of the miiitary -courts and take decisions as a responsible organ for their discipline with an exception of the President and the Vice President of the Supreme Court;

230 3" gutanga inama buri gihe ku rnushinga uwo ari wo wose wo gushyirano urukiko rushya cyangwa werekeye amategeko ngengarnikorere y'abacsmanza cyangwa y'abakozi b'inkiko ishinzwe. lngingo ya 13 lnama Nkuru y'ubucamanza iterana mu nama isanzwe rimwe mu gihembwe. lshobora kandi guterana mu na- 'dasanzwe, igihe cyose bi- I3 ngornbwa, biturutse kuri Pe~ezida way0 cyangwa se bisabwe nibura na batanu (5) mu bayigize. lcyo gihe isuzuma gusa ibiteganyijwe'ku murongo w'ibyigwa. 3' donner des avis sur tout projet ou touteproposition de loi portant creation d'une nouvelle juridiction ou relatif au statut des juges ou du personnel judiciaire relevant ae sa comoetence. Article 13 : Le Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature se reunit en session ordinaire une fois par trimestre. Le Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature peut egalement se rbnir en session extraordinaire autant de fois que de besoin, soit a I'initiative du President, soit a la demande d'au moins cinq (5) de ses rnernbres. Dans ce cas, {e Conseil n'exarnine que les seuls points inscrits a I'ordre du jour. IGZ/' 3" to advise at all times on all proposals relating to the establishment of a new court or bill of law governing the status of judges and other judicial personnel ior whom it is responsible. Article 13 : The Superior Council of the Judiciary shall sit in its ordinary meeting once quarterly. It may also be convened in an extra ordinary session, whenever necessary by its President on his or her own initiative or upon request by at least five (-5) members. in that case, it examines what is provided on the agenda only.

231 lnarna Nkuru y'ubucarnanza iturnizwa kandi ikayoborwa na Perezida wayo, yaba adahari agasirnburwa na Visi-Perezida w'lnarna Nkuru y'ubucamanza. lnyandiko iturnira abagize lnama Nkuru y'ubucamanza, igaragaza ibiri ku rnurongo w'ibyigwa, isaha y'inama n'aho izabera, kandi yohererema abagize iyo narna iminsi curni n'itanu (15) mbere y'uko iterana, iyo byihuiirwa icyo gihe gishobora kugabanywa. Qagize lnarna Nkurw y'ubucarnanza ntibemerewe guhagararirwa mu narna zayo. Le Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature est convoque et preside par son President, en cas d'ernpkchernent ou absence, il est rernplacb par le Vice- President du Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature. La convocation indiquant I'ordre du jour, ~'heure et le lieu de la reunion du Conseil Superieur de la Magistraiure est adressee, a chaque rnernbre du Conseil, quinze (15) jours a l'avance. En cas d'urgence, ce delai peut ktre reduit. Les rnembres du Conseil Sup& rieur de la Magistrature ne sont pas autorids a se faire reprbenter dans ses sessions. Mto The Superior ~ounciiof the Judiciary shall be convened and presided over by its President and in his or her absence by the Vice President of the Superior Councii of the Judiciary. The invitation letter to the rnernbers of the Superior Council of the Judiciary specifies what is provided on the agenda, time and the venue and shall be sent to every member of the Superior Council fifteen (15) days before the meeting. In case of urgency, that period may be reduced. Members of the Superior Council of the Judiciary shall obligatorily attend the meeting in person.

232 lngingo ya 14 : lnama ikurikira itora ry'abagize lnama Nkuru y'ubucamanza iterana mu gihe kitarenze iminsi mirongo itatu (30) uhereye igihe itora ryabereye. lngingo ya 15 : lnama Nkuru y'ubucamanza iterana hari nibura bibiri bya gatatu (213) by'abayigize. lfata ibyemezo ku bwumvikane suye bitashoboka ibyemezo qatwa., Xu bwiganze burunduye bw'amajwi y'abahari. Icyakora, icyemezo cyo gukura ku murimo umucamanza gifatwa ku bwiganze bwa bibin bya Article 14 : La premiere seance du Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature, se tient endeans trente (30) jours de I' election. Article 15 : Le Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature ne se reunit valablement que si les deux tiers (213) de ses rnembres sont presents. Les decisjons sont prises par consensus et a defaut a la majorite absolue de voix des membres presents. Toutefois, la revocation dun juge esl decidee a la majorite des deux tiers (213) de voix des Article I 4 : f6 19 The subsequent session to the election of the members of the Superior Council of the Judiciary shall be convened in not more than thirty (30) days from the day the elections were conducted. Article 15 : Deliberations of the Superior Council of the Judiciary shall be valid only if at least 23 of the members are present. It shall take decisions on consensus or otherwise, the decisions shall be taken upon the absolute majority of the members present. However, the decision to remove a judge from ofice shall be taken on the basis of absolute majority, -

233 gatatu (213) by'amajwi y'abahan hakoreshejwe itora, ltora rib2 mu ibanga. lbyemezo by'lnama Nkuru y'ubucamanza bishyirwaho umukono na Perezida n'umwandits wayo, bigahita bishyirwa mu bikorwa uretse ibigomba kubanza kumenyeshwa uwo byafatiwe. lngingo ya 16: lnarna z'lnama Nkum y'ubucaza zikorerwa inyandikomvuozigashyirwaho umukono na Perezida n'llmwanditsi wayo. Izo nyandikomvugo zohererezwa abagize lnama Nkum membres presents. Le vote est secret. Les dkisions du Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature sont signees par son President et par son Rapporteur et sont immediaternent exkutoires, sauf cdles devani preaiabiement &re notifiees au concerne. Les reunions du Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature font objet de prds-verbaux signes par le President et le Rapporteur. Ces proces-verbaux sont 11 /F votes of two thirds (2/3)' of the members present. The voting shall be conducted through secret ballot. The decisions of the Superior Council of the Judiciary shall be signed by its President and the Rapporteur and thereafter shall be implemented with the exception of those decisions requiring prior notification to the concerned pafly. Article 16 : The Superior Council of the Judiciary shall record minutes of all its proceedings wh~ch shall be signed by the President and the Rapporteur of the Council

234 y'ubucamanza bose mu gihe kitarenze irninsi mirongo itatu (30) uhereye igi'nie inama ibereye. lngingo ya 17 : Abagize lnama Nkuru y'ubucamanza n'abandi bantu bose bakurikirana irnirimo y'inarna zayo kubera impamvu iyo ari yo yose, bagomba kuzigama ibanga ry'ibyayivugiwerno. Amafaranga agenewe irnirimo y'lnarna Nkuru y'llbucarnanza transrnis a tous les rnernbres du Conseil endeans trente (30) jours - de la tenue des reunions. Article 17 : Les-mernbres du Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature ainsi que toutes les autres personnes qui, a titre quelconque, assistent a ses seances, sont tenus au secret de deiibbation. Article 18 Les fonds allods au fonctionnernent du Conseil Superieur de la The minutes shall be transmitted to all members of the Superior Council of the Judiciary in not more than thirty (30) days from the date the meeting was held. Article 17 : Members of the Superior Council of the Judiciary and any other person attending in any capacity shall be bound to maintain secrecy of the deiiberations therein. Article 18 : The Budget provisions for the functioning of the Superior

235 ateganywa mu ngengo y'imari y9urukiko rw'lkirenga. lngingo ya 19 : Arnafaranga ahabwa abitabiriye inama y'abagize lnama Nkuru y'ubucarnanza agenwa n'lteka rya Perezida wa Repubulika. lngingo ya 20: lnarna nkuru y'ubucamanza ishyio amabwiriza ngengamikorere '10.Mu byo ayo mabwiriza ;,egenya harimo inshinganon'imikorere by'inzego dvugwa mu ngingo ya 6 y'iri tegeko yenga Cr Magistrature sont inscnts au budget de la Cour Supreme. Article 19 : Les jetons de presenc alloub aux membres du Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature qui participent aux reunions du Conseil sont determines par Arrete Presidentiel. Article 20 : Le Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature arrete son reglement d'ordre interieur. Ce reglernent determine notamrnent les attributions et le fonctionnement des organes cites a I'article 6 de la prbente Id oga nisue. Council of the Judiciary shall form part of the budget of the Supreme Court Article 19 : The sitting allowance for rnernbers of the Superior Council of the Judiciary shall be determined by a presidential decree. Article 20 : The Superior Council of the Judiciary shall adopt its own internal rules and regulations. The internal rules afid regulations shall provide inter alia, responsibilities and functioning of the organs referred to in article 6 of this organic law.

236 UMUPNE WA Ill : IMIHANGO IJYANYE N'IFATWA RY'IBI- HANO CHAPITRE Ill : DE LA PROCE- DUREDISCIPLINAIRE CHAPTER Ill : THE DISCIPLI- NARYPROCEDURE lngingo ya 21 lnarna Nkuru y'ubucamanza ni yo isuzuma ibirego byo mu rwego rw'akazi biregwa Abacamanza. lnasuzuma kandi ubujurire bwabo ku bihano baba bafatiwe n'abaperezida b'lnkiko. Article 21 : Le Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature connait des recours administratifs formes contre les juges. ll connait egalement des recours formb par des juges contre les sanctions discipiinaires prononcees par les Presidents des juridictions a leur 6gard. Article 21 : The Superior Council of the Judiciary shall be responsible for examining administrative complaints against judges. It shall also examine appeals made by judges against disciplinary measures taken against them by their respective presidents of the courts. Perezida wa Kornisiyo ishinzwe irnyitwarire y'abacamanza, ageza ku bagize lnama Nkuru ylubucamanza impamvu zituma umucamanza agomba gukurikiranwa kugira ngo bazisuzume. Le President de la Commission de discipline soumet au Consei Supttrieur de la Magistrature les faits motivant la poursuite d'un juge, pour examen. The President of the disciplinary Committee shall present to the Superior Council of the Judiciary facts showing cause why disciplinary proceedings should be taken against a judge for review.

237 lngingo ya 23 : Article 23 : Article 23 : /614 lnarna Nkuru y'ubucarnanza ntishobora gufatir- a umucamanza igihano mu gihe cyose uyu aiahamagawe kugira ngo yire gure. lhamagara rikorwa binyuji-,iwe mu ibarwa ishinganye mu iposiia cyangwa yanyujijwe ku mucarnanza uri mu ntera isurnba iya nyir'uguhamagarwa kandi hagaianawa,giharnya ko yayishyikirijwe. lyo uwo,mucamanza wo mu ntera yisurnbuye atabashije kuboneka, iharnagarwa rikorwa binyujijwe ku rriukuru w'u~kiko o w o mucamanza uhamagarwa akorarno, cyangwa niba ubmagarwa ari we Perezida wlurukiko, bikanyuzwa kuri Perezida w'urukiko rwisumbuye. Le Conssil Superieur de la Magistrature ne peui deiibirer que lorsque le juge poursuivi a ete dirrnent invite A cornparaitre pour presenter ses moyens de defense par lettre recomrnandee a la poste, ou signiiiee par un juge d'un grade superieur a celui du juge en cause contre recepisse. En cas d'absence du Juge de grade superieur, la signification est faite valabiement au responsable de la juridiction a laquelle appartient le juge poursuivi ou, si celuici en est IuimBrne responsable, au President de la juridiction immdiatemenl superieure. The Superior Council of the Judiciary shall not take disciplinary action against a judge unless the latter has been duly invited to appear and defend himself or herself before the Council. The invitation shall be made through registered mail, or by notice served through a judge of a higher rank than the respondent judge with acknowledgement of receipt. In the absence of the judge of a higher rank, the invitation shall be made.through the President of the court to which the accused judge belongs and if the judge himself or herself is the President of jurisdiction, the invitation shall be made through the President of immediate Superior court.

238 lbaruwa ishinganye imuhamagara imushyikirizwa nibura iminsi cumi n'itanu (15) rnbere y'uko inama isuzurna ikibazo cye iterana. lyo rninsi ibarwa uhereye igine iyo baruwa ishinganye yashyikirijwe iposita igatanga icyemezo cy'uko iyakiriye. ingingo ya 24 : a Umucamanza wahamagajwe ba kwitaba ubwe. Ashobora mbaza umwunganira kandi,. hari.irnpamvu yumvikana akaba yashaka umuhagararira. Afite, kimwe n'urnuhagarariye cyangwa urnwunganiye, uburenganzira bwo kumenya ibikubiye muri dosiye ye byose, mbere y'uko aburana. La iettre recommandee de convocation, lui est adressge au rnoins quinze (15) jours avant la tenue de la rkunion devant statue! sur son cas. Ce delai court a dater de la rb cepiion par la paste de la lettre recommandee avec accusi de receotion. Le juge cite est tenu de cornparaitre en personne. II peut se faire assister et, en cas d'ernpb chement justifie, se faire rep& senter. Le juge cite et son rnandataire ou son assistant ont droit a la communication du dossier avant la comparution The registered invitation shall be sent to the respongnt judoe at least fitteen (15) days before the meeting examining his or her case is held. This time limit shall be effective from the date on which the invitation was registered with the acknowledgement of receipt. Article 24 : The respondent judge shall appear in person. Such a judge may have an advocate and when there is a sound reason, he or she may seek legal representa-.tive. The respondent judge, or his or her advocate or legal representative, shall have the right of access to the case file before proceedings.

239 lngingo ya 25 : Ku rnunsi wagenwe mu iharnagara, hamaze gusomwa raporo ku idosiye no kurnva abatangabuharnya iyo bahari, umucarnanza, umuhagarariye cyangwa urnwunganiye, asabwa kwisobanura no kwiregura ku byo aregwa. lngingo ya 26 : lnama Nkuru y'llbucamanza ifatira ibyernezo mu mwiherero kandi igasobanura impamvu n'ishingiro ryabyo. lbyo byernezo a hakurikijwe ibivugwa mu o ya 15 y'iri tegeko ngenga. lp habaye kunganya amajwi, itora risubirwamo. lyo ku nshuro Article 25 : Au jour de la comparution, apres lecture du rapport et I'audition eventuelle des ternoins: le juge ou son rnandataire est invits a fournir ses explications et moyens de defense sur les faits qui lui sont reproches. Article 26 : Le Conseil SupSrieur de la Magistrature statue a huis clos et ses avis sont motives. ies &isions du Conseil Sup6rieur de la Magistrature sont prises conformement aux dispositions de I'article 15 de la presente id organique. En cas d'egalite des voix, il est prode a un nouveau vote. Si Article 25: On the date of hearing, after the reading of the report and hearing of witnesses, if any, the respondent judge, his or her advocate or legal representative shall be invited to present defense on all accusations against the accused Article 26 : The Superior Council of the Judiciary shall take decisions in carnera and give explanation to their basis. Such decisions shall be taken in accordance with the provisions of article 15 of this organic law. In the event of a voting tie, the voting shall be repeated. If no

240 ya kabiri impaka zidakemutse, ijwi rya Perezidani ryo rikemura - irnpaka. Bitabangamiye ibiteganywa dingingo ya 27 y'iri tegeko ngenga, icyemezo cy'lnama Nkuru y'ubucamanza ntigishobora kujuririrwa cyangwa gusubirwamo, ndetse n'imbere y'inkiko ziburanisha irnanza z'ubutegetsi. Umucamanza utabashije kwitaba ashobora gusaba ko icyemezo cyamufatiwe gisubirwamo mu cy'imns~ cumi n'itanu (15)!ye.'.' ig~he yakimenyeshere-!q I, lbyo abikora mu ibaruwa ishinganye mu iposita cyangwa itanme mu ntoki kandi hagatangwa gihamya y'uwayakiriye. aucune majorite ne se degage au second tour, la vorx du Prbrdent est prepondirante. Sans prejudice des dispositions de I'articie 27 de la prhente loi organique, la decision du Conseil SupBieur de la Magistrature n'est susceptible d'aucun recours, m&me devani les juridictions administratives. Article 27 : Le juge cite qui n'a pas pu cornparaitre peut former opposition dans les quinze (15) jours de la notification. L'opposition est formee par iettre recommandee a la poste ou de main a main avec accuse de reception, absolute majority during the second round is obtained, the Preside7it's vote shall be the casting vote. Without prejudice to the provisions of article 27 oi this organic law, the decision of the Superior Council of the Judiciary shall not be subjected to appeal or review even before the administrative couris. Article 27 : In the event a decision is made in the absence of the respondent judge, he or she shall have the right to apply for review of such a decision within fifteen (15) days counted from the date when it was communicated. The application for review is made by registered mail at the post office or handdeiivered with acknowledgement of receipt.

241 Yandikira Perezida w'lnarna Nkuru y'ubucamanza na we akayishyikiriza Kornisiyo ishinzwe irnyitwarire y'abacamanza. ltariki yayoherereje mu iposita kirnwe n'iyo yayiiangiyeho mu ntoki ni yo ifawa mu kubara ibihe. Isubirishamo rihagarika ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry'icyernezo kinengwa. lyo isubirishamo ryakozwe, lnama Nkuru y8ubucamanza irongera igaterana, uregwa n'abatangabuhamya baharnagajwe. C J nyirubwite yongeye kutitaba, usibye mu gihe habaye impamvu zitunguranye kandi zitarnuturutseho, icyemezo gifatwa burundu nk'aho nyirubwite yari ahari. adressee au President du Conseii Superieur de la Magistrature qui en saisit la 'Commission de discipline. La date du dep6t a la posie ou de la remise de la lettre sert de base pour la compuraiion des delais. L'opposition suspend i'exeytion de la decision attaquee. En cas d'opposition, le Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature se reunit a nouveau, I'interesse et les temoins dhent convoques. Si!e juge cite ne cornparait pas de nouveau, sauf en cas de force rnajeure, la decision prise est reputee contradictoire It is addressed to the President of the Superior Council of the Judiciary who shall refer it to the disciplinary committee. The date of deposit of the letter at the post ofice or that of hand delivery shall be the one to be considered in calculating the time limits. Application for review shall suspend the execution of the decision concerned. In case of such application, the Superior Council of the Judiciary shall be reconvened and the concerned judge and witnesses shall be surnrnoned. If the respondent judge does not appearagain, the decision of the Council shall be irrevocable except in case of force rnajeure.

242 lngingo ya 28 : lcyernezo cy'lnama Nkuru y'ubucamana cyafaiiwe Umucamanza akimenyeshwa n'urnunyamabanga w'iyo Nama mu-buryo buhuje n'ubuteganywa mu kurnenyesha ababuranyi ibyemezo byinkiko byabafatiwe badahari, gitangira kubahirizwa ku rnunsi ukurikira uwo ya~imenyesherejweho. Mu gihe icyemezo cyafaiiwe urnucarnanza aiitabye akakirnenyeshwa, gitangira kubahirizwa guhera ku rnunsi ukurikira igihe cyo kugisubirishamo kirangiriye. lngingo ya 29 : Mu rnatora ya mbere y'abagize Article 28 : La decision prise conire u~ juoe par le Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature est notifiee au juge concane a la diligence du Secretaire du Conseil suivant la meme procedure que celle prevue Dour la signification des jugernents rendus par defaut. Elle prend effet le lendemain du jour de cette notification. En cas de decision prise par defaut durnent notiiiee, elle prend effet apris I'expiration du delai d'opposition. CHAPITRE IV : DES DISPOSI- TIONS TRANSlTOlRES ET FI- NALES Article 29 : Pour I'organisation des premibes Article 28 : 1&38 The Secretary of the Superior Council of the Judiciary shall communicate its decisions to the concerned judge in accordant? with the procedure of cornrnunicaiing decisions taken by Couri against the absent respondents and shall be effective as of the day following their notification. When the decis~on taken aaainst a respondent in his or her absence is communicated to him or her, it shall be effective as of the day following the expiry of the review time limit. CHAPTER N: TRANSITIONAL AND FINAL PROVISIONS Article 29 : For the first elections of the rnem-

243 lnama Nkuru y3ubucamanza, abiyamamaza bashobora kubikora hatubahirijwe igihe giteganywa mu gika cya 2 cy'ingingo ya 2 y'iri tegeko ngenga. Amatora ya mbere y'abagize lnama Nkuru y'ilbucamanza bavugwa mu ngingo ya mbere agace ka gatatu yin tegeko ngenga, ategunva kandi akayoborwa na Perezida w'llrukiko rw'lkirenga. dgingo ya 30 :,ama Nkuru y'ubucamanza yemerewe guterana mu nama yayo ya mbere hatubahirijwe ibivugwa mu ngingo ya 15, igika cya mbere y'iri tegeko ngenga. elections des mernbres du Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature, les candidats peuvent poser leurs candidatures sans tenir compte des deiais, prevus a I'alinea 2 de I'article 2 de la presente loi organique. ies premieres ilections des membres du Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature citks a I'article premier, 3" de ia presente loi organique, son1 preparees et dirigees par le President de la Cour Suoreme. Article 30 La premibe reunion du Conseil Sup6rieur de la Magistrature se tient valablement sans tenir compte des dispositions de I'article 15, alinea premier, de la presente loi organique bers of the Superior Council of the Judiciary, candidates may make application thereof regardless the time limit provided for by paragraph 2 of article 2 of this organic law. The first elections of the rnembers of the Superior Council of the Judiciary referred to in article one point 3" of this organic law shall be organized and directed by the President of the Supreme Couri. Articie 30 The first meeting of the Superior Council of the Judiciary shall take place without meeting the requirements of article 15 paragraph one of this organic law.

244 Sitabangamiye ibivugwa mu ngingo ya 8 y'iri!egeko ngenga, umwandiisj w'inama ya rnbere y'lnama Nkuru y'ubucarnanza ashyirwaho na Perezida w'lnama Nkuru y'ubucarnania atoranyijwe mu bayigize. Mu nama yay0 ya rnbere, lnama Nkuru y'ubucamanza igomba kwiga ingingo zi~urikira : 1" ~shy~rwaho ry'abacamanza, 2" shylrwaho ry'umunyamabanw'lnarna Nkuru y'ubuca- Qnza; 3,,zgurwa ry'arnatora y'abagrze lnarna Nku~ ylubucamanza. Sans prejudice des dispositions de I'article 8 de la presente ioi organique, le Rapporieur de la premiere seanc5-du Conseil Su- Prieur - de la Magistrature est desiane par le President du Conseii Superieur de la Magistrature, parrni les rnenbres du Conseil Superieur de la Magisirature. Lors de sa premiere sgance, le Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature doit examiner les points ciapres : To la nomination des juges ; 2" la nomination du Secretaire du Conseil Sup6rieur de la Magistrature ; 3" la preparation des Uections des mernbres du Conseii Superieur de la Magistrature. Without prejudice to the provisions of article eight (8) of this organic law, the Rapporteur of the first meeting of the Superior- Council of the Judiciary shall be chosen from its members and be appointed by the President of the Superior Council oi the Judiciary. in its first meeting; the Superior Council of the Judiciary shall consider the following points : lo appointment of judges; 2' appointment of the Secretary of the Superior Council oi the Judiciary; 3" organisation of the elections of the members oi the Superior Council of the Judiciary.

245 lngingo ya 31 : Article 31 : Article 31 : f6cc ltegeko ngenga n003/96 ryo ku wa 29 Werurwe 1996 rigena imitunganyirize, imikorere, n'ububasha by'lnama Nkuru y'ubucarnanza n'ingingo z'andi rnategeko yose abanziriza iri tegeko ngenga kandi zinyuranye na ryo bivanyweho. lngingo ya 32 : Iri tegeko ngenga ritangira gukurikizwa ku munsi ritangarijweho mu lgazeti ya Leta ya Pepubuiika y'u La loi organique n"3196 du 29 mars 1996 portanl organisation, fonctionnement el competence du Conseil Superieur ae la Magistrature ainsi que toutes les dispositions legales anterieures contraires a la--presente loi organique son1 abrogees. Article 32 : La presente loi organique entre en vigueur le jour de sa publication au Journal Officiel de la Rb publique du Rwanda. The organic law No 03/96 of March 29, 1996 determining the organisation, functioning and powers of the Superior Council of the Judiciary as well as all previous legal provisions conirary to ihis organiclaw are hereby abrogated. Article 32 This organic law comes into forc~ on the date of its publication in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Rwanda. Kigali, ku wa 20/ Kigali, le 20/03/2004 Kigali, on

246 Perzzida wa Repubulika KAGAME Paul - Mintsitin w'lntebe MAKUZA Bernard Minisitiri w'llbutabera MUKABAGWIZA Edda Minisitin w'imari n'lgenamgambi Dr. KABERUKA Donald Minisitin w'abakozj ba Leta, Arnahua, lrnyuga lciriritse n'urnurimo BUMAYA Andre Habib fsd 1--,,,oonywe kandi bishyizweho Ikirango cya Repubulika : Minisitih w'ubutabera MUKABAGWU Edda (sei ie President de la Republique KAGAME Paul - (s*) Le Prsrn~er Ministre MAKUZA Bernard (se) Le Ministre de la Justic? MUKABAGWIZA Edda isel Le Minisire des Finances el de la Planiiication Econornique Dr. KABERUKA Donald be) Le Ministre de la Fonction Publiaue. de la Formation ~rofessionnelle,de~ Metiers et du Travail BUMAYA Andre Habib (s~i Vu et scelle du Sceau de la Re~ublique : Le Ministre de la Justice MUKABAGWm Edda (s4 The President of the Republic KAGAME Paul ise) The Prime Minrster MAKUZA Bernard (se) The Minister of Justice MUKABAGWIZA Edda (sf4 The Ministsr of Finance and iconomic Planning Dr. KABERUKA Donald The Minister of Public Service. Skills Development Vocational Tra~ning and Labour BU MAYA Andre Habib (se) Seen and sealed with the Seal of the Republic : The Minister of Justice MUKABAGWIZA Edda be)

247 ORGANIC LAW N015R006 OF 24/03/2006 MOD-G AND COMPLEMENTING ORGANIC LAW No 03R004 OF 20/3/2004 DETERMIMNG THE ORGANISATION, POWERS AND FUNCTIONING OF TBE PROSECUTION SERVICE We, KAGAME Paul, Tbe President of the Republic; THE PARLIAMENT HAS ADOPTED AND WE SANC'ITON, PROMULGATE TECE FOLLOWING ORGANIC LAW AND ORDER IT TO BE PUBLISHED IN THE OFFIClAL GAZETlT OF THE REPUBLIC OF RWANDA THE PARLIAMENT: / The Chamber of Deputies, in its session ofmarch 20,2006; The Senate, in its session of February 22,2006; Given the Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda of June 4, 2003 as amended to date, especially in its articles 62,66,67,~8,90,92,93,94,95,108,118,160,161,162,163,164,165,166 and 201; Revisited the Organic Law no of aetermining the organisation, powers and functioning of the prosecution senice, especially in ils articles?, 4, 5,6,7, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19,20,22, 34,38, 39, 42,43,49, 52, 57 and 58;. Article one of organic Law no of 20/3/2004 debmining the organisation, powers and frmctioning of the prosecution service is modified and complemented as follows: 'This Organic Law determines the organisation, powm and the functioning of the Prosecution Se~ce and the Supreme Council of the Prosecution The Prosecution Service shall comprise the Parquet General of the Republic and the Military Prosecution. The Prosccution Senice shail be responsible for investigation and prosecution of offences" Article 2: Article 2 of Organic Law no of 20/3/2004 determining the organisation, powers and functioning of the prosecution senice is d e d md complemented as follows: "The Parquet General of the Republic shau enjoy administmtive and financial autonomy. The Parquet General has its headquarter in the City of Kigali and shall have its branches in the whole country as it is indicated on the annexes I and 2 of this organic law. The headquarter of the Proseation at Higher kcstance level is determined by the Supreme Council of the Prosecution after consuttations with the Minister in charge of local gave-enent, after the later has considered views of the relevant District Councils. The headquarter of the Prosecution at Lower Instance level is determined by the Supreme Council of the Prosecution after consideration views of the relevant Sector Councils".

248 J.O. no spicial du 24/03n006 Article 3: 403 Article 4 of the Organic Law no 03/2004 of 20/3/2004. detemhtg the organisation, powers i d functioning of the prosecution service is modified as follows: "Prosecutors are in three (3) categories: lo Career Prosecutors; 2O Military Prosecutom; 3" Auxilmy ProsecutOIS"...~ Article 4: ~ Article 5 of the organic law no 03/2004 of 20i determining &e org&ti&, ion,-. a& functioning of the prosecution service is modified and ~~~~~~~~~~~as foriows: "Career Prosecutom are the following: ~ \ - 1" the Prosecutor General of the Republic;.. -2" the Deputy Prosecutor General of the Republic; 3' the Prosecutors with jurisdiction over the whole c o w ~.. ~ 4" the Prosecutor heading the Prosecution Service at High Wcc level;... -~..-.~ So.the Prosecutor a! Higher Instance level; " the Prosecutat at Lo& Instance level : A* pr~secuks arc: Authorised Judicial Police Officem wbdepltisq -. the. Prosccetor.at. - bwcr btance level" Article 5:.fi - Arricle 6 of the Organic La+ No 03/2004 of ZO/3/2OO4 d e w g the organisation, poa7ers and functidg of the prosecution service is modified &d complemented as foliows: 'Thc Parquet General of the Republic, in its daily activities, shall be adminishatively supported by the General Secretanat governed by the general shtutes of Rwanda Public Service It shall also be assisted by the Inspectorate and the Supm Council of the Prosecution" Article 6: Article 7 of the organic law no 03f2004 of 20/3/2004 determining the orgsnisation, pow= and funct'oning of the prosecution service is modified and complcmcuted as follows: 'In ordinary Corn, investigation and proseculion of offences shall be conducted by the Office of the Prosecutor General of the Republic as well as the Prosec~t~on at the Lower Instance level-and the Prosecution at the Higher Instance level". Article 7: Article 13 of the Organic Law no of 20/3/2004 detewining the organisation, powm and -0- the prosedon service is m&6ed and complemented a3follo*.. of

249 -39- J.O. n" spkcial du 24/03/2006 i - F 'The -- Prosecution - - at the Lower Instance level shall comprise at least one Prosecutor. the Prosecution at Higher Instance level shall comprise the Prosecutor heading the prosecution at Higher Instance level and at least five prosecutors (5) at that level and other necessaq qualified staff for the smooth nmning of the activities of the Prosecution service". Article 14 of the Organic Law no of 20/3/2004 detaroining the organisation, powers and functioning of the prosecution service is modified and complemented 8s follows: "The Proseoutor m cbarge of hosecution at Bgher Instance level Prosecutors at that level and Prosecutm at bwer Instance level an appointed and removed from office by a Prime Minister's order upon request by the supreme C o d of the Prosedon". Article 9: Article 15 of the Organic Law no 03/2004 of 20/3/2004 detamining the organisation, powers and functioning of foe prosecution service is modified and complemented as follows: "In order to be appointed as Prosecutor in charge of the Office of the Prosecutor at Higher Instance icvel or as a prosecutor at that level the candidate s hk 1" hold at leas! a bachelor's degree m law; 2O have a certificate indicatmg that he or sbe passed exams relating to the Judicml or career &ma govrrnment recoped mtltute; Y be of irreproachable morals and conduct, 4" not be characterised by apy - s and discrimination tendencies, 5O be imptd and independent miud~l Without prejudice to the provisions of paragrsph one of this article, the candidate for the Prose~tor heading the Pmsemtion at Higher - Instance level i6 required to have a workine -. exmieme of at least five (5) years m the legal field". Article 10: Article 16 of the mgmic law no 03/2004 of 20/3/2004 dctcrminjng the organisation, powers and functioning of the prosecution service is modified and complemented as follows: "The Prosecutor m charge of Prosecution at Higher Instance level, Rowtors at that level and Prosecuton at Lower Instance level shall take oath before the Primc Minister before they begin duties". Article I7 of the Organic Law no 03/2004 of 20/3/2004 determining the organisation, powers and functioning of the pmscdon service is repealed. Artide 12: Article 19 of the Organic Law no 03/2004 of 20/3/2004 detem+ng the organisation, powers and functioning of the prosemtion service is modified and completed in the following: '?nvcstigation and hsecution of.crimes in Military Corn shall be supervised by the Wtar,? Prosecutor 'General. He or she shall be assisted by Deputy Military Prosecutor General and other hatary Prosecutors. The Military Prosecutor General of the RepubIic shall have the following respo115ibirities: lo proseculing all offences committed in and out of tk territory of Rwanda by soldiers,.- and their a&rnplice$ in &%Ordance--&th law; 2' supervising a d cwrdinating the activities of Military Prasecutors;

250 I6m 3" preparing and transmi.ttiug to the hlinister in charge of Rwanda Defense Forces thc draft Budget which shall be utilized by the military Prosecution; 4. establishing the inkma! rules of Prosecution in Military Prosecution after codtitions with the Supreme comb of the Prosecution; 5" providing advice on issues relating to presidential pardon, provisional release and rehabi1itatio.n of the persons convicted by the Military Courts". Article 20 of the Organic Law no of 20BROD4 detnmining the organisation, powers and funhoning of the prosecution semce is modified and complemented in the following manner: "The Minister in charge of Rwanda Defense Forces shall supervise the Military Prosecutor Gencral of the - Repubhc. The Military P rosecutor General shall i dorm in each quarter and at any time it is considered necessary, the Prosecutor General of the Repubhc, issues relating to general performance of the MiIitary Pro*cution However, the ProsecutDr General of the Republic shall not give orders to the hctary Prosecutor General" 0 Article l4: Article 22 of the Organic Law no 03/2004 of 20B12004 determining the organisatiq powers and functioning of the prosecution service is &ed and complemented as follows: "The Sqxeme Council of the Prosecution shall be composed of the following members: C lo the Minister of Justice who shall be its chairperson; 2" the Prosecutor General of the Republic; 3" the Deputy Prosecnbr General of the Republic; 4" om Prosecutor with the iurisdiction over the whole country clemd byhis or her peers; 5' the.commissioner Gencral of Police; 6? the Chairperson of the National Comrhission of Human Rights; 7' the Military Prosecutor General and the Deputy Military Prosecqtor General; 8. three (3) Prosecutors of Higher Instauce level elected by their pairs, 9' five (5) Prosecutors of Lowcr Instance level elected by their pairs, 10" two (2) Deans of the authorised Faculties of Law elected by their peers; 1 lo the President of thc Bar Association 12' the Ombudsman Peyons mntioned in pomt4", 8", 9" and 10" of this article shall be appointed for a period of three (3) years whch may be renewed only once". Article 15: AxhcIe 34 of the orgmc law no of determming the organisatton, powers and fimctionmg of the prosecutton semce is mo&ed and complemented as follows 'The mpectorate of the Parquet General of the Repubtc B composed of inspectors who are required to be Prosecutors. They are based m the o5ce of the Prosecutor General of the Repubhc. They are appomtcd and removed &om office by the Supreme Council of Prosecution The mpectorate of the Parquet General of the Repubhc shall be responsible for supervision and control of the fimcbomg ofthe Prosecution Semce The kqecmrate of the Parquet General of the Republic sball also be responsible for: 1" mvesbgagating on the complaints relating to performance of the prosecutors or other staff of the Prosecution Senice; 2" controlling the use of tbe property, and equipment of the organs of the Parquet General of the &public;

251 J.O. no spkcial du 24/03/2006 A%m 3" submitting a report of matters on which it canjed out investigations or supenision to the Prosecutor General of the Republic who, in tun& submits it to the Supreme Council of the Prosemtion; 4" advising the Prosecutor General of the Republic and the Supreme Council of the Prosecution Service on marers concerning administration and functioning of the organs of the Prosecution Service; 5" preparing proposals of re,.ulations wncermng pr?se&on; 6Q performing other activities as may be assigned by th: Prosecutor General of the Republic or the Supreme Council of the Prosecution Dmng the performance of the inspectorate duties, the inspectors of the Parquet General of the Republic shall not be allowed to cany out Mes of investigation and prosecution of offences". Article 16: Article 38 of the Organic Law no of 20r30004 detamining the organisation, powers and functioning of the Prosecution' Service is modified and mmplcmented as fdows: 'In the Supreme Court and in the High Court of the Republic, prosecution sbd be carried out by tbe Prosecutor Geperal of the Republic assisted by other Piosecutors based in his or her office. In the Supreme Cowl cases, where the Prosecution is against soldiers, investigation and prosemtion shall he carried out by the Military Pmsccutor G e d assisted by other Military Rosecuto~s. In such cases, military prosecutors may themse1ves prosecute or may be assisted by thc Prosecutors with national competence". At Lower and Higher Instance Cow, the Prosecution shall be represented by the Prosecutor heading the Prosecution at the Hgher Indance level assisted by Prosecutors at that level and Prosecutors at thc Lower Inshce level. Article 17: Mcle 39 of the Organic Law no of 20/3/2004 determinine tborganisation, powers and functioning of the prosecution service is &ed and complemented as fobws: "The ~rosecbto~ Generalof the Republic shall k t and be answerable for all prosecution related matters OVR the whole country. Due to such reasons: I" he or she sixall dinct, follows up and coordinates the activities of the Prosecution Service; 2" he or she shall submit to the Supreme Council of the Prosecution the annual budget proposal of tbe Parquet General of the Republic before its submission to the Minister in charge of financt for incorporation into the overall State budget; 3" he or she shall give' idvice on extraditidn proceedings, application for presidential pardon, provisional release and rehab'itation of offenders; 4" m case of urgency, and upon complaint that may be prosecuted be or she may order tempoq suspension of any Prosecutor except members of the Office of the Prosecutor General, and infom the next Supreme Council of rbe Pmsecmon session for decmon; So where necessary, he or she may autborise a Prosecutor in charge of prosecubon at Higher Lnstance, other Prosecutors at that level or Prosecutors at Lower Instance Level to perform actlvlties of mvestigation and prosecution in another j uris&tion not in their usual o perahon, and shal! inform the Supreme Council oft h? Prosecution in the next session for decision; -

252 6" where necessary, he or she sends a Prosecutor with jurisdiction over the whole c ome to any other seat other than that of the Parquet General of the Republic, to carry out activities of investigation and prosecution for a given period and informs the Supreme Council of the Prosecution m its next session for decision; - 7" he or she signs internal rules and replations for the career Prosecutors after approval by the Supreme Council of the Prosecution; go he or she shall prosecute all persons ergoymg the specla1 privilege to he prosecuted before the Supreme Comt on Erst and last degree and shall represent the Court m such prosecuho9 and m case of absence, he or she IS replaced by the Deputy Pmsendor General. go he or she shall detexmhe, upon advice by the Supreme Council of the Rosecution, the dress code of prosecutors in Courts and in official ceremonies; 10' he or she shall piblish an d general report detailing the amount of work do=, achievements, and the problems encountsd any pmposak of amendment and reconnmndatim necessary to ensmc the smooth operation of the prosecutionactivities. The report shall be submitted to the Minister in charge of justice and copies reserved to bigher State organs. The report bhall he submitted during the fkst puts fobwing the reporting year. 1 lo he or she shall be the paymaster of the pargue( ~eneral of the Republic" Article 18: Arhcle 42 of he Orgamc Law no 03/2004 of 20/3/2004 determining the organisation, powers and functioning of the prosecution senice is m e d and complemented as follows: "The Prosecutor General of the Republic shall be represented at Highcr Instance by the Prosecutor in charge of Prosecution at Higher Instance, assisted by othcr Prosecutors at that level as well as Prosecutors at the Lower Instance level The Prosecutor Gmd of the Republic may *sue writtcn instructions to them on the investigation and prosecution of the suspects. However, he or she shall not be enhtjed to the right of stopping a prosecutor at Higher or Lower Instance level in order to carry out the pmsecuhon personnlly" Article 19: 0 Article 43 of the Organic Law nc 03/2004 of 2Ot3RMM determining the organisation, powers and functioning q.f the prosecution senrice is modified and complemented as follows: The Prosecutor in charge of the Prosecution at Higher Instance leve&fh& be responsible and answerable for the funchoning of the prosecution at that level. Due to such reasons,: 1' on bebal of the Prosecutor General of the Republic, he or she shall makc a follow up, direct and coordinate prosecubon and investigation activities, allocate duties to members of staff and issues instructions to prosecutors at Lower and Higher Instance level; 2' he or she shall direct and coordinate prosecution activities at the Lower and Higher Instance levels and particularly inspect the activities of Auxiliary Prosecutors at that levek 3" he or she may personally represent the prosecution before Courts of law in his or her respective area of jurisdiction; 4" he or she shall submit to the Prosecutor General of the Republic;at least once a term, and at any time it is considered necessary, a report of investigatiw and prosecution activities, achievements and difficulties encountered;

253 5" in collaboration with the Police, he or she shall conduct research on the cause and na* of the offences and submits to.the Prosecutor General of the Republic, report in every six (6) months., 6' he or she shall liaise with the local authorities in his or her jmisdichon on matters concerning Prosecution and public order, 7" he or she shall attend Security Committee meeting. Article 20: Article 45 of the Organic Law no of 20l detamining the org.nisation, powm and functioning of the prosecution service is modified and complemented as follows: The powers to idstitute criminal prosecutio~ls or file appeals, rest with the Parquet General of the Republic or the Prosecution at Higher Instance level or the Prosecution at the Lower Ins- level. The Parquet General of the Republic files appeals before the Supreme Court, while the Prosecution at the Higher Instance level files appeals at the Higher Instance Court and in the High Court of the Republic. Article 21: Arhcle 49 of the organic law no 03/2004 of 20Bt2004 determining the organisation, powers and functioning of the prosecution service is modi6ed and complemented as follows: "Tne Prosecution shall suprvise criminal investigators in crbminal investigation activities. In that regard, it reports on thein superior& every term and when it is considew$ necessary, on the activities of aimid investigaton"., Article 22:.. Article 52 of the organic law no of dearmining the organisation, powers and functioning of the prosdon service is modified and comple~neuted as follows: "At Lower Instance COIPtS, the Prosecution shall be represented by a Prosecutor at the Lower Instance level It may also be represented by Criminal Investigators upon being authorised by the Prosecutor General of the Repubhc. In case such criminal investigators consider it necessary to appeal to cases which they heard, they shall immediately info& the Prosecutor at Higher Instance level". Article 23: Amcle 55 of the 0-c Law no of ZOA/.ZOW determinmg the organisation, powers and funhoning of the prosecution service is moditied and complemented as follows: "All various existing structures of Districf Town and Municipalities Proseclldon, of the Province and of the City of Kigah shall remain in place mtil they are replaced by the new ones provided for by this organic law". Article 24: Article 57 of tbe Organ~cLaw no of determining the organisation, powers and functioning of the prosecution service is moditied and complemented as follow?.: 'Tbe Pmsecutor General of the Republic shall determine how the hand over of all files pending in the Prosecution offices at Provincial level is conaucted when this organic law comes into for?"..-.-

254 Article 25: 677 Article 58 of the Organic Law no of 2ODI2OM d e c e g the organisation, powers and functioning of the prosecution service is modified and complemented as follows: "The appoinfment of Prosecutors sball be conducted in a period of four (4) years following the publication of this organic law regardless of the experience required of the Prosecutor as well as the c.ertificate mentioned in articles 11, 20 and 15,20 of the orpic law nm 03~2004 of 2013L2004 detennioiog the oyanisation, powers and functioning of the prosecution service". Article 26: Tbe Organic Law na of determining the organisation, powers and functioning of the prosecution semce is supplemented by article 59 bis worded as follows: "Article 59 bis: The present Supreme Council of the Prosecution shall conhue its functions until this organic law is published The Supreme Council of the Prosecution shall be allowed to meet regardless of provisions of article 14 of this 0 organic law until the Prosecutors representing those of the Lower and Higher levels are appointed In that case, the Supreme Council of the Prosecution composed of the following persons shall meet: 10 the Minister of Justice who shall convene and chairs it; 20 the Prosecutor General of the Republic; '30 the Deputy. Prosecutor General of the Republic; 40 the Pmsecutor with National Comp.etence elected by his or her peers; 5- the Commissioner General of National Police; 6- the Mihq Rosecutor General andthe Deputy Military Prosecutor 7- the Chairperson ofthe National Commission of Human Rights; 80 two (2) Deans of the Faculties of Law 5om the recagnised Universities elected ~Y+TJ~; 90 the President of the Bar Association; Ombudsman. Among the major htions to be conductd are: 1" the appomtment of the Prosecutors of the Lower and J3gher Instance levels, 2' the ekechon of the representames of Prosecutors at Lower and Higher Instances representmg theu peers m the Supreme Council of the Prosecu~on". Article 27: The Organic Law n003/2004 of determining the organisation, powers and functioning of the prosecution service is supplemented by article 59 ter worded as follows: "Article 59 ter: Activities carried out by Provincial, City of Kigah, Dishict, Town and Municipality prosecution relating to inveshgation and prosecution of offences committed between.the second amendment of 8/12/2005 of the Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda of 4/12/2003 as amended to date and the publication of this organic law shall remain valid". Article 28: All previous legal provisions confnq to this org& Law are hereby abrogated.

255 -45- J.O. no spkial du 34/03D006 This Organic Law comes into force on the day of its publication in the Ofiicial Gazette of the Repiblic of Rwanda. It shall be effectiye as kom December 8,2005. The President of the Republic KAGAME Paul (s-9 Tht Minister of Justice MUKABAGWIZA Edda (W The Minister of Finance and Economic Planning msom ~ k e s (~6) The Minister of Public Service and Labour Pref. NSHUTI Manesseh (~6) Seen and sealed with the Sed of the Republic : The Minister of Justice MUKABAGWE4 Edda (4

256

257 5. Prosecution at Higher Instance level of Muhanga 6. Prbsedution at Higher Instance level of Huye 7. Prosecution at Highet Instance level of Nyamagabe 11. Muhanga District 12. Ruhango District 13. Kamonyi District 14. Huye District 15. Gisagara bistrict 16.N)ranza District 17. Nyamagabe District 18. Nyantguiu District 8. Prosecution at Higher Mtanes level of Rusizi 9. Prosecution at Higher Instsnce level of Karongi i0, Prosecution at Higher Instance level of, Rubevu 19. Rusizi District 20. 'Nyamiisheke District 21. Karongi District 22. hutsiro District.23. Rubam ~iskct 24, Nyabihu District 25.Ngdroiem District i)taseeution at Higkt ~flstake kvel cif ~icumbi' ' '. 26. ~urem District 27. M~snze District 28. Gakenke Distlict 29. Gicumbi District 30. Rulindo District

258 Kigali on 24/03/2006 The President of the Republic KAGAME Paul.,,,.,,-.. (86) The Prime Minister, MAKUZA Bernard (~6) The Mister of Justice MUKABAGWIZA Edda (~6) J,. > a,..., ',. :, The ~ kster of Finance and Economic Planning MUSONI James (s6) '., TLie Minister of public Service +Labour...,, ~~,. Prof. NSHUTI Manasseh ( 4 Seen and sealed with the Seal of the kepublic : The Minister of Justice MUKABAGWIZA Edda (s6)?,

259 J.O. no spicial du 24/03/

260 i4"idn.i NNNNN

261 PROVINCE JURISDICTION ASTERN PROVINCE. Prosecution at Lower Instance level of Kirehe Kirehe Sector 37. Kigina Sector 38. Kigarama Sector 39. Nyamugali Sector 40. Gatore Sector 41. Gahara Sector 42. Musaza Sector I.Prosecution at Lower Instance of {yambuye 43. Nyarhbuye Sector 44. Mushikiri Sector 45. Nasho Sector 46. Mpanga Sector 47. Mahama Sector I. NGOMA, 2. Prosecution at Lower Instance of Kibungo 48. Kibungo Sector 49.. Rukira Sector, 50. Murama Sector 1. eme era Sector 52. Rurenge Sector Myges~ra Se~tor 55; Gashanda;Sector \, ( :.

262

263 DISTRICT JURISDICTION i. KAYONZA 1.Prosection at Lower nstance level of Rukm 62. Rukara Sector 63. Mwili Sector 64. Oahini Sector 65. Mururidi Sector 7. RWAMAGANA 2. Prosecution at Lower nstance level of Kabarondo 13. Prosecution at Lower Instance level of Kigabiro 14. Prosecution at Lower hstance level of Nzige 66. Kabarondo Sector 67. Ruramira Sector 68. Murama Sector 69. Kabare Sector 70. Rwinkwavu Sector 71. Ndego Sector! 72. Mukarange Sector 73. Nyamirama Sector 74. Kigabira Sector 75. ~wulire~ Sector 76.' ldunyaga Sector 77. Musha Sector 78.. Munyiginya'Sector 79.' Gishari Sector 86. Fuewe Sector 81. Rubona Sector 82. I&hazi Sectpr

264

265

266

267

268 PROVINCE DISTRICT JURISDICTION 5. Prosecution at the Lower lstance level of Oasakn 158. Gasaka Sector 159. Kamegeli Sector 160.Cyanika Sectot 161.Tare Sector 162.Kitabi Sector 163. Kibilizi Sector 164. Uwinkingi Sector 165 Buruhukiro Sector 13. NYAMAGABE 26. Prosecution at the Lower ostance level of ~aduha 166. Kaduh Sector 167. Mbazi Sector 168. Kibumbwe Sector 169.Musange Sector 170. Mushubi Sector 171. Mugano Sector 172. Nkomane Sector 173. Gatare Sector 174. Musebeyd Sector 4. HUYE.27. P~osecution at tho Lower Instance level of Ngoma 175. Ngoma Sector 176. Gislmmyu Sector 177. Mukura Sector 178. Tumba Secto'r 179: Karama Sector 180. Huye Sector 181: Mimba Sector 182. Mbazi Sector 183. Ruaatira Sector,184. Rwaniro Sector 185. ICinazi Seqtor 186. Ruhashya Sector 187. Simbi Sector 188. Kigoma Sector

269

270

271 ?ROVWCE DENOMINATION JURISDICTION IS. MUHANGA 32. Prosecution at the Lower Instance level ofnyamabuye Lower Instance level of 220. Nyamabuye Sector 221. Shyogwe Sector 222.Nyarusange Sector 223. Muhanga Sector 224. Mushishiro Sector 225. Cyeza Sector 226. Kiyumba Sector 227. Rugcndabali Sector 228. Kabacuzi Sector 229. Roligi Sector 230. Nyabinoni Sector 23 1.Kibangu Sector

272 PROVINCE DISTRICT DENOMINATION ' JURISDICTION I. WESTERN PROVINCE 9. RUSIZI I. prosecution at the Lower Instance vel of Kamembe 232.Kamembe Sector Munuu. Sector 234.Giheke Sector 235.Gihundwe Sectot 236.Nkanka Sector 237.Nkombo Sector, 238.Gashoriga Sector 239.Nyakannzo Sector 5. Prosecution at the Lower Instance :vel of Nyakabuye 240. Nyakabuye Sector 241. Gitambi Sector 242. Butare Sector 243. Bweyeye Sector 244. Nkungu Sector 245. Bugarama Sector 246. Nzahaha Sector 247. Rwimbogo Sector 248. Gikundamvura Sector 249. Muganza Sector 16. Prosecution at the ~oweihtance eve1 of Shangi 250.Shangi Sectot 25l.Nyabitekeli Sector 252. Bushenge Sector 253. Kareugera Sector 254.Ruharambuga Sector

273

274 PROVINCE DISTRlCT JURISDICTION 38. Prosecuion at the Lower Instance level o Bwishyura 39. Prosecution at the Lower Instance level o Twumba 265. Bwisbyura Sector Gitesi Sector 267.Rubengera Sector 268.Mubuga Sector 269. Twumba Sector 27O.Muhmtu Sector 271.Ruganda Sector 272.Gishyita Sector 273.Rwankuba Sector 40. Prosecution at the Lower Instance level of Gashari 274.Gashari Sector 275.Rugahano-Sector 276.Murundi Sector 277.Mwambi Sector IZ. RUTSIRO 41. Proseculion at the Lower Instance level of Gihango 278.Gihango Sector 279,Manihira Sector 28O.Murunda Sector 281.Mushubati Boneza 282.Mukura Sector 283.Rusebeya Sector

275 I 42. Prosecution at the Lower Instance level of Ruhango- Rutsiro 284.Ruhango Sector 285.Boneza Sector 286,Kivumnu Sector I 1 I 1 287,Nyabirasi Sector 288.Kigeyo Sector 289.Mushonyi Sector 290.Musasa Sector

276

277 DENOMINATION 47. Prosecution at the Lower Instance level of Gisenyi JURISDICTION 316.Gisenyi Sector 317.Rubaw Sector 3 18.Rugerero Sector 3 19.Nyundo Sector 320.Nyamyumba Sector 48. Prosecution at the Lower Instance level of Nyakiliba 321.Nyakiliba Sector 322.Mudende Sector 323.Cyanzarwe Sector 324.Kanzenze Sector 325.Bugeshi Sector 326.Busasamana Sector 327.Kanama Sector

278 PROVINCE 5. NORTHERN PROVINCE DISTRICT ZG. GAKENKE DENOMINATION 49. Prosecution at the Lower Instance level of Gakenke JURISDICTION 328.Gakenke Sector 329.Karambo Sector 330. Nemba Sector 33 1, Mataba Sector 332. Cyabingo Sector 333. Kivuruga Sector 334. Kamubuga Sector 50. Proseoption at the Lower Instance level of Rushashi 335. Rushashi Sector 336.Minazi Sector 337.Gashenyi Sector 338.Muhond0 Sector 339.Ruli Sector 340.Coko Sector 341.Muyongwe Sector 5 1. Prosecution at the Lower Instance level of Muzo 342.Muzo Sector 343.Janja Sector 344.Mugunga Sector 345.Rusasa Sector 346.Busengo Sector 17. RULINDO 52. Prosecution at the Lower [nstance level of Mbogo 347.Mbogo Sector 348.Shyorongi Sector 349.Rusiga Sector 350.Ngoma Sector 351.Cyinzuzi Sector 352.Burega Sector 353.Tumba Sector 354.Murambi Sector 355.Masoro Sector 356.Ntarabana Sector

279 I PROVINCE 53 Prosecutiod at tke Lower Instance level offinihita. JURISDICTION 357. Kinil~ua Spctor 358. Base Sector, 359. Bushoki Sector 360.Cyungo Sector 361.Rukozo Sector 362.Kisaro Sector 363.Buyoga Sector 18. GICUMBI 54. Prosecution at the Lower Instance level of Byumba 55. Prosecution at the Lower Instance level of Bukure 56. Prosecution at the Lower Instance level of Kaniga 364.Byumba Sector 365.Miyove Sector 366.Npnkenke Sector 367.Shangasha Sector 368.Manyagiro Sector 369.Rukomo Sector 370.Kageyo Sector 371.Ruvune Sector 372.Bwisigo Sector 373.Mutete Sector 374.Nyamiyaga Sector 375.Bukure Sector 376.Giti Sector 377.Muko Sector 378.Rwamiko Sector 379.Rutare Sector 380. Kaniga Sector 38 1.Mukaranpe Sector 382.Rushaki Sector 383.C'yumba Sector 384.Rubaya Sector

280 PROVINCE DISTRICT -9. BURERA 7. Prosecution at the Lower ostance level of Gahunga 385.Gahunga Sector 386.Rugl~m~ Sector 387. Cyanilrp Sector 388. Kinoni Sector 389.Kagogo Sector 390.Kinyababa Sector i8. Prosecution at the Lower ostance level of Cyeru 391.Cyem Sector 392.Butam Sector Kivuye Sector 394.Kinysbaba Sector 395.Gitovu Sector 396.Rusarabuye Sector 397.Rugengabali Sector 398.Ruhunde Sector 399.Gatebe Sector 400.Bungwe Sector 401.Nemba Sector 30. MUSANZE 59 Prosecution at the Lov [nstance level of Muhoza 60. Prosecution at the h we~ [nstance level of Busogo 402.Muhozh Sector 403.Cy4ve Sector 404.Gacaca Sector 405,Remera Sector 406.GashPki Sector 407.Rwaza Sector 408.Kinigi Sector 409.Nyange Sector 410.Mussnze Sector Busogo Sector 412. Gataraga Sector 413. Mrotsi Sector 414. Muko Sector 415. Shingiro Sector 416. Kimonyi Sector

281 Kigali, on 24/03/2006 The President of the Republic 1 IWGAME Paul - (s6) Tlie Ptime Miter NLAKUZA Bernard (s9 The Minister of Justice MUKABAGWUA Edda W) The Minister of Financs and Economic Plaoning MUSONI Jwaes ( 4 The Minister of Phblic Service ahd Labour Prof. NSHUTI Manhsseh (86) Seen and sealed with the Sea1 of the Republic: The Mistet of Justice MUWAGWIZA Edda ( 4

282 C 4.8,- Azaw, P 0 Bmc 673, &Irgrl Tb &bm Td P20) , E d W& -.a;: ReE ACHPR/C/ICTR/RK Date: 02/06/2006 Justice Hassan B. Jallow Procureur Tribunal Ptnal International pow le Rwanda (TPIR) Sous Secrbire Gnkral des Nations Unies Pax : / / Arusha - Tanzanie Obiet : Su~ervision des dossiers ddifdirks par le TPIR a m juridictions nationales Monsieut le Procureur, Vous nous avez fait I'honneur d'assister h la 39d session ordiaage de la Commission afticaine des droits de I'Homme et des peuples (CADHP), mue du 11au25 mai 2006 h Banjul, Gambie. Mes colkpes et moi-&e avons beaucoup appriai I'important message que vous avez livri h cette occasion et par lequel vous rhfhrmiez le contenu de votre lettte du 27 a d 2006 (OTP/2006/P/O93) relative au sujet susmentiomi. Par les prtsentes, j'ai l'honneur de porter h votre aimable connaissance que la CADHP accude favorablement votte proposition de supetviser, porn le compte du TPIR, les procks que ce dernier dkfkrera aux juridictions nationales. En cons6quence, je vous serais trks reconnaissante de bien vouloir me tenir C iuformc5e & vos meilleures convmces, des arrangements pratiques ye votre Bureau entend prendte pour la mise en ceuvre concrkte de cet important projet Je voudtais saisit cette oppodti pour vous renouveler nos remerciements pour la co&ce que votre haute juridiction place en la CADHP. Vedez agder, Monsieur Le Procureur, les assurances de ma haute Prtsidente de la Commission Africaine des Droits de PHomme et des Peuples

283 Unned Natlons Nat~ons Un~es TRANSMISSION SHEET FOR FILING OF DOCUMENTS WITH CMS COURT MANAGEMENT SECTION (An 27 of the Dlrectwe for the Registry) ". I - GENERAL INFORMATION (lo k complotod by tho Chambon I Flllng Party) U Trial Chamber I Trial Chamber ll Trial Chamber Ill Appeals Chamber / Arusha To: N. M. Diallo R. N. Kouambo C. K. Hometowu F. A. Talon C I Dates: I Transmitted: / Document's date: No. of Pages: Annexurns Original Language: IXI English French Kinyanvanda Title of PROSECUTOR'S REQUEST FOR THE REFERRAL OF THE CASE OF JEAN-BAPTISTE Document: GATETE TO RWANDA PURSUANT TO RULE 11 BIS OF THE TRIBUNAL'S RULES OF PROCEDURE AND EVIDENCE Classification Level: TRIM Document Type: Strictly Confidential I Under Seal Indictment Warrant Correspondence Submission from non-parties Confidential Decision Affidavit Notice of Appeal Submission from parties IXI Public Disclosure Order Appeal Book Accused particulars Judgement Motion Book of Authorities II - TRANSLATION STATUS ON THC FILING DATE (To bo complotod by tho Chambm I Flllng Party) ) CMS SHALL take necessary action regarding translation. I I IXI Filing Party hereby submits only the original, and will not submit any translated version q Reference material is provided in annex to facilitate translation. Target English [XI French Kinyarwanda CMS SHALL NOT take any action regarding translation. Filing Party hereby submits BOTH the original and the translated version for filing, as follows: Original I in English French Kinyarwanda Translation I in 0 English French Kinyarwanda CMS SHALL NOT take any action regarding translation. q Filin? Party will be submitting the translated version(s) in due course in the following -~ Enghsh - French Kinyarwanda WNDLY FILL IN TI i BOXES BELOW I I The OTP is overseeing translation. U DEFENCE is overseeing translation, I %e document is submitteb for translation to: The document is submitted to an swice for translation (fees will be submitted to DOOMS- The Language Services Section of the ICTR / Arusha. The Language ServicesSection of the ICTR / The Hague. An accredited service for translation; see details below: Name of contact person: Name of service: I Name of contact person: Address: Name of service: / Tel. I Fax: Address: ( E-mall 1 Tel I Fax. I O TRANSLATION PRIORITISATION (For Offlclal use ONLY) -- - OTop pnorlty COMMENTS Requ~re date.: IV I I -- NB: This form is available on: CMSl (Updated on 21 February 2005)